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Field Columbian Museum 

Publication 96 
Anthropological Series 

Vol. VIII 




George A. Dorsey 
Curator, Department of Anthropology 

Chicago, U. S. A. 

March, 1905 


Field Columbian Museum 

Publication 96 
Anthropological Series 

Vol. VIII 




George A. Dorsey 
Curator, Department of Anthropology 

Chicago, U. S. A. 

March, 1905 

APR 2 5 1949 



H. R. VOTH . 



The traditions of the Hopi here presented were collected 
in the vernacular and without an interpreter, by Mr. H. R. 
Voth, during the last two years, in connection with other 
investigations among the Hopi which he made for this 
institution. As in previous years, Mr. Stanley McCormick 
has very generously provided the means for this additional 
investigation, and it is a great pleasure to acknowledge the 
debt of gratitude under which he has again placed this 
department. George A. Dorsev, 

Curator, Dept. of Anthropology. 
Chicago, January i, 1905. 



1. Origin Myth . . . . - i 

2. Huruing Wuhti and the Sun ...--.- 5 

3. Coming of the Hopi from the Under- World - - - - - 10 

4. The Wanderings of the Hopi ------- 16 

5. The Origin of Some Oraibi Clans ------- 26 

6. The Snake Myth --------- 30 

7. The Snake Myth - - - - - - - - - - 35 

8. The Wanderings of the Bear Clan (Hon-5famu) - - - - 36 

9. The AVanderings of the Spider Clan (K6hkang-J5amu) - - - 38 

10. The Origin of the Ydyaatu Society ------ 41 

11. The Origin of Some Mish6ngnovi Clans - -- - - -47 

12. The Destruction of Paldtkwapi ------ 48 

13. The Revenge of the Katcinas - - - - _.- -63 

14. How the Circle (P6ngo) Katcina and his Wife became Stars - 65 

15. The Kokoshori Katcina and the Shong6pavi Maiden - - - 71 

16. How Ball-Head (Tatciqto) Wedded an Orafbi Maiden - - 73 

17. The Ahrtli and the other Wdlpi Katcinas - - - - - 77 

18. The Two War Gods and the Two Maidens - - - - 81 

19. The Pookdnghoyas and the Cannibal Monster - - - - 82 
20'. Pookdnghoya and his Brother as Thieves - - - - - 84 

2 1 . How the Prtokongs destroyed C6oyoko and his Wife - - - 86 

22. How P6okong Killed the Bear ------- 89 

23. The P6okongs Attend a Dance - - • - - - - - 90 

24. How Prtokong Won a Bride _..----.> g2 

25. How the Antelope Maiden was Reconciled ----- 99 

26. The Prtokongs and the Bdlolookong ------ 102 

27. How the Yellow Corn-Ear Maiden became a Bull Snake - - - 105 

28. A Journey to the Skeleton House - - - - - - 109 

29. Journey to the Skeleton House - - - - - - -114 

30. Skeleton Woman and the Hunter ------ 120 

31. Mdsauwuu Marries a Maiden - - - - - - - -122 

32. Mdsauwuu and the Hdno Hunters - - - - - - 123 

33. The Two Yayaponchatu trade in Oralbi - - - - - 123 

34. The Kdhonino Hunter -------- 124 

35. The White Corn-Ear Maiden and the Sorcerers - - - - 126 

36. Watermelon- Rind Woman (HoWkrtp Wuhti) - - - - 131 

37. The Youth and Maiden who Played Hide and Seek for their|Life - 136 

38. The Maiden who Stole the Youth's Costume - - - - 141 

39. The Two Pueblo Maidens who were Married to the Night - - 143 

40. How Hiydnatitiwa Defeated the Plan of his Enemies - - 146 

41. The Shongdpavi Maiden who Turned into a Dog - - - - 150 

42. The Blind Man and the, Lame Man ------ 151 

43. Big Head and Goat Horn .-....-- 1^3 

vi Contents. 


44. Kavushkavuwnom and -Shoviviounom - - - - - 153 

45. How the Children of Pivdnhonlcapi Obtained Permission to Catch 

Birds - - - - - - - -- - -154 

46. The Jug Boy -------... 155 

47. The Crow as a Spirit of Evil - - - - - - - 156 

48. The Maiden and the Coyote - - - - - - - 157 

49. Ch6rzhvnliiq6lo and the Eagles - - - - - - - 1 59 

50. The Hawk and the Child - - - - - - -.167 

51. Muyingwa, the Two Oraibi Children, and the Humming-Bird - 169 

52. The Kaldtoto who Wished to have Hair on his Head - - - 172 

53. The Child who Turned into an Owl -- - - - - -173 

54. The Children and the Lizards - - - - - - - 175 

55. , The Rooster, the Mocking-bird, and the Maiden - - - - 176 

56. The Toad and the Snow Katcinas ------ 180 

57. The Locust that Came to Life while Being Roasted - - ^ 181 

58. The Coyote and the Turtles - - - - - - - 182 

59. The Water Serpent and the Coyote - - - - - -184 

60. The Coyote and the Balolookong (Water Serpent) - - - 187 

61. Balolookongwuu and the Coyote ------- 187 

62. The Coyote and the Frog -------- 189 

63. The Coyote, the Bat, and the Humming-Bird - - - - 189 

64. The Coyote and the Humming-Bird - - - - - - 192 

65. How the Coyote was Deceived by the Wren - - - - - 193 

66. The Aahtu and the Coyote ------- ig^ 

67. The Coyote and the Turtle-Dove - - - - - - -195 

68. The Coyote and the Blue Jays ------- 196 

69: The Coyote and the Eagle - - - - - - - -198 

70. The Coyote and the Red Eagle ------- 198 

71. The Coyote and the Turkeys - - - - - - -199 

72. The Chiro and the Coyote ------- 201 

73. The Coyote and the Porcupine - - - - - --202 

74. The Coyote and the Badger ------- 204 

75. The Badger and the Coyote -------- 206 

76. The Badger, the Coyote, and the Kohonino Maiden - - - 207 

77. The Coyote and the K6kontu Maidens - - - - - - 210 

78. The Coyote and the Grasshoppers - - - - - - 211 

79. The Coyote and the Grasshopper - - - - - - -212 

80. The Three Maidens and the Coyote - - - - - - 213 

81. How the Coyotes had a Katcina Dance -- - - - -215 

82. The Coyote and his Prey - - - - - - - - 216 

83. The Bull-Snake and the Tcfihvo - - - - - - - 216 

84. The Snakes and the Locusts - - - - - - - 217 

85. The Squirrel and the Chipmunk - - - - - - -221 

86. A Bet between the C6oyoko and the Fox - - - - - 222 

87. The Little Gray Mice and the Little Brown Mice - - - - 223 

88. The Badger and the Small Gray Mice - - - - - 224 

89. The Badger and the Small Gray Mice - - - - • - - 228 

90. The Mice, the Owl, and the Hawk ------ 229 

91. The Sparrow-Hawk and the Hakwa - - - - - -" 230 

92. The Sparrow-Hawk and the Grasshoppers - - - - 231 

Contents. vii 


93. The Crow and the Hawk - - - -- - - - a^a 

94. The Red Eagle's Song - - - -.- - - - 234 

95. The Red Eagle and the Owl - - 234 

96. The Bee and the Asya -------- 335 

97. The Grasshoppers and the Oraibi Maiden ----- 236 

98. How the Beetles Produced Rain ------ 2^8 

99. Why the Ants are so Thin -------- 239 

100. Lavovolvipiki and N6nv6v6lpiki - - - - - - 239 

loi. The Destruction of Pivdnhonkapi ------ j^j 

102. The Destruction of Sikyitki ------- 244 

103. The Destruction of Aovdtovi ------- 246 

104: The Destruction of Aovdtovi - - - - - - - 254 

105. How an Orafbi Chief Punished his People - - - - -355 

106. A Katcina Race Contest between the Wdlpi and the Orafbi - 256 

107. The Last Fight with the Navaho ------ 258 

108. A Hopi Raid on a Navaho Dance ------ 266 

109. A Raid on the Hopi Villages ------- 267 

no. The Early Spanish Missions at Orafbi - - . - - - 268 

Abstracts -- • - - - - - - - -273 



A very long time ago there was nothing but water. In the east 
Huriiing Wuhti,' the deity of all hard substances, lived in the ocean. 
Her house was a kiva like the kivas of the Hopi of to-day. To the 
ladder leading into the kiva were usually tied a skin of a gray fox and 
one of a yellow fox. Another Hurtling Wuhti lived in the ocean in 
the west in a similar kiva, but to her ladder was attached a turtle- 
shell rattle. 

The Sun also existed at that time. Shortly before rising in the east 
the Sun would dress up in the skin of the gray fox, whereupon it 
would begin to dawn — the so-called white dawn of . the Hopi.' 
After a little while the Sun would lay off the gray skin and put on 
the yellow fox skin, whereupon the bright dawn of the morning — the 
so-called yellow dawn of the Hopi — would appear. The Sun would 
then rise, that is, emerge from an opening in the north end of the 
kiva in which Huruing Wuhti lived. When arriving in the west 
again, the sun would first announce his arrival by fastening the rattle 
on the point of the ladder beam, whereupon he would enter the kiva, 
pass through an opening in the north end of the kiva, and continue 
his course eastward under the water and so on. 

By and by these two deities caused some dry land to appear in 
the midst of the water, the waters receding eastward and westward. 
The Sun passing over this dry land constantly took notice of the 
fact, that no living being of any kind could be seen anywhere, and 
mentioned this fact to the two deities. So one time the Huruing Wuhti 
of the west sent word through the Sun to the Huruing Wuhti in the 
east to come over to her as she wanted to talk over this matter. The 
Huruing Wuhti of the east complied with this request and proceeded 
to the west over a rainbow. After consulting each other on this 
point the two concluded that they would create a little bird; so the 

' Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi). The events here related are supposed to have happened in 
the lower world. The increasing of the various peoples and tribes, and the constant contentions 
among them, finally led to the emigration from the nether world through the sipapu into this world, 
the account of which is related by variant traditions of the Hopi. 

* The nearest literal translation that can be given of this name, which appears so frequently 
in Hopi mythology and ceremonies is Hard Being Woman, i. e., woman of that which is hard, and 
the Hopi say she is the owner of such hard objects as shells, corals, turquoise, beads, etc. 

2 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

deity of the east made a wren of clay, and covered it up with a piece 
of native cloth (mochdpu). Hereupon they sang a song over it, and 
after a little while the little bird showed signs of life. Uncovering it, 
a live bird came forth, saying: " Cma hfnok pas nui kit^ nawakna?" 
(why do you want me so quickly). "Yes," they said, "we want you 
to fly all over this dry place and see whether you can find anything 
living. ' ' They thought that as the Sun always passed over the middle 
of the earth, he might have failed to notice any living beings that 
might exist in the north or the south. So the little Wren flew all 
over the earth, but upon its return reported that no living being 
existed anywhere. Tradition says, however, that by this time Spider 
Woman (K6hlcang Wuhti), lived somewhere in the south-west at the 
edge of the water, also in a kiva, but this the little bird had failed 
to notice. 

Hereupon the deity of the west proceeded to make very many 
birds of different kinds and form, placing them again under the same 
cover under which the Wren had been brought to life. They again 
sang a song over them. Presently the birds began to move under 
the cover. The goddess removed the cover and found under it all 
kinds of birds and fowls. "Why do you want us so quickly ?" the latter 
asked. "Yes, we want you to inhabit this world." Hereupon the 
two deities taught every kind of bird the sound that it should make, 
and then the birds scattered out in all directions. 

Hereupon the Huruing Wuhti of the west made of clay all dif- 
ferent kinds of animals, and they were brought to life in the same 
manner as the birds. They also asked the same question: "Why do 
you want us so quickly?" "We want you to inhabit this earth," 
was the reply given them, whereupon they were taught by their crea- 
tors their different sounds or languages, after which they proceeded 
forth to inhabit the different parts of the earth. They now concluded 
that they would create man. The deity of the east made of clay 
first a woman and then a man, who were brought to life in exactly 
the same manner as the birds and animals before them. They asked 
the same question, and were told that they should live upon this 
earth and should understand everything. Hereupon the Huruing 
Wuhti of the east made two tablets of some hard substance, whether 
stone or clay tradition does not say, and drew upon them with the 
wooden stick certain characters, handing these tablets to the newly 
created man and woman, who looked at them, but did not know what 
they meant. So the deity of the east rubbed with the palms of her 
hands, first the palms of the woman and then the palms of the 
man, by which they were enlightened so that they understood the 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 3 

writing on the tablets. Hereupon the deities taught these two a 
language.' After they had taught them the language, the goddess of 
the east took them out of the kiva and led them over a rainbow, to 
her home in the east. Here they stayed four days, after which 
Huruing Wuhti told them to go now and select for themselves a 
place and live there. The two proceeded forth saying that they 
would travel around a while and wherever they would find a good 
field they would remain. Finding a nice place at last, they built a 
small, simple house, similar to the old houses of the Hopi. Soon 
the Huruing Wuhti of the west began to think of the matter again, 
and said to herself: "This is not the way yet that it should be. We 
are not yet done," and communicated her thoughts to the Huruing 
Wuhti of the east. By this time Spider Woman had heard about 
all this matter and she concluded to anticipate the others and also 
create some beings. So she also made a man and woman of clay, 
covered them up, sang over them, and brought to life her handiwork. 
But these two proved to be Spaniards. She taught them the Spanish 
language, also giving them similar tablets and imparting knowledge 
to them by rubbing their hands in the same manner as the woman 
of the East had done with the "White Men. " Hereupon she created 
two burros, which she gave to the Spanish man and woman. The 
latter settled down close by. After this. Spider Woman continued 
to create people in the same manner as she had created the Spaniards, 
always a man and a woman, giving a different language to each pair. 
But all at once she found that she had forgotten to create a woman 
for a certain man, and that is the reason why now there are always 
some single men. 

She continued the creating of people in the same manner, giving 
new languages as the pairs were formed. All at once she found that 
she had failed to create a man for a certain woman, in other words, it 
was found that there was one more woman than there were men. 
"Oh my!" she said, "How is this?" and then addressing the single 
woman she said: "There is a single man somewhere, who went away 
from here. You try to find him and if he accepts you, you live with 
him. If not, both of you will have to remain single. You do the 
best you can about that." The two finally found each other, and 
the woman said, "Where shall we live?" The man answered : "Why 
here, anywhere. We shall remain together. " So he went to work 
and built a house for them in which they lived. But it did not take 

' Some Hopi say that these two people were the ancestors of what are now called the 
White Man, and the people say that they believe this language taught to these two people was the 
language of the present White Man. 

4 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

very long before they commenced to quarrel with each other. ' ' I 
want to live here alone," the woman said. "I can prepare food for 
myself." "Yes, but who will get the wood for you? Who will work 
the fields?" the man said. "We had better remain together." They 
made up with each other, but peace did not last. They soon quar- 
reled again, separated for a while, came together again, separated 
again, and so on. Had these people not lived in that way, all the 
other Hopi would now live in peace, but others learned it from them, 
and that is the reason why there are so many contentions between 
the men and their wives. These were the kind of people that Spider 
Woman had created. The Huruing Wuhti of the west heard 
about this and commenced to meditate upon it. Soon she called the 
goddess from the east to come over again, which the latter did. "I 
do not want to live here alone," the deity of the west said, "I also 
want some good people to live here." So she also created a number 
of other people, but always a man and a wife. They were created 
in the same manner as the deity of the east had created hers. They 
lived in the west. Only wherever the people that Spider Woman 
had created came in contact with these good people there was trouble. 
The people at that time led a nomadic life, living mostly on game. 
Wherever they found rabbits or antelope or deer they would kill the 
game and eat it. This led to a good many contentions among the 
people. Finally the Woman of the west said to her people : "You re- 
main here; I am going to live, after this, in the midst of the ocean in 
the west. When you want anything from me, you pray to me there." 
Her people regretted this very much, but she left them. The Huru- 
ing Wuhti of the east did exactly the same thing, and that is the 
reason why at the present day the places where these two live are 
never seen. 

Those Hopi who now want something from them deposit their 
prayer offerings in the village. When they say their wishes and 
prayers they think of those two who live in the far distance, but of 
whom the Hopi believe that they still remember them. 

The Spanish were angry at Huruing Wuhti and two of them took 
their guns and proceeded to the abiding place of the deity. The 
Spaniards are very skillful and they found a way to get there. When 
they arrived at the house of Huruing Wuhti the latter at once sur- 
mised what their intentions were. "You have come to kill me," 
she said; "don't do that; lay down your weapons and I shall show 
you something; I am not going to hurt you." They laid down their 
arms, whereupon she went to the rear end of the kiva and brought 
out a white lump like a stone and laid it before the two men, asking 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 5 

them to lift it up. One tried it, but could not lift it up, and what 
was worse, his hands adhered to the stone. The other man tried to 
assist him, but his hands also adhered to the stone, and thus they 
were both prisoners. Hereupon Huruing Wuhti took the two guns 
and said: "These do not amount to anything," and then rubbed them 
between her hands to powder. She then said to them: "You people 
ought to live in peace with one another. You people of Spider Woman 
know many things, and the people whom we have made also know 
man3^ but different, things. You ought not to quarrel about these 
things, but learn from one another; if one has or knows a good thing 
he should exchange it wjth others for other good things that they 
know and have. If you will agree to this I shall release you. They 
said they did, and that they would no more try to kill the deity. 
Then the latter went to the rear end of the kiva where she disappeared 
through an opening in the floor, from where she exerted a secret in- 
fluence upon the stone and thus released the two men. They de- 
parted, but Huruing Wuhti did not fully trust them, thinking that 
they would return,, but they never did. 


Aliksai! A very long time ago there was nothing here in the 
world but water. Only away off in the west where Huruing Wuhti 
lived there was a small piece of land where she lived. She lived in 
a hill or bluff called Taldschomo. Huruing Wuhti owned the moon, 
the stars," and all the hard substances, such as beads, corals, shells, 
etc. Away in the east lived the Sun, painted up very beautifully. 
The Sun was very skillful. One time Huruing Wuhti sent the 
Moon to the Sun, throwing him through (the intervening) space so 
that he fell down in front of the Sun. He told the Sun that Huruing 
Wuhti wanted him; then he arose and passed through the sky back 
to the west. The Sun also soon rose and followed the Moon to the 
west, to the house of Huruing Wuhti. " Have you come?" the latter 
said. "Yes, I have come. Why do you want me? I have come 
because you wanted me." "Thanks," the Huruing Wuhti said, 
"thanks that you have come, my father, because you shall be my 
father." "Yes," the Sun said, "and you shall be my mother, and 
we shall own all things together." "Yes," Huruing Wuhti said, 

' Told by Ktihkiuma (Shupadlavi) . 

' This is the only instance where I have heard the moon and stars spoken of as being owned 
or controlled by Huniing Wuhti. The informant did not know the songs mentioned in this tale. 

6 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

"now let us create something for you." "All right, thank you," 
the Sun replied. 

Hereupon they entered another chamber which was very beauti- 
ful, and there all kinds of the skins of different kinds of animals and 
birds were hanging. So Huruing Wuhti got out a bundle and placed 
it on the floor. It was a large piece of old native cloth (moch^pu). 
She then placed on the floor all kinds of bird skins and feathers. 
Hereupon she rubbed her body and arms, rubbing off a great many 
small scales from her cuticle. These she took into her hands, rubbing 
the two palms of her hands together, and then placing these small 
scales on the feathers and skins. Hereupon she covered the whole 
with the mochdpu. The Sun kindled a little fire at the east side of 
the pile. Huruing Wuhti then took hold of two comers of the cloth 
and began to sing, moving the corners to the time of her singing. 
The Sun took hold of the other two comers and also waved them, 
but he did not sing. After they had waved the comers four times, 
the things under the covering commenced to move, and soon they 
began to emit sounds, whistling and chirping the way the different birds 
do. Hereupon Hurding Wuhti took off the covering saying: "We 
are done, be it this way." There were all different kinds of birds, 
those that fly around in the summer when it is warm. As she took 
off the covering the birds commenced to fly, passed through the open- 
ing and flew out into the air, but soon all returned, gathering again 
in front of the two. "You shall own these," Huriiing Wuhti said to 
the SuTi, "they are yours." "Thanks," the Sun replied, "that they 
are mine." Huruing Wuhti then handed to the Sun a large jar made 
of a light transparent material like quartz crystal. Into this the 
Sun placed all the birds, closing up the jar. 

Hereupon the Sun said: "Now, let us create something for you, 
too," "Very well," Huruing Wuhti said. Then the Sun placed a 
small quantity of different kinds of hair on the floor. Furthermore, 
a little quantity of the different kinds of paints that he was painted 
up with. He then let his beard (rays) drop upon these objects, also 
shook his wings towards them. They then covered up the things 
again, each took hold of two corners of the covering, and the Sun 
then sang a song. Soon something began to move under the cover- 
ing, and when they removed the latter an antelope, deer, cotton-tail 
rabbit, jack-rabbit, and mountain sheep jumped up, and after run- 
ning around in the large room for a while, they returned and assembled 
again in front of the two. "You take these, you shall own them," 
the Sun said to Huruing Wuhti. "All right, thank you," the latter 
said. Hereupon these animals took places close to the Huruing- 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hon — Voth. 7 

Wuhti, whom they considered as their mother afterwards. "You 
shall own these, they shall be yours," the Sun said once more to 
Huniing Wuhti, for which she thanked him. 

The latter then put the Sun into an opening in the floor of the 
house, through which the Sun departed with the vessel containing 
the birds. After having passed through the opening, the Sun re- 
turned under the earth to the east again, and when he came out he 
turned over the land which belonged to Huruing Wuhti, and which 
had been under water, and by so doing made the world (tiiwakachi) 
land. The Sun at once noticed a great many beings come out of the 
water and moving about on the shore of the land. He first called 
them the Water Lice (bd-atuhtu), but when he had risen to the 
middle of the sky he noticed that they were people, and he called them 
White People (Bah^nas), some Spaniards (Castflians) , and others 
Mormons (Mamona). He then poured out of the jar all the birds, 
which then went flying around in the"*air and increased. 

From this time on the Sun always went towards the west, enter- 
ing the house of Huruing Wuhti, passing out below, and returning 
to the east again. When he came there this time Huruing Wuhti said : 
"Have you come?" "Yes," the Sun said. "Thanks," the Huru- 
ing Wuhti replied, "let us create something again. What have you 
found out?" "Yes," the Sun said, "land has come out every- 
where, and everything is beautiful, and the water is beautiful, too, 
Now, to-morrow when I shall rise there will be blossoms and flowers and 
grass all over the land." "Very well," Huruing Wuhti said, "but 
let us make something now again. What shall we make?" Here- 
upon she fed the Sun honey, and other good food. When the Sun 
was through eating, Huruing Wuhti again said : " Well, now, what shall 
we make? Let us use the covering again," placing the same cover- 
ing that they had used upon the floor. Hereupon Huruing Wuhti 
rubbed her legs and feet, rubbing off some more particles of cuticle. 
These she took into her hands, working them into a small ball, which 
she placed on the floor, and covered it up with the mochdpu. They 
then again took hold of the four comers of the covering, Huruing 
Wuhti singing a song. Soon something moved under the covering and 
the crying of a little child was heard, which soon said: "I am hot, 
I am perspiring." They uncovered it and found a little maiden. 
"O my!" Huruing Wuhti said: "Only one has been created. That 
is not good, it must not be this way. " Hereupon she put on the cov- 
ering again and then repeated the song. Soon a second voice was 
heard, and removing the covering they found a little boy, the little 
brother of the mana. His first sound was a groan as that of a 

8 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

small child. Hereupon he also said: "I am very warm," and wiped 
off the perspiration from his face and body. "Have you come?" 
Huruing Wuhti said. "Yes, we have come." "Thanks," she re- 

They were brother and sister. So the children sat up. "Have 
you anything to say?" Huruing Wuhti asked them. "Yes," they 
said, "why do you want us?" "Yes," Huruing Wuhti replied, "why 
my father, the Sun, has made a beautiful earth and I want you to live 
on this earth. That is why I want you. So I want you to go eastward 
now, and wherever you find a good piece of land, there you settle 
down. By and by others, too, shall come to you." Before they 
started the Sun asked Huruing Wuhti who these two were, how 
they should be called ? And Huruing Wuhti named the youth Muy- 
ingwa, and the maiden Yd,hoya. Hereupon the two started and left. 

The Sun and Huruing Wuhti prepared to create some more. It 
was at this time still night. Huruing Wuhti now rubbed her abdo- 
men with both hands, and took from her umbilicus a^small quantity 
of the scales which she twisted together. All this scaly matter, thus 
rubbed from her body, she then placed on the floor, covering it up 
with the aforesaid cloth. They again took hold of the corners, sang 
over it, and as they lifted up the comers the fourth time, something 
began to move under the covering. They took the covering off and 
there was another being all in perspiration. It was again a maiden. 
She wiped off the perspiration from her body with some sand that 
was on the floor, and sat up. Huriiing Wuhti told her not to rub her 
body any more, as the sand had already adhered to her body and 
the latter was dry. She hereupon told the maiden that she should 
be called Sand Clan member (Tuwa-wung^^a), and Lizard Clan mem- 
ber (Kiikuts-wungwa) . Huruing Wuhti hereupon sent the maiden 
off after the other two, giving her, however, one grain of shelled corn 
before she left. 

By this time it became a little lighter and the Sun said to Huruing 
W^uhti, she should hurry up. So the latter this time rubbed her face, 
and the inside of her nose, and from the scales thus rubbed off she 
formed a little ball, placed it on the floor, and again covered it. They 
went through the same process as before. Soon they heard a child 
crying like a Hopi child would cry, and another one like the crying 
of a coyote. Removing the covering, they found a youth and a 
maiden, both also perspiring profusely and wiping off the 
perspiration. "Why do you want us?" the children asked. "Yes," 
Huruing Wuhti said, "we have made this beautiful world here and 
there is hardly anybody living there yet, and that you should live here 

Ai ARCH. 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi ■ — Voth. 9 

somewhere we wanted you." She then said that the mdna should 
be a Burrowing Owl Clan member (Kokop-wungwa), and the youth 
Coyote Clan member (Ish-wungwa). Hereupon she gave one grain 
of shelled com to each one and told them now to follow the others, 
and that they should travel quickly. 

Hereupon they created once more in the same manner as before. 
When they were ready to lift up the covering they heard somebody 
grunt, and another one seemed to be angry, so after they had partly 
lifted up the covering they dropped it again, but the two under it 
said, "Remove that, we are very hot." So they removed it and 
there was one child like a Hopi. It was the one that had grunted like 
a bear. To this one Huriiing Wuhti gave the name Bear Clan mem- 
ber (H6n-wungwa) . She gave a grain of shelled com to him and 
sent him on. The other, Head-with-the-Hair-Pushed-over-it-Back- 
ward (Talqoto), was a Navaho, and to him Huruing Wuhti gave a 
little piece of spoiled meat and sent him on. This is the reason why 
the Navaho use meat, instead of corn like the Hopi. 

Hereupon the Sun again passed through the opening in the floor, 
returning to the east under the earth. The next day when he arose 
again and had traveled a distance, he saw in the distance smoke 
arising at different places, and noticed that the people who had been 
created were camping there. As he rose higher he saw at a distance 
a maiden and a youth who were traveling along, but seemed to be 
very tired. The maiden would sometimes carry her little brother on 
her back, then she would set him down and the two would join hands 
and travel along together. When the Sun came nearer he asked 
them: "Where do you come from? Who are you?" "Yes," they 
said, "We have come out away off there somewhere." "All right," 
the Sun said, "you travel on." Hereupon he gave them water to 
drink and a little corn for food. He then said to the youth that he 
should Vje called Sun Clan member (Tawa-wungwa) , and to the maiden 
he gave the name Forehead Clan member (Kal-wungwa) , whereupon 
he told them to travel on eastward. The Sun and Forehead clans 
later came to Shupaulavi, the Bear Clan to Shong6pavi, and the 
Burrowing Owl Clan to Mishdngnovi, while the Sand Clan went to 
Walpi. Miiyingwa and his sister settled down somewhere west 
of Matrtvi, a large spring situated south of Shongdpavi. 

lo Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


A long time ago the people were living below. There were a great 
many of them, but they were often quarreling with one another. Some 
of them were very much depraved. They abused the women and 
the maidens, and that led to very many contentions. So the chiefs, 
who were worried and angry over this, had a council and concluded 
that they would try to find another place to live. So they first sent 
out a bird named M6tsni, to find a place of exit from this world. He 
flew up high but was too weak and returned without having been suc- 
cessful. They then sent the Mocking-bird (Ydhpa). He was strong 
and flew up very high and found a place of exit. Returning, he re- 
ported this to the chiefs. 

In the meanwhile the chiefs had caused a great flood. Many 
Bdlolookongwuus" came out of the ground with the water, and a great 
portion of the people were destroyed. When the Mocking-bird had 
made his report to the chiefs the latter said : "All right, that is good. 
We are going away from here. ' ' They then announced through the 
crier that in four days. they would leave, and that the women should 
prepare some food, and after they had eaten on the fourth day they 
would all assemble at the place right under the opening which the 
Mocking-bird had found. This was done. 

The chiefs then planted a pine-tree (calavi), sang around it, and 
by their singing made it to grow very fast. It grew up to the opening 
which the Yahpa had found, and when the chiefs tried and shook it, 
they found that it was fairly strong, but not strong enough for many 
people to climb up on, especially its branches, which were very thin. 
So they planted another kind of pine (16oq6), sang around it, and made 
it also to grow up fast. This tree and its branches was much stronger 
than the other, but while the first one had grown through the open- 
ing, this one did not reach it entirely, its uppermost branches and 
twigs spreading out sideways before they reached the opening. Here- 
upon they planted in the same manner a reed (bd,kavi), which proved 
to be strong, and also grew through the opening like the calavi. 
Finally they planted a sunflower (ahkawu), and as it was moist where 
they planted it, it also grew up very fast and to a great size, its 
leaves also being very large; but the sunflower did not reach the 
opening. Its very large disk protruded downward before it reached 
the opening. The sunflower was covered with little thorns all over. 
Now they were done with this. 

' Told by Lomdvantiwa (Shupaulavi). 
* Great water serpents. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 11 

Hereupon Spider Woman, P6ok6nghoya, his brother Bal6ongaw- 
hoya, and the Mocking-bird that had found the opening, cUmbed up 
on the calavi in the order mentioned. After they had emerged 
through the opening, P6ok6nghoya embraced the calavi, his brother 
the reed, both holding them firmly that they should not shake when 
the people were climbing up. The Mocking-bird sat close by and 
sang a great many songs, the songs that are still chanted at the 
Wfiwiichim ceremony. Spider Woman was also sitting close by watch- 
ing the proceedings. Now the people began to climb up, some on the 
calavi, others on the 16oq6, still others on the ahkavu and on the 
b^kavi. As soon as they emerged, the Mocking-bird assigned them 
their places and gave them their languages. To one he would say : 
"You shall be a Hopi, and that language you shall speak." To 
another: "You shall be a Navaho, and you shall speak that language." 
And to a third: ','You shall be an Apache," "a Mohave," "a Mexi- 
can," etc., including the White Man. The language spoken in the 
under world had been that of the following Pueblo Indians : Kawihy- 
kaka, Akokavi, K^tihcha, Kotiyti; these four branches of the Pueblo 
Indians speaking essentially the same language. 

In the under- world the people had been very bad, there being many 
sorcerers and dangerous people, just like there are in the villages to-day 
who are putting diseases into the people. Of these P6pwaktu, one 
also found his way out with the others. The people kept coming out, 
and before they were all out the songs of the Mocking-bird were ex- 
hausted. "Hapi! pai shiilahti! Now! (my songs) are gone," and at 
once the people who were still on the ladders commenced returning 
to the under-world, but a very great many had already come out, an 
equally large number having remained in the under-world, but the 
Kik-mongwi from below was with the others that came out of the kiva. 
The people who had emerged remained around the sfpapu, as the 
opening was, and has ever since been called. 

At this time no sun existed and it was dark everywhere. The 
half -grown son of the Kfk-mongwi took sick and died, so they buried 
him. His father was very angry. "Why has some Pow^ka come 
out with us?" he said. "We thought we were living alone and 
wanted to get away from those dangerous men. That is the reason 
why we have come out, and now one has come with us." Hereupon 
he called all the people together and said: "On whose account have 
I lost my child ? I am going to make a ball of this fine corn-meal and 
throw it upward, and on whose head that ball alights, him I shall 
throw down again through the sipapu." Hereupon he threw the 
ball upward to a great height, the people all standing and watching. 

12 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

When it came down it fell upon the head of some one and was shat- 
tered. "Ishohi! so you are the one," the chief said to him. But as 
it happened this was the chief's nephew (his younger sister's son).' 
"My nephew, so you are nukpana (dangerous); why have you come 
out with us? We did not want any bad ones here, and now you have 
come with us. I am going to throw you back again. " So he grabbed 
him -in order to throw him back. "Wait," he said, "'wait! I am 
going to tell you something. " "I am going to throw you back, " the 
chief replied. " Wait, " his nephew said again, "until I tell you some- 
thing. You go there to the sipahpuni and you look down. There he 
is walking." "No, he is not," the chief replied, "I am not going to 
look down there, he is dead." But he went and looked down and 
there he saw his boy running around with other children, still show- 
ing the signs of the head washing which the Hopi practice upon the 
dead immediately after death. "Yes, it is true, it is true, " the chief 
said, "truly there he is going about." "So do not throw me down 
there, " his nephew said, "that is the way it will be. If any one dies 
he will go down there. Let me remain with you, I am going to tell 
you some more." Then the chief consented and let his nephew 

It was still dark, and as there was no sunshine it was also cold, 
and the people began to look for fire and for wood, but as it was so 
dark, they could find very little wood. They thus lived there a while 
without fire, but all at once they saw a light in the distance and the 
chief said: "Some one go there and see about it." When they had 
still been in the lower world they had occasionally heard footsteps of 
some one up above. So some one went in search of the light, but before 
he had reached it he became tired and returned. Another was sent 
and he got there. He found a field in which corn, watermelons, beans, 
etc., were planted. All around this field a fire was burning, which 
was kept up by wood, and by which the ground was kept warm so 
that the plants could grow. The messenger found a very handsome 
man there. He had four strands of turquoise around his neck and 
very large turquoise ear pendants. In his face he had two black lines 
running from the upper part of his nose to his cheeks, and made with 
specular iron. By his side was standing his friend (a mask) which 
looked very ugly, with large open eye -holes and a large mouth. So 
it was Skeleton (Masauwuu) whom they had heard walking about from 
the other world. "Who are you?" Skeleton asked the messenger. 
"Where do you come from?" "Yes," he replied, "we have come from 
below, and it is cold here. We are freezing and we have no fire." 

' According to others it was a maiden. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 13 

"You go and tell your people and then you all come here to me." 
So he returned and the people asked him; "Now, what have you 
found out? Have you found anybody?" "Yes," he said, "I have 
found somebody and he has a good crop there." Skeleton had fed 
the messenger with some of his good things which he had there. The 
people had not brought much food with them from below and so they 
had not very much left. The people were very glad for this invita- 
tion and went to the place where Skeleton lived. But when they saw 
the small field they thought: "Well, that will be gone in a very short 
time," but Skeleton always planted and the food was never gone. 
When they came there they gathered some wood and built a fire and 
then they warmed themselves and were happy. Skeleton gave them 
roasting ears, and watermelons, melons, squashes, etc., and they ate 
and refreshed themselves. Some of the plants were very small yet, 
others still larger, so that they always had food. 

So the people remained there, made fields, and they always kept 
up a fire near the fields, which warmed the ground so that they could 
raise a crop. When the crop had matured they gathered it all in, 
and when they now had provisions they planned to start off again, 
but there was still no sun, and it was cold. So they talked about this, 
saying: "Now, it ought not remain this way." So the chiefs all met 
in council with Skeleton, and talked this matter over in order to see 
whether they could not make a sun as they had had it in the under- 
world, but they did not just know how to do it. So they finally took 
a piece of dressed buffalo hide (hakwAvu), which they cut in a round 
shape, stretched it over a wooden ring, and then painted it" with 
white ddma (kaoline). They then pulverized some black paint 
(t6ho)' with which they drew a picture of the moon around the edge 
of this disk, sprinkling the center of the disk with the same black 
color. They then attached a stick to this disk. Hereupon they 
stretched a large piece of white native cloth (mochapu) on the floor 
and placed this disk on it. All these objects they had brought with 
them from the under- world. 

They then selected some one (the story does not say whom) and 
directed him to stand on this moon symbol. Hereupon the chiefs 
took the cloth by its corners, swung it back and forth, and then threw 
it upward, where it continued swiftly flying eastward into the sky. 
So the people sat and watched. All at once they noticed that it be- 
came light in the east. Something was burning there as they thought. 
The light became brighter and brighter, and something came up in 
the east. It rose higher and higher, and where the people were it 

' These paints are still universally used 'in their ceremonies. 

14 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

became lighter and lighter. So now they could go about and they 
were happy. That turned out to be the moon, and though it was light, 
the light was only dim and the people, when working in the fields, 
would still occasionally cut off their plants because they could not 
see very distinctly, and it was still cold and the people were freezing, 
and they still had to keep the ground warm with fires. So the people 
were thinking about it. The chiefs again met in council, and said: 
"Ishohf! It is better already, it is light, but it is not quite good yet, 
it is still cold. Can we not make something better?" They con- 
cluded that perhaps the buffalo skin was not good, and that it was 
too cold, so they decided that this time they would take a piece of 
mochdpu. They again cut out a round piece, stretched it over a 
ring, but this time painted it with oxide of copper (cdJcwa). They 
painted eyes and a mouth on the disk, and decorated the forehead of 
what this was to resemble in yellow, red, and other colors. They 
put a ring of corn-husks around it, which were worked in a zigzag 
fashion.' Around this they tied a tawahona, that is, a string of red 
horse-hair, finally thrusting a number of eagle-tail feathers into a 
corn-husk ring, fastened to the back of the disk. In fact, they pre- 
pared a sun symbol as it is still worn on the back of the flute players 
in the Flute ceremony. To the forehead of the face painted on the 
disk they tied an abalone shell. Finally the chief made nakwd,kwosis 
of the feathers of a small yellowish bird, called irdhoya, which resem- 
bles a fly-catcher, but has some red hair on top of the head," 

Of these nakwdkwosis the chief tied one to the point of each eagle- 
tail feather on the sun symbol. They then placed this symbol on 
the white cloth again, again asked some one to stand on it, and, as 
in the case .of the moon, they swung the cloth with its contents into 
the air, where it kept twirling upward and upward towards the east. 
Soon they again saw a light rise in the east. It became brighter and 
brighter and warmer. That proved to be the sun, and it had not 
come up very high when the Hopi already felt its warmth.' After 

> Lamdvantiva says that the Hopi are very secretive about making this zigzag ring. They 
do not want any one to witness the manufacturing of this peculiar object. 

' The Hopi say that this red spot resembles fire, and hence the feathers of this bird are very 
much prized for prayer-oflferings, whose object it is to produce warm weather. 

' Which is said to come partly from those small nakwikwosis and partly from the glittering 
shell which is said to also contain heat. As the shell glitters the light is said to proceed from the 
sun on account of that shell. The man that was thrown up with the sun is said to hold the sun in 
front of himself, but the rotation of the sun is caused by the Huruing Wuhti of the east and the 
Huniing Wuhti of the west who keep drawing and rotating the sun with a string. The man who 
was thrown up with the moon is also said to be still behind the moon, but instead of holding the 
moon in the center, as is the case of the sun, he still holds her by a stick that they attached to it 
when the moon was male. The increase and decrease of the moon is caused by a covering which 
is probably the piece of cloth in which the moon disk and the man were thrown into the sky a€^ 
the time when the moon was created. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi ■ — Voth. 15 

the sun had been created and was rising day after day, the people 
were very happy, because it was now warm and very Hght, so that 
they could attend to their work very well. The children were run- 
ning around and playing. They were now thinking of moving on. 
They had a great many provisions by this time, and so the chiefs 
again met in a coimcil to talk the matter over. "Let us move away 
from here," the chiefs said; "let us go eastward and see where the 
sun rises, but let us not go all together. Let some take one route, 
others another, and others still further south, and then we shall see 
who arrives at the place where the sun rises first." So the people 
started. The White People took a southern route, the Hopi a more 
northern, and between them traveled what are now the Pueblo 
Indians of New Mexico. Often certain parties would remain at certain 
places, sometimes for several years. They would build houses and 

Soon they became estranged from each other, and would begin 
to attack and kill one another. The Castilians were especially bad, 
and made wars on other people. When starting, the chiefs had 
agreed that as soon as one of the parties should reach the place where 
the sun rises, many stars would fall from the sky, and when that would 
happen all the traveling parties should remain and settle down where 
they would be at that time. The White People having taken a south- 
em route, were more gifted than the other people. When they had 
become very tired carrying their children and their burdens, one of 
the women bathed herself and took the scales that she had rubbed 
off from her body and made horses of these scales. These horses 
they used after that for traveling, so that they could proceed very 
much faster. In consequence of this they arrived at the place where 
the sun rises before any of the other parties arrived there. And im- 
mediately many stars fell from the sky. "Aha!" the people said who 
were still traveling; "Some one has already arrived." Hereupon 
they settled down where they were. It had also been agreed upon 
before the different parties started, that whenever those who did not 
reach the place where the sun rises should be molested by enemies, 
they should notify those who had arrived at the sunrise, and the 
latter would then come and help them. 

1 6 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


A very long time ago they were living down below. Everything 
was good there at that time. That way of living was good down -there. 
Everything was good, everything grew well; it rained all the time, 
everything was blossoming. That is the way it was, but by and by 
it became different. The chiefs commenced to do bad. Then it 
stopped raining and they only had very small crops and the. winds 
began to blow. People became sick. By and by it was like it is 
here now, and at last the people participated in this. They, too, 
began to talk bad and to be bad. And then those who have not a 
single heart, the sorcerers, that are very bad, began to increase and 
became more and more. The people began to live the way we are 
living now, in constant contentions. Thus they were living. No- 
body would listen any more. They became very bad. They would 
take away the wives of the chiefs. 

The chiefs hereupon became angry and they planned to do some- 
thing to the people, to take revenge on them. They began to think 
of escaping. So a few of the chiefs met once and thought and talked 
about the matter. They had heard some sounds away up, as of 
footsteps, as if somebody was walking there, and about that they 
were talking. Then the Kik-mongwi, who had heard the sounds above, 
said that they wanted to investigate above and see how it was there, 
and then if the one above there wanted them, they wanted to try 
to go out. So the others were willing too that they wanted to find 
out about that, and then if they were permitted they wanted to move 
up there. So they were now thinking who should find out. So they 
made a PawaoKaya,^ sang over it, and thus brought it to life. "Why 
do you want me?" the bird said. "Yes," the chief said, "we are not 
living well here, our hearts are not light, and they are troubling us 
here, and now I have been thinking about these few children of mine 
here and we want to see whether we can find some other way of 
living. Away above there somebody seems to be walking, and now 
we thought maybe you could go up there and see about that and find 
out for us, and that is the reason why we want you." "All right," 
the PawaoKaya said, "all right, I shall go up there and find out about 
it." Hereupon the chief planted a 16oq6 (species of pine or fir), but 
they saw that it did not reach up, but that its point was turning down- 
ward. Hereupon they planted a reed by the side of the pine and that 
reached up. They then told the PawaoRaya to go up now and if he 

^ Told by Yukioma (Oraibi). 

^ species of bird of a bluish black color. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hon — Voth. 17 

should find anybody to tell him and then if he were willing they 
would go. 

So the Pawdolcaya ascended, flying in circles upward around these 
two ladders. When he came up to the top he found an opening there, 
through which he went out. After he came out he was flying around 
and around, but did not find anybody, so he returned to the opening 
again and came down. As he was very tired he fell down upon the 
ground before the chiefs. When he was somewhat revived they 
asked him, "Now, what have you found out?" "Yes," he said, 
"I went through there and there was a large space there, but I did 
not find anybody. When I did not find anybody I became hungry 
and thirsty and very tired, so I have come back now." "Ishohf! 
(Oh!)" they said. "Very well, now who else will go?" and they 
were thinking. "Somebody else shall go," they said, and they kept 
thinking about it. 

So they made another one, but this time a sniall one, and when they 
were singing over it it became alive. When it had become alive they 
saw that it was a Humming-bird (Tohcha),' which is very small, but 
very swift and strong. "Why do you want me ?" the bird said. "Yes," 
they said, "our children here are not with good hearts. We are not 
living well here; we are living here in trouble. So we want you to 
go up there for us and see what you can find out, and if the one up 
there is kind and good, we think of going up there, and that is the 
reason why we want you. So you go up there; you hunt somebody, 
and if he is gentle and kind, we shall go up there." So the Tohcha 
flew upward, circling around the two trees, went through the open- 
ing and flew around and around, and not finding anybody also became 
tired and came back. He flew lower and lower and alighted in front 
of the chiefs, exhausted. When he had somewhat revived, they 
asked him: "Now, then, what have you heard, what have you found 
out?" "Yes," he said," yes, I flew around there that way and becamt 
tired and exhausted and have come back." "Ishohi!" they said 
again, "now then, we shall send somebody else." 

They then created another one, and sang over it. But this time 
they had made a la,rger one, and when they had chanted their song 
over it, it became alive and it was a Hawk (Kisha). " Why do you want 
me?" the Hawk also said. "Yes," they replied, "yes, these our children 
do not listen to us, they worry us, and we are living in trouble here, 
and that is why we want you. You go up there and find out for us 
and inform us." So the Hawk flew up also, passed through the open- 

' I have not been able to fully identify this bird, but from the description given me, believe it 
to be the humming-bird, though it may be the wren. 

i8 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

ing, and circled around for some time in the space above the opening. 
But he also became tired and returned, exhausted. So when he was 
somewhat revived, they asked him: "What did you find out?" and he 
told them the same as the others had, that he had not found anyone, 
"Ishohi!" they said, "we shall try it once more." 

So they made another one, and sang over it again. While they 
were singing over it it became alive, and it was the Mdtsni. "Why 
do you want me?" the latter asked. "Yes," they said, "our children 
here do not listen to us, they have hard hearts, and we are living in 
trouble here. So we have been thinking of leaving here, but these here 
have not found anybody there, so you go up too, and you find out for 
us. And, if you find some one there who is kind and gentle and has 
a good heart, why you tell us and we shall go up there." So he flew 
up too, and having passed through the opening, he kept flying 
around and looking about, as he was very strong. Finally he found 
the place where Oraibi now is, but there were no houses there yet, 
and there somebody was sitting, leaning his head forward, and as the 
M6tsni came nearer he moved it to the side a little. Finally he said; 
"Sit down, you that are going around here, sit down. Certainly you 
are going around here for some reason. Nobody has seen me here 
yet." "Yes," the M6tsni said, "down below we are not living well, 
and the chiefs there have sent me up here to find out, and now I have 
found you, and if you are kind, we have thought of coming up here, 
since I now have found you. Now you say, you tell me if you 
are willing, and I shall tell them so, and we will come up here." This 
one whom the Motsni had found was Skeleton (Masauwuu). "Yes," 
he said, "now this is the way I am living here. I am living here in 
poverty. I have not anything; this is the way I am living here. 
Now, if you are willing to live here that way, too, with me and share 
this life, why come, you are welcome." "All right," the Mdtsni 
said, "whatever they say down there, whatever they say. Now, I 
shall be off." "All right," Skeleton said, whereupon the Mdtsni left. 

So he returned and descended to where the chiefs were sitting, 
but this one did not drop down, for he was very strong, and he came 
flying down to them. "What have you found out?" they asked the 
bird. "Yes," he said, "I was up there and I have found him away 
off. But it is with you now; he also lives there poorly, he has not 
much, he is destitute. But if you are satisfied with his manner of 
living, why you are welcome to come up there." "All right," they 
said, and were happy. "So that is the way he is saying, so he is 
kind, we are welcome, and we are going." 

At that time there were all kinds of people living down there, the 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hon — Voth. 19 

White Man, the Paiute, the Pueblo; in fact, all the different kinds of 
people except the Zuni and the K6honino, who have come from 
another place. Of all these people some whose hearts were not very 
bad had heard about this, and they had now assembled with the 
chiefs, but the greater part of the people, those whose hearts were 
very bad, were not present. They now decided that they would 
leave. The chief told them that in four days they were to be ready 
to leave. So during the four days those who knew about it secretly 
told some of their friends whose hearts also were at least not very bad, 
that after four days they were going to leave. So the different chiefs 
from the different kinds of people assembled with small parties on the 
morning of the fourth day, after they had had their morning meal. 
They met at the place where they were appointed to meet, and there 
were a good many. "We are a great many," the chief said, "may be 
there will be some here among them whose heart is not single. Now, 
no more must come, this is enough." So they commenced to climb 
up the reed, first the different chiefs, the Village chief (Kik-mongwi), 
who was also at the same time the Soy^l-mongwi, the Flute chief 
(LSn-mongwi), Horn chief (Al-mongwi), Agave chief (Kwdn-mongwi), 
Singer chief (Tao-mongwi), Wdwuchim chief (Kel-mongwi) , Rattle- 
snake chief (Tcti-mongwi) , Antelope chief (Tc6b-mongwi) , Marau 
chief (Marau-mongwi), Lagon chief (Lagon-mongwi), and the Warrior 
chief (Kalehtak-mongwi or P6okong). And then the people followed 
and a great many went out. By this time the people in the lower 
world had heard about this, and they now came crowding from all 
sides towards the trees. When the Kik-mongwi above there saw that 
so many were coming he called down to stop. "Some of those Pop- 
waktu," he said, "are going to come up too, I think, so that is enough, 
stop now!" He then commenced to pull up the reed so that a great 
many people that were still on it dropped back. 

So they now moved on a little bit to the rim or edge of the opening, 
and there they gathered, and there were a great many of them. 
The Kik-mongwi now addressed them and said: "Now this many we 
have come out, now we shall go there, but we want to live with a 
single heart. Thus long we have lived with bad hearts. We want 
to stop that. Whatever that one there (referring to the Mdtsni) tells 
us, we want to listen to, and the way he says we shall live. Thus he 
instructed them. 

In a little while the child of the chief, a small boy, became sick 
and died. 'Ishohi!" the chief said, "A Pow^ka has come out with 
us," and they were thinking about it. Then he made a ball of fine meal 
and threw it upward, and it alighted on the head of a maiden. So 

20 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

he went there and grabbed her, saying: "So you are the one. On 
your account my child has died. I shall throw you back again." 
He then lifted her to the opening. "I am going to throw you down here," 
he said, "you have come out with us and we shall now live in the same 
way here again." But she did not want to. "No, "she said, "you 
must not throw me down, I want to stay with you, and if you will 
contend with one another again I shall always talk for you (be on your 
side). " Now, you go and look down there and you will see your child 
going around down there." So he looked down and there he saw 
his child running around with the others. "That is the way it will 
be," the maiden said to the chief; "if any one dies, he will go down 
there and he will remain there only four days, and after the four days 
he will come back again and live with his people."' Hereupon the 
chief was willing that she should remain and he did not throw her 
down, but he told her that she could not go with them right away. 
When they should leave, when they had slept, after the first day she 
might follow them. So she remained there near the opening. 

Hereupon P6okong looked around all over and he found out that 
towards one side it was always cold. It was at this time dark yet, 
so Spider Woman (K6hl<ang Wuhti) took a piece of white native 
cloth (6wa) and cut a large round piece but of it on which she made 
a drawing. She was assisted by the, Flute priest. They sang some 
songs over it, and Spider Woman then took the disk away towards 
the east. Soon they saw something rise there, but it did not become 
very light yet, and it was the moon. So they said they must make 
something else. Spider Woman and the Flute priest then took a piece 
of buckskin, cut a circular piece out of it, and made on it a drawing 
of the sun symbol,, as is still used by the Flute priest to-day. They 
sang over this, whereupon Spider Woman took that away and in a 
little while something rose again, and now it became light and very 
warm. But they had rubbed the yelks of eggs over this sun symbol 
-.and that is what makes it so very light, and that is why the chickens 
know when it is light and yellow in the morning, and crow early at 
the sunrise, and at noon, and in the evening, and now they know all 
about the time. And now the chief and all the people were happy 
because it was light and warm. 

The chiefs now made all different kinds of blossoms and plants 
and everything. They now thought of starting and scattering out. 
The language then spoken was the Hopi language. This language 

1 This is the way the narrator stated it. The meaning is not quite clear but probablyit re/ers 
to the belief of the Hopi that the souls of the dead remain in the grave three days, leaving the 
grave on the fourth day to travel to the skeleton house to live with the departed Hopi. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 21 

was dear and sacred to the Hopi chief, and he wanted to keep it alone 
to himself and for the Hopi, but did not want the people who would 
scatter out to take this language along, and so he asked the Mocking- 
bird (Yahpa), who talks everything, to give to the different people 
a different language. This the Mocking-bird did, giving to one 
party one language, to another party another language, and so on, 
telling them that these languages they should henceforth speak. 
Hereupon they sat down to eat a common meal, and the chief laid 
out a great many corn-ears of different lengths which they had 
brought from the under-world. "Now," he said, "you choose of 
these corn-ears before you start." So there was a great wrangle over 
these corn-ears, every one wanting the longest ears, and such people 
as the Navaho, Ute, Apache, etc., struggled for and got the longest 
corn-ears, leaving the small ones for the Hopi, and these the chief 
took and said: "Thanks, that you have left this for me. Upon this 
we are going to live. Now, you that took the long corn-ears will live 
on that, but they are not corn, they will be kwahkwi, l^hu, and such 
grasses that have seed." And that is the reason why these people 
rub out the tassels of those grasses now and live on them; and the 
Hopi have corn, because the smaller ears were really the corn. 

The chief had an elder brother, and he selected some of the best 
foods that tasted well, such as n6okwiwi,' meats, etc. They were 
now ready to start, and then the chief and his elder brother talked 
with each other and agreed that the elder brother should go with a 
party ahead towards the sunrise, and when he would arrive there he 
should touch the sun, at least with his forehead, and then remain 
and live there where the sun rises. But they should not forget their 
brethren, they should be looking this way, towards the place where 
they would settle down. A So Wuhti (old woman, grandmother) went 
with each party. Each party also took a stone upon which there were 
some marks and figures, and that fitted together. They agreed that 
if the Hopi should get into trouble again, and live again the same way 
as they did in the lower world, the elder brother should come back to 
them and discover the Powakas who caused the trouble, and cut off 
their heads. 

The elder brother and his party started first, and they became the 
White Men as they traveled eastward. The chief, and his party 
started next, both taking a southern route. The maiden that had 
been found to be a Powdka, and who had been left behind at the open- 
ing, followed these two parties after they had left. 

The people hereupon formed different parties, each party following 

* A stew preoared of mutton, shelled com, etc. 

2 2 Field Columbian Museum —Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

a certain chief, and all traveling eastward. They usually stopped 
for longer or shorter periods at certain places, and then traveled on 
again. For this reason there are so many ruins all over the country. 
The Pueblo Indians also passed through about here where the Hopi 
now live. The White Men were more skillful than the others and got 
along better. Spider Woman, who was with them, made horses and 
burros for them, on which they traveled when they got tired, and 
for that reason they went along much faster. The party that brought 
Powdk-mana with them settled down at Palatkwapi, where they 
lived for quite a while, and these did not yet bear a particular clan 

The other parties traveled different routes and were scattered 
over the country, each party having a chief of its own. Sometimes 
they would stay one, two, three, or four years at one place, wherever 
they found good fields or springs. Here they would raise crops so 
that they had some food to take with them when they continued their 
journeys, and then moved on again. Sometimes when they found 
good fields but no water they would create springs with a b^uypi. 
This is a small perforated vessel into which they would place certain 
herbs, different kinds of stones, shells, a small balolookong, bahos, etc., 
and bury it. In one year a spring would come out of the ground 
where this was buried. During this year, before their spring was ready, 
they would use rainwater, because they understood how to create 
rain. When they continued their journeys they usually took such a 
bduypi out of the ground and took it with them. 

Before any of the parties had arrived at the place where the Hopi 
now live they began to become bad. Contentions arose among the 
parties. They began to war against each other. Whenever a cer- 
tain party possessed something, another party would attack and kill 
them on account of those possessions. For that reason some of them 
built their villages on top of the bluffs and mesas, because they were 
afraid of other parties. Finally some of them arrived at Mdenkapi.* 
These were the Bear clan, Spider clan. Hide Strap clan, Blue-bird 
clan, and the Fat Cavity^ clan; all of which had derived their names 
from a dead bear upon which these different parties had come as 
they were traveling along. 

While these parties lived near Mtienkapi for some time another 
party had gone along the Little Colorado river, passed by the place 
that is now called the Great Lakes, and arrived at Shong6pavi, where 

' A little stream, about fifty miles north-iwest of Oralbi. 

« Said to refer to traces of fat found in the cavities of the cadaver of the bear when this 
party found the dead bear. 

March. 1905- The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 23 

they started a village at the place where now the ruins of old Shongo- 
pavi are, east of the present village. These people were also called 
the Bear clan, but they were different Bear people from those living 
at Moenkapi about that time. Shongopavi was the first village 
started. When these Bear people arrived at Shongopavi, Skeleton 
was living at the place where Orafbi now is, where he had been living 
all the time. The clan that had stopped .northeast of Mfienkapi soon 
moved to the place where M6enkapi now is, but did not remain there 
long. The Bear clan, the Hide Strap clan, and the Blue-bird clan 
soon moved on towards Orafbi. When the Spider clan arrived at 
Mtienkapi they made marks or wrote on a certain bluff east of Mtien- 
kapi, saying that this place should always belong to the Hopi, that 
no one should take it away from them, because there was so much 
water there. Here the Hopi should always plant.' 

Soon after the Spider clan had moved on towards Orafbi the 
Snake clan arrived. When these Snake people saw the writing on 
the bluff they said, "Somebody has been writing here that they 
wanted to own this. Let us write also that we want to own this here, 
too." So they wrote the same thing on the bluff. After they had 
left the place, the Burrowing Owl clan arrived, and they also wrote 
the same thing on the bluflf. But they all had heard that Skeleton 
was living where Orafbi now is, and so they all traveled on towards 
Orafbi. When the Bear clan arrived at NatuwanpiRa, a place a very 
short distance west of Kuiwanva,^ Skeleton came to meet them there. 
"We have arrived here," the Hon-wungwa said, "we would like to 
live here with you, and we want you to be our chief. Now, what do 
you think about it? Will you give us some land?" But Skeleton 
replied, "No, I shall not be chief. You shall be chief here, you have 
retained your old life. You will be the same here as you were down 
in the under- world. Someone that is Powaka has come out with you 
and it will be here just the same as it was down there when he comes 
here. But when the White Man, your elder brother, will come back 
here and cut off the heads of the bad ones, then I shall own all this 
land of mine myself. But until then you shall be chief. I shall give 
you a piece of land and then you live here." 

Hereupon he stepped off a large tract of land, going east of where 
they were, and then descending the mesa west of K6q6chmovi, then 
towards the present trail towards Orafbi, up the trail, past the present 
village site, down the mesa on the west side, along the trail towards 

' The narrator says that this "writing" was effaced by Tuba (the Hopi chief who founded 
Tuba City), his wife Katcinmana, and others who wanted that land. 
- About a mile north-west of Oraibi . 

24 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Momoshvavi, including that spring, and back up the mesa. This 
piece of land he allotted to the Bear clan. The leader of the Bear clan 
now asked him where he lived. He said he lived over there at the 
bluflf of Oraibi, and that is where they should live also. So this clan 
built its houses right east of the bluff of Oraibi where there are now 
the ruins. 

The Bear clan brought with them the Soyal cult, the Aototo, and 
the Soyal Katcmas. Soon other clans began to arrive. When a 
clan arrived usually one of the new arrivals would go to the village 
and ask the village chief for permission to settle in the village. He 
usually asked whether they understood anything to produce rain 
and good crops, aijd if they had any cult, they would refer to it and 
say, "Yes, this or this we have, and when we assemble for this cere- 
mony, or when we have this dance it will rain. With this we have 
traveled, and with this we have taken care of our children." The 
chief would then say, "Very well, you come and Hve in the village." 
Thus the different clans arrived: First, the Hide Strap clan, the 
Blue-bird clan, the Spider clan, etc. While these different clans were 
arriving in Oraibi, other clans were arriving in Walpi and Mishong- 
novi, and settling up those villages. When a new clan arrived, the 
village chief would tell them .-"Very well, you participate in our' cult 
and help us with the ceremonies," and then he would give them their 
fields according to the way they came. And that way their fields 
were all distributed. 

One of the first clans to arrive with those mentioned was the Bow 
clan, which came from the south-west. When the village chief asked 
the leader of this clan what he brought with him to produce rain, he 
said, "Yes, I have here the Shaalako Katcinas, the Tangik Katcinas, 
the Ttikwunang Katcina, and the Shawiki Katcina. When they 
dance it usually rains." "Very well," the village chief said, "you 
try it." So the Aoat-wungwa arranged a dance. On the day before 
the dance it rained a little, and on the last day when they had their 
dance it rained fearfully. All the washes were full of water. So the 
village chief invited them to move to the village and gave them a 
large tract of land. He told them that they should have their cere- 
monies first. This was the W6wuchim ceremony, the chief of the 
Bow clan being the leader of this ceremony. So this ceremony was 
the first one to take place. 

Then followed the Soydl^ ceremony, in charge of the village chief. 
And then in the B^ho month the Snake and the Flute ceremonies, 
which change about every two years. The Snake cult was brought 
by the Snake clan, the Antelope cult by the Blue-bird clan, and the 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 25 

Flute cult by the Spider clan. The Lizard, which also arrived from 
the north-west, brought the Marau cult, and the Parrot clan the Lag6n 
cult. Others came later. Small bands living throughout the country 
when they could hear about the people living in Oraibi would some- 
times move up towards Oraibi and ask for admission to live in the 
village. In this way the villages were built up slowly. 

At that time everything was good yet. No wicked ones were 
living in the village at that time. When the Katcinas danced it 
would rain, and if it did not rain while they danced, it always rained 
when the dance was over, and when the people would have their kiva 
ceremonies it would also rain. But at that time they had not so 
many Katcinas. There were only the Hopi Katcinas, which the Hopi 
brought with them from the under-world. They were very simple 
but very good. People at that time lived happily, but by this time 
the P6pwaktu had increased at Palatkwapi. The one Powd,ka 
maiden that had come with these people from the under-world had 
taught others her evil arts. And so these wicked ones had increased 
very much until finally Palatkwapi was destroyed by a great water 
produced by the Balolookongs. Nearly all the people were destroyed, 
but a few succeeded in reaching dry land in the flood and they were 

They traveled northeastward and finally came to Mat6vi, and 
from there to Wd,lpi. From Walpi they scattered to the different 
villages, teaching their evil arts to others. They would put sickness 
into the people so that the people contracted diseases and died. 
They also turned the Ute Indians and the Apache, who used to be 
friends of the Hopi, into their enemies, so that after that these tribes 
would make wars on the Hopi. They also caused contentions among 
the Hopi. The Navaho also used to be friends of the Hopi, but these 
P6pwaktu would occasionally call the Ute and the Apache to make 
raids on the Hopi. They also turned the Navaho into our enemies, 
and then the White Men came and made demands of the Hopi. The 
White Men are also called here by these P6pwaktu, and now the White 
Men are worrying the Hopi also. 

But the Hopi are still looking towards their elder brother, the 
one that arrived at the sunrise first, and he is looking from there this 
way to the Hopi, watching and listening how they are getting along. 
Our old men and ancestors (w6wuyom) have said that some White 
Men would be coming to them, but they would not be the White Men 
like our elder brother, and they would be worrying us. They would 
ask for our children. They would ask us to have our heads washed 
(baptized), and if we would not do what they asked us they would 

26 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

beat us and trouble us and probably kill us. But we should not listen 
to them, we should continue to live like the Hopi. We should con- 
tinue to use the food of the Hopi and wear the clothes of the Hopi. 
But those Popwaktu of the Hopi would help the White Men, and they 
would speak for the White Men, because they would also want to do 
just the same as those White Men would ask them to do. And now it 
has come to that, our forefathers have been prophesying that. We 
are now in trouble. Our children are taken away from us, and we 
are being harassed and worried. 


Away down the sipapu in the under-world the people lived in the 
same manner as they do here. The wife of the chief of the Bear clan 
often danced in the Butterfly dance (Polihtikivee), at which the chief 
got angry. The Spider clan had also a chief. The Bear chief sent 
the P6okong to hunt for them another life (katci) or world and see 
whether they could not get out. He was so angry at his wife's 
participating in the dance, fearing that she would be led astray, that 
he wanted to go away and leave her. 

P6okong and his younger brother BaWongahoya went in search 
of another world, and when they returned, reported that there was 
an opening right above them. P6okong had reached it by means of 
a reed on which he had spit and thus made it strong. The chief said, 
as they were still dancing (the Butterfly dance) they would move in 
four days. After four days they were still dancing, and the chief 
said to some one that he would not tell his wife anything, but try to 
find another wife. So he left, being accompanied by P6okong and 
Bal6ongahoya, the Polls still dancing wildly. They started and went 
out, P6okong first, then Bal6ongahoya, then the Bear clan chief, who 
was followed by the Spider clan chief. Then the Bear clan people, 
the Spider clan people, and after them many other people came out. 
When many were out the Bear chief closed the opening. When they 
were out the chief said. "Well, what now?" They were in the dark 
yet, the entrance, however, being closed. The chief sent the Eagle 
who flew around hunting an opening or light. He returned, and the 
chief asked: "Taa um hin naw6ti?" "Well, I found an opening and 
made it more light, but it is very hot high up yet. Send another 
one." So the chief sent the Buzzard (Wicoko). The latter ascended 
higher but got burned (hence he has no feathers on his head and wings), 
but he made it lighter. When he returned the chief said: "Thank 

' Told by Wikvaya (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 27 

you. Well, now what? Now it is somewhat better. The sky has 
been opened somewhat more and it is much lighter." The question 
arose: Which way? The Bear clan spoke for the south, the Spider 
clan for the north, and the latter talking more and getting the greater 
crowd, the Spider clan went northward. 

a. the spider clan. 

This clan traveled northward. The chief first, the people follow- 
ing. After four nights they came to a nice country, where the 
"North Old Man" (Kwinae Wuhtaka) lives. But it was cold there. 
The chief decided that there they would stay. So the people were 
glad and began to plant corn, watermelon, melons, sweet com, etc. 
The chief had brought with him the cult and altar of the Blue Flutes. 
When the corn began to grow the chief put up his altar, sang and 
fluted, but he did all that alone. So the com, etc., grew nicely, but 
when it tasseled and the ears began to develop, it became cold and 
the crop was destroyed. "Tshohi!" (Oh!) the people exclaimed. 

They tried it another year, but the same thing was repeated in 
every respect. Again no crop. Another year it was tried, but now 
the corn only began to tassel, and the fourth year it was still very 
small when the frost killed it. Then there was dissatisfaction. 
"Ishohi! (Oh!) Our Father, you have spoken falsely, you said it 
was good here." So they all also started southward after the Bear 

After the first night the chief said to his wife: "You bathe your- 
self." This she did (in warm water). Then she rubbed her body 
and collected the small scales which she had rubbed from her skin 
and handed them to her husband. He laid them on a blanket until 
there was a considerable quantity of them. He then wrapped this 
in a reed receptacle, sang over it and waved it four times, where- 
upon the scales turned into burros and rushed out. "What is that?" 
the people asked. "Those are burros," the chief said. So they were 
glad that now they would not have to carry everything themselves 
any longer, and the chief said that now they would move on towards 
the rising sun. 

The chief and his wife repeated the same performance, but in- 
instead of burros, Spaniards came out. To them the chief said: 
"You put supplies and your things on the burros and follow the other 
Hopi (that is, the Bear clan), and when you overtake them, kill them. 
So the Castilians went south, and the Spider people went south-east, 
following a stream (N6n6pbaya, a rolling stream, because of the high 
recoiling waves). They came to a nice place where they stayed one 

28 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

year and planted and reaped a crop. From there they proceeded 
south-east, stopped another year at a certain place, where they again 
planted, but were harassed by enemies. They saved a portion of 
the crop and proceeding farther south-east they ascended a bluff or 
mesa, staying another year and planting in the valleys. 

Thus they stopped in all at ten different places, but being con- 
stantly harassed by the people along the water, they never planted 
more than once. Finally they arrived where the sun rises and the 
Americans (Bahanas) live. With them they became friends; here 
they planted, their children learned the language a little, and they 
stayed there three years. They also here learned that the Bear clan 
had been there and had already gone westward again. The Spider 
people followed, arrived at Oraibi, where they found the Bear clan, 
whom they joined. Their chief was then Machito. They also had 
the Aototo and Aholi Katcinas. 


This clan had gone south from the sfpahpuni. Theyhadwith them the 
Aototo Katcina. They soon found the Young Corn Ear (PihKash) people 
with the Aholi Katcina, who wanted to join them. So the Bear clan 
chief took them along. They stopped at a place and here had a good 
crop because they had the two Katcinas with them. The next year 
they came to a clear stream. In all they stopped ten times before 
arriving at the Americans, where the sun rises. Here they stopped 
four years. Their children learned a little English. The land being 
scarce, the Americans told them to go west and hunt land for them- 
selves, and if anybody would be bad to them (mikpana) and cause 
their children to die, they (the Americans) would come and cut 
the Nukapana's heads off. This was told them because they (the 
Americans) had been told that down in the old home there had been 
Popwaktu (sorcerers, etc.). So they traveled westward, found the 
Pueblo, but no good land that they could get. So they finally ar- 
rived 9,t Shongopavi, where some people lived, and there they settled 

One time the people saw that the chief, Machito, held a sweet 
corn -ear between every two fingers, at the same time eating from the 
other hand. Corn was very scarce at that time, so the people spoke 
to him about his greediness, at which he got angry and left, taking 
with him the Aototo and Aholi. Hunters later found them at a 
rock, now Bean Spreading Place (B^hpu-Moyanpi), where there is 
still a stone on which there is some writing called Machitutubeni. 
Machito left his wife at Shong6pavi, also his people, who then formed 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 29 

the Shongopava Bear clan. When the hunters found him they in- 
formed the people at Shong6pavi. 

Some went there to get them back, but Machfto would not listen 
to them. Then his wife went to him but he would not listen to her 
either. So they left him. Machito took a big stone and went with 
them for some distance to make the landmark between Oraibi and 
Shongopavi. The people said several times: "Put it here." But 
he would not listen until arriving at a place called "Ocdpchomo," 
where he placed it, thus making a landmark between the fields of 
the Shongopavi and his own. 

Then Macihto and the two Katcinas went up the Oraibi mesa 
where they remained. Later the Spider people arrived. Machfto 
asked about their wanderings and they told him. He wanted to 
know why the corn would not grow although they had the Flute cult. 
The Spider clan chief accused the "North Old Man." Machito then 
said: "All right, you may live here, but as your cult does not seem 
to be effective, you watch the sun for me, and when he has arrived 
at his south limit, you tell me, and we shall have the Soydl ceremony. 
Also your pdhtavi does not seem to have been good, so I want you 
to make my kind of pdhtavi." ' 

After the matter had been settled between Machito and the 
Spider clan chief, the latter's people came up. Among these were 
also the Lizard clan, to which the Sand clan is related. These names 
were given to people while wandering. One would find and see some- 
thing, perhaps under peculiar circumstances, and be called after it. 
The Lizard people were also asked what they knew and when they 
said the Marau cult, they were also permitted to stay, but were re- 
quested to co-operate in the Soydl ceremony. For that reason 
Pungnanomsi, who is of the Bear clan, and village chief, now makes 
the pflhu (road) in the night of the Marau ceremony from the ndtsi 
at the south end of the kiva towards the rising sun. 

The Rattle-snake (Tctia) clan also came with the Spider clan to 
Oraibi, but it is not known how or where this clan became a part of 
the Spider clan. The Badger people understand medicines, hence 
they prepare the medicine — for instance, charm liquid — for the Flute, 
Snake, Marau, and other ceremonies. 

Another Badger clan and the Butterfly (P6wul) came from Kishi- 
wuu. These brought the Powamu and Katcina cult. 

The Divided Spring (Batki) clan came from where the sun rises. 

* It is thought that this refers to the mutual celebrating of the Soydl ceremony, in which 
all are supposed yet to participate. Machito had brought the Soydl altar and cult with him. 
The Pihkash people had Aholi Katcina and the screen (Omawn) now used in the Soydl and 
the Com Ceremonies. The Aototo has the wat^r and rain. 

30 FiRi.D Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

They came to the village of Oraibi and arranged a contest at Muyio- 
vatki where each planted corn, the Blue Fliites sweet corn, the others 
Wupakao, over which they played the whole day. The sweet corn 
grew first, and so the Blue Flutes to this day go to the village in 
processions, etc., first closing the well (batni) on the plaza. Later 
the Drab Flutes (Masitalentu) had to throw their meal, mollas, 
etc., from a distance to the warrior (Kelehtaka) of the Cakwalalentu, 
who put them into the well in the booth for them. 


At Tokoonavi, north of the Grand Canyon, lived people who 
were then not yet Snake people. They lived close to the bank of 
the river. The chief's son often pondered over the Grand Canyon 
and wondered where all that water went to. "That must certainly 
make it very full somewhere," he thought to himself. So he' spoke 
to his father about it. "So that is what you have been thinking 
about," the latter said. "Yes," his son answered, "I want to go and 
examine it. " The father gave his consent and told his son that he should 
make a box for himself that would be large enough for him to get 
into, and he should arrange it so that all openings in the box could 
be closed. This the boy did, making also a long pole (according to 
others a long baho), with which he could push the box in case it 
became fast or tangled up anywhere. 

When he was ready he took a lot of bahos and some food, went into 
the box, and allowed himself to be pushed into the water, on which 
he then floated along. Finally he came to the ocean, where he 
drifted against an island. • He found the house of Spider Woman 
(Kohlcang Wuhti) here, who called him to come to her house. He 
went over and found that he could not get through the opening 
leading to her house. "How shall I get in?" he said; "the opening 
is too small." She told him to enlarge it. This he did and then 
entered. He told her a story and gave her a baho, and said that 
he had come after beads, etc. She pointed to another kiva away 
out in the water and said that there were some beads and corals there, 
but that there were some wild animals guarding the path to it. "If 
you had not informed me, how could you have succeeded in getting 
there, and how would you have gotten back? But I shall go with 
you," she said, "because you have given me a baho, for which I am 
very glad." She then gave the young man some medicine and seated 
herself behind his right ear. He spurted the medicine over the 
water and immediately a road like a rainbow was formed from the 

" Told by Limdvantiwa (Shupaulavi). 

March, loos- Tin: Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 31 

dwelling of Spider Woman to the other kiva. ' On this they went 
across the water. As they approached the kiva to which they were 
going, they first encountered a panther, who growled fiercely. The 
young man gave him a green baho and spurted some medicine upon 
him, which quieted him. A little farther on they met a bear, whom 
they quieted in the same manner. Still farther on they came upon 
a wildcat, to which they also handed a baho, which quieted the 
animal. Hereupon they met a gray wolf, and finally a very large 
rattle-snake (Kahtoya), both of which they appeased in the same 
manner as the others. They then arrived at the kiva, where they 
found at the entrance a bow standard (Aoat natsi). They then 
descended the ladder and found in the kiva many people who were 
dressed in blue kiltS, had their faces painted with specular iron 
(yalahaii), and around their rleclcs they wore many . beads. The 
young man sat down near' the fireplace, Spider Woman still being 
seated on his ear, but no one spoke. The men looked at him, but 
remained silent. Presently the chief got a large bag of tobacco and 
a large pipe. He filled the latter and smoked four times. He then 
handed the pipe to the young man and said; "Smoke and swallow 
the smoke." The swallowing of the smoke was a test; any one not 
being able to do that was driven off. Spider Woman had informed 
the young man about this test, so he was posted. When he com- 
menced to smoke she whispered to him: "Put me behind you." 
This he did in an unobserved manner, so when he swallowed the 
smoke she immediately drew the smoke from him ' and blew it away, 
and hence he did not get dizzy. The men who did not observe the 
trick were pleased and said to him: "All right, you are strong; you 
are certainly some one. Thank you. Your heart is good; you are 
one of us; you are our child." "Yes," he said, and handed them 
some red nakwikwosis and a single green baho with red points, such 
as are still made in Shupaulavi in the Antelope society. 

They then became very friendly, saying that they were very 
happy over the bahos. On the walls of the kiva were hanging many 
costumes made of snake skins. Soon the chief said to the people: 
"Let us dress up now," and turning to the young man, he bid him 
to turn away so that he would not see what was going on. He did 
so, and when he looked back again the men had all dressed up in 
the snake costumes and had turned into snakes, large and small, bull 
snakes, racers, and rattle-snakes, that were moving about on the 
floor hissing, rattling, etc. While he had turned away and the snake 
people had been dressing themselves. Spider Woman had whispered 

' Through the rectum. 

32 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

to him that they were now going to try him very hard, but that he 
should not be afraid to touch the snakes; and she gave him many 

Among those present in the kiva had also been some pretty 
maidens who had also put on snake costumes and had turned into 
serpents. One of them had been particularly handsome. The chief 
had not turned into a snake, and was sitting near the fireplace. He 
now turned to the young man and said to him: "You go now and 
select and take one of these snakes." The snakes seemed to be very 
angry and the young man got frightened when they stared at him, 
but Spider Woman whispered to him not to be a coward, nor to be 

The prettiest maiden had turned into a large yellow rattle-snake 
(Silca-tcua), and was especially angry. Spider Woman whispered 
to the young man, that the one that acted so very angrily was the 
pretty maiden and that he should try to take that one. He tried, 
but the snake was very wild and fierce. "Be not afraid," Spider 
Woman whispered, and handed him some medicine. This he secretly 
chewed and spurted a small quantity of it on the fierce snake,, 
whereupon it immediately became docile. He at once grabbed it, 
held and stroked it four times upward, each time spurting a little 
medicine on it, and thus freeing it from its anger. The chief was 
astonished and said: "You are very something, thanks. Now, look 
away again." He did so and when he turned back he saw that all 
the snakes had assumed the forms of men and women again, includ- 
ing the maiden that he had captured. They now were all very good 
to him, and talked to him in the kindest manner, because they now 
considered him as initiated and as one of them. He was now wel- 
come, and the chief invited him to eat. The mana whom the young 
man had taken got from another room in the kiva some bread made 
of fresh corn-meal, some peaches, melons, etc., and set this food before 
the young man. Spider Woman whispered to the young man to 
give her something to eat too, which he did secretly. She enjoyed 
the food very much and was very happy. 

Now the chief asked the man why he came, etc. "I hunt 
a Idlomat katcit (good* life) and was thinking about the water run- 
ning this way, and so this way it runs. I have come also to get Hopi 
food from here. I also heard that there lives a woman here some- 
where, the Huriiing Wuhti, from whom I want beads." "What have 
you for her?" they asked. "These bahos," he said. "All right, you 
will get there. But now you sleep here." But Spider Woman wanted 
to get back. He told them that he wanted to go out a little while. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 33 

He went and took Spider Woman home, and put her down. She 
invited him to come and eat with her. She had a povfilpilci off which 
she Uved and which never gave out, but he left her and returned to the 
Snake kiva, where he was welcomed and called brother and son-in- 
law (modnangwuu) , although he had not yet married, but only caught 
the mana. So he remained there. That evening and night the chief 
told him all about the Snake cult, altar, etc., etc., and instructed him 
how he must put this up, and do that, when he would return. He 
did not sleep that night. 

In the morning he again went out on the same excuse as the 
previous evening, and went to Spider Woman, who went out. She 
made a rainbow road into the ocean to a high bluff where Huruing 
Wuhti lived, and to which they ascended on a ladder. They went 
in and found an old hag, but on all the walls many beads, shells, etc. 
The woman said nothing. The young man gave her the bahos, then 
she said faintly, "Askwali!" (Thanks!) At sundown she went into 
a side chamber and returned a very pretty maiden with fine buffalo 
and wildcat robes, of which she made a bed, and after having fed 
him, invited him to sleep with her on the bed. Then Spider Woman 
whispered he should comply with her request, then he would win her 
favor and get the beads. So he did as requested. 

In the morning he awoke and found by his side an old hag, snor- 
ing. He was very unhappy. He stayed all day, the hag sitting bent 
up all day. In the evening the change, etc., that occurred on 
the previous day was repeated, but the hag after this remained a 
pretty maiden. He remained four days and nights with Huruing 
Wuhti, who is the deity of the hard substances. After four days he 
wanted to go home, so she went into a room on the north side and 
got a turquoise bead; then from a room west the same; from a room 
south a reddish bead (c^tsni); from one east, a hard white bead 
(huruingwa), a shell. Then she gave him a few of all kinds of beads 
and told him to go home now, but charging him not to open the sack, 
because if he did they would be gone, and if he did not they would 
increase. "You go to the Snakes, who will give you clothes, food, 

He then returned to the Snake kiva. There he stayed four days 
and four nights, sleeping with his wife. When he was ready to go 
home the chief said: "Take this mana with you. You have won us. 
Take it all with you, take of our food. Practice the ceremonies there 
that I told you about. This woman will bear you children and then 
you will be many and they will hold this ceremony for you." So 
they started. At Spider Woman's house he told his wife, "You stay 

34 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

here. I will go to the rear." So he went to Spider Woman's house 
and she asked: "Well, did you get the mana?" "Yes," he said. 
"Well, you take everything along." But she forbid him to touch 
his wife while they would be on the way, as then his beads would 
disappear and also his wife. 

So they started. The beads were as yet not heavy. During the 
night they slept separately. In the morning they found that the 
beads had increased, and they kept increasing as they went along 
the next day. The next night they spent in the same way. They 
were anxious to see whether the bead's and shells had increased, but 
did not dare to do so. The third night was again spent, and the con- 
tents of the bag increased the same as the previous two nights. The 
bag with the beads and shells now became very heavy and the young 
man was very anxious to see them, but his wife forbade him to open 
the sack. The fourth night was spent in the same manner, and when 
they arose in the morning the sack was nearly full and was very 
heavy. Spider Woman had also put some strings into the bag with 
the beads, and the beads were strung onto these strings as they kept 

They now approached the home of the young man, and the latter 
was very anxious to get home in order to see the contents of the sack, 
so they traveled on.' When they had nearly one more day's travel 
to make the sack had become full. During the last night the man 
opened the sack, although his wife remonstrated most energetically. 
He took out many of the finest beads and shells and spread them on 
the floor before them, put them around his neck, and was very happy. 
So they retired for the night. In the morning they found that all 
the beads except those which Huriiing Wuhti had given to the man 
had disappeared. Hence the Hopi have so few beads at the present 
day. If that man had at that time brought home with him all the 
beads which he had, they would have many. So when they arrived 
at home they were very despondent. 

At that time only the Divided or Separated Spring (Batki) clan 
and the P6na (a certain cactus) clan lived at that place, but with the 
arrival of this young couple a new clan, the Snake clan, had come to 
the village. Soon this new woman bore many children. They were 
snakes, who lived in the fields and in the sand. They grew very 
rapidly and went about and played with the Hopi children, whom 
they sometimes bit. This made the Hopi very angry, and they said: 
"This is not good," and drove them off, so they were very unhappy. 

' The woman was pregnant — -"quickly, like snakes." The man wanted to cohabit with her 
but she forbade him. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — V'oth. 35 

The woman said to her husband : "You take our children back to my 
home and then we shall go away from here alone." Then the man's 
father made bahos, gave them to his son, who put all the snakes with 
the bahos into his blanket and took them back to his wife's home, and 
there told the Snake people why he brought their children and the 
bahos. They said it was all right. Hence the Snake priests, when 
carrying away the snakes from the plaza after the snake dance, take 
with them and deposit with the snakes some bahos, so that they 
should not themselves return to the village. 

When the Snake man returned to his village he and his wife trav- 
eled south-eastward, stopping at various places. All at once they 
saw smoke in the distance, and when they went there they found a 
village perched on the mesa. This was the village of Walpi. They 
at once went to the foot of the mesa on which Walpi was situated 
and announced their presence. So the village chief went down to 
them from the mesa, and asked what they wanted. They asked to 
be admitted to the village, promising that they would assist the 
people in the ceremonies. The chief at first showed himself unwilling 
to admit them, but finally gave his consent and took them up to the 
village. From that time the woman bore human children instead of 
little snakes. These children and their descendants became the 
Snake clan, of whom only very few are now living. 

Soon also the Batki and P6na clan came to Walpi and found 
admittance to the village. At Walpi the Snake people made the first 
Snake tiponi, Snake altar, etc., and had the first Snake ceremony. 
From here the Snake cult spread to the other villages, first to Shongo- 
pavi, then to Mishongnovi, and then to Oraibi. At the first Snake 
ceremony the Snake chief sent his nephew to the north, to the west, 
to the south, and to the east to hunt snakes. He brought some from 
each direction. The chief then hollowed out a piece of baho, made 
of Cottonwood root. Into this he put the rattles of three of the 
snakes and the fourth snake entirely. He then inserted into it a 
corn-ear, and tied to it different feathers of the eagle, the oriole, 
blue-bird, parrot, magpie, asya, and topockwa. winding a buckskin 
string around these feathers. When he had made this tiponi, the 
first ceremony was celebrated, and afterwards it took place regularly. 


At W6hkol<ieq6 lived the Pihlcash and K6kop clans. The old men 
often wondered where the Colorado River was flowing. So they built 
a box, put provisions in, and a pole to push and guide the box with 

' Told by Sikdnakpu (Mish6ngnovi). 

36 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

when it got fast. They made also four bdhos, put them and a young 
man into the box, and sent the box off floating down the river. 

After a while the box would go no farther, and so the young man 
got out. He saw water everywhere. In the midst of it was a house. 
But how should he get there? Presently Huruing Wuhti came out 
there and called him four times. Then he consented to go to her. 
She rolled a corn-meal ball across the water, which made a road. On 
this he went to her house. In the evening Huruing Wuhti sent him 
into a side room saying that something was coming. It was the Sun. 
He was sitting on a disk attached to a pole like a spindle and made a 
great noise. He was dressed like some Katcinas (Powamu and others) 
and nicely painted up with fine siRdhpiRi. Her house is open below. 
He came in and assorted the bahos that had been offered to him on 
his course around the earth. Those offered by the bad people were 
thrown away; those from the good people were put in a row. He 
then came into Huruing Wuhti 's house and bathed his body. After 
his bath he ate some hurushiRi, oongawi, etc. When he was through 
eating he put on his paint and clothes again, went down into his 
house and under the earth to the east and west on his course again. 
During this course eastward the people below the earth see him there. 
In the east he goes down in his house. Hence, the bahos offered to 
the Sun are carried eastward to the Sun Shrines of the Sun clan 
(tawd, kihus). There east lived also "Flutes" (Ldlentu), who are 
always playing and then the sun rises. For that reason at the Flute 
ceremony the gray fox skin (Idtayo ndtsi) is put up at the white 
dawn (qoydngwunuptu), then the yellow fox skin (sikahtayo n^tsi) 
at the yellow dawn (siKangwunuptu). 

Then the Sun there lays off his clothes again, bathes his body, 
is fed by the Sun clan (Tawd-namu), arrays himself again, mounts 
a bluff (chochokpi), and again proceeds on his course gathering the 
bd,hos, etc., that are offered to him as he sweeps westward. 


After we had left the sfpahpuni the Bear people separated and went 
ahead of the others." First they came somewhere near the present 

' Told by Lomavantiwa (Shupaulavi) 

2 The Hopi agree in their different tales that after leaving the sipahpuni, not only the different 
nationalities scattered and took different routes towards the East, but also those people whom they 
considered their forefathers, scattered and traveled eastward in smaller and larger bodies. They 
stopped at various places for shorter or longer periods, and it was in these wanderings that the 
different clans were created, and it is by reason of this separation and of the traveling eastward of 
the different bodies by different routes, that the traditions and tales of the different clans vary so 
considerably from each other. The following is a tale of the experiences of the Bear clan as given 
by one of the principal men in Shupaulavi, a member of different secret orders, and one of the 
best story tellers and singers. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 37 

site of Phoenix, and stayed there awhile. They remained for shorter 
or longer periods at many different places. Finally they came to 
the Litt'.e Colorado River, and about there it was where they assumed 
the clan name, but just exactly where the place was nobody can tell. 

Their forefathers say that the party once came upon a dead bear 
that they looked at, and from that they were called forever after- 
wards the Bear clan. Another party that traveled with them took 
the hide of the bear, of which the hair had already been removed by 
little animals (Miiyi. PI. Mdmuytu), who use hair or wool for their 
nests or burrows. These people took the skin and cut from it carry- 
ing straps (piq6sha), from which they were- called Piqdsha clan. 
Another party came upon the bear at just this time and were called 
Mdyi clan, after the small mice mentioned before. These three clans 
arrived there just about the same time, and hence are considered 
as closely related to one another. 

Shortly after another party passed by and found many blue-birds 
sitting upon the cadaver eating from it ; so they were called the Blue- 
bird clan (Chorzh-namu). Still later another party came upon the 
scene and found the remains of the cadaver full of spider web, so this 
party was called Spider (K6hKang) clan. By and by a sixth migrat- 
ing party came along. By this time the bones of the bear were 
bleached already. They took the skull, tied yucca leaves to it and 
carried it along as a drinking vessel in the manner in which the chief's 
or priest's jugs (m6ngwikurus) are carried at the present time, and 
from this that party was called the Jug (Wikurzh) clan.' Finally 
a seventh party came along and found the place where the bear had 
been killed swarming with ants, so they were called the Ant (An-namu) 

These seven clans have derived their names from the same origin, 
and are now considered as being related to one another. The Bear 
clan is also said to have halted at various places along the Little 
Colorado River. From there they moved eastward, stopping for 
some time at a place called Badger Spring (Hondnva).-' 

From this place they again moved eastward, stopped at a place 
called Mdkwutavi, and from here they finally moved to Mat6vf, 
a large spring a number of miles south of Shong6pavi. At this place 
they also remained for a considerable length of time, but finally they 
moved northward to the present site of Shongopavi, where they 

• According to others Wikorzh from wihu, fat, and koro, cavity, because they say the eyes in 
the cadaver had disappeared from their cavities, some dried fat or fatty meat still adhering to the 
socket walls. This latter explanation is very likely correct. Compare tale No. 9. 

2 My informant was unable to explain why this spring was called by that name and not after 
the Bear clan. 

38 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

remained. They being the first to arrive at this place, they have 
ever since considered themselves to be the leading clan in the village, 
the village chief having also been chosen from their clan. A few 
persons of the Bear clan moved from here to Oraibi, where the chief- 
tainship of the so-called Liberal or Friendly faction is still held by 
that clan, the Conservative or Hostile faction of that village select- 
ing their chief from the Spider clan. Two of this clan moved to the 
villages of Shupaulavi and Mish6ngnovi, where the office of the village 
chief has also remained in this clan to the present day. 

The Bear clan brought with them the altar paraphernalia, songs, 
etc., of the Blue Flute cult. When they stopped and planted any- 
where they would perform the Blue Flute ceremony and sing the 
songs, and their crop would then grow and mature very quickly, 
so that they would have something to eat. They also brought with 
them the Hu Katcina, the Bear (Hon) Katcina, the Aototo' Natacka, 
his wife Cooyok Wuhti, and finally the Cooyoko Tahaam.^ 

Later on other clans and migrating parties arrived at Shongopavi 
asking of the Bear clan admission to the village. If proper arrange- 
ments could be made with the Bear clan they remained; if not, they 
moved on. Many of the large and sniall ruins with which the country 
is covered date back to the time of the migration of these different 
clans, showing the places where they made stays of shorter or longer 


In the under-world many people became very bad. They had many 
contentions, and began to kill the people and also killed the chief's son; 
so the chief concluded that they would move away from there. But 
the question was, how to get out? So he sent the Motsni to find a 
place where they could get out. He flew up and found an opening, and 
came back and reported the same to the chief. So the Village Chief 
(Kik-mongwi) and the Crier Chief (Chaak-mongwi) planted a pine 
(calavi), which grew up very fast, but did not quite reach the open- 
ing. They then planted a reed (bakavi) which also grew up fast 
and reached through the opening. On this reed they climbed up, 
first the Horn people (Aaltu), who then stood outside and held the 
protruding part of the reed or ladder. Many people then followed. 

' Meaning obscure but perhaps referring to the rattle with the antelope scapulas. 

' The meaning of the last three names is also obscure. Lomavantiwa claims that he has no 
information as to whether these Katcinas performed any dances or rites while the clan was still 
migrating. He says that his information about Katcinas, dances, etc., only dates back to the time 
when they already lived in the villages and the Katcina clans came. 

^ Told by Tawiima (Mishongnovi). 

March. 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 39 

The Mocking-bird (Yahpa) was sitting outside and distributed 
the languages to the people. As they were climbing up one of them 
dropped one of his moccasins. Below the Hopi had pretty moccasins, 
but as this moccasin was dropped and the man had to make another 
one, and could not make it as nicely as the other one had been, the 
Hopi now have not very nice moccasins. The people had not yet 
all come out when the chief stopped them and closed up the opening, 
but one of the sorcerers (P6pwaktu) had also come out. 

From here the people now started on different routes, the White 
Man taking the most southern route. All the other people took 
different routes further north. The Hopi brought with them Md- 
yingwu, whose body consisted entirely of corn, his feet being ears of 
com, so that he could not move very fast. The Hopi were to have 
the horse, but as they tried to ride him they could not do so, as they 
did not put any bridle on him; so the Navaho, wearing a band around 
their head, tried it and they could ride him. The two matched 
together better for that reason because they also bridled the pony, 
probably with yucca leaves. 

They had not gone very far when the chief's son took sick and 
died. They thought that the sorcerer who was with them had killed 
him, but the latter said: "Nobody has died, he is not dead; just go 
and look down into the opening through which we came. He is 
down there." So the chief went and looked down there, and beheld 
his child walking about in the other world. So they took the Powaku 
with them. He said that hereafter no one would be really dead, but 
the people who would die would simply go back to the lower world. 
After they had travelled for some time, just how long tradition does 
not say, the Coyote who had carried the stars in his hand, and was 
traveling with the Hopi people, threw the stars into the sky so that 
from that time it was somewhat light during the night. 

The White People had taken with them the Spider which was very 
skillful, so that when they had traveled some distance the Spider 
rubbed some scales from her skin, and from these created burros. 
These the White Men afterwards used for carrying their burdens. 
So they got along faster and reached the place where the sun rises 
first. When they arrived there a star arose in the south, which told 
the other migrating people that some one had arrived at the sunrise. 
This was a signal that they had agreed upon before starting. This 
star is said to have influence over the animals, and the old people say 
that whoever wants to own a horse, cattle, sheep, etc., should pray 
to this star, which the Hopi are doing to this day. 

So the people traveled on. All at once one party came upon a 

40 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VITl. 

bear that had died there. They were called the Bear (Honawu) 
clan. Right after them came another party, who cut straps from 
the skin of the bear and were called Piqosha clan, the name given by 
the Hopi to this peculiar strap. Another party followed and found 
the cadaver covered with spider web, from which they were called 
Spider (K6hlcang) clan. A fourth party found blue-birds sitting on 
the cadaver and they were called the Blue-bird (Ch6ro) clan. A 
fifth party found that maggots had eaten out the eyes, leaving the 
cavities bare with a little fat still attached to the bone. From this 
they were called Fat Cavity clan (Wikorzh-namu) . A sixth migrating 
party came upon the scene and found that a mole had dug his way up 
under the place where the cadaver had been lying, and hence they 
were called Mole (Mtiyi) clan.' Here the parties who had thus 
received their clan names soon separated, and the Spider clan after 
this wandered about and stopped at various places for a long time. 
The other clans did the same, living shorter or longer periods at one 
place, which accounts for the many smaller and larger ruins with 
which the country is covered. 

Finally the Spider clan arrived at a spring (about four miles north 
of the present village sites of Mish6ngnovi and Shupaulavi) called 
Homiqopu. Here they remained for some time, there still being 
ruins at that place. From here this clan moved to a place about a 
mile northeast of Shupaulavi, called Chukuvi. At the foot of the 
mesa on which this village was situated was a very large spring. The 
Squash (Batanga) clan then ruled in this village, the chief belonging 
to that clan. The Sand (Tuw^) clan was also one of the clans being 
numerous in the village at that time. The inhabitants of the different 
villages were often harassed by enemies, among them the Utes and 
Apache. It seems that even the inhabitants of the different villages 
often made raids on each other. For this reason the inhabitants of 
Chukuvi and those of old Mish6ngnovi, which was situated, however, 
west of its present location, way down the mesa, moved on the 
mesa and built the present village of Mish6ngnovi. 

In Mish6ngnovi the Blue-bird clan was .then in charge of the 
village, the chief belonging to that clan, but it seems that this clan, 
shared the chieftainship with the following clans, which furnished 
the Kik-mongwi, the Village Chief, in the order named, for four years, 

' Traditions with regard to the clans having received their names on this occasion vary some- 
what. While some say the name of the Wikurzh-namu is derived from a netted gourd (wikuru), 
others, as in this tale, derived the name from wikoro, as explained in the text. Furthermore, the 
order of the clans having received their names here somewhat differs in the different tales; and 
lastly some also mentioned an Ant clan as the last one having obtained its name. Cf. tale No. 8, 
"The Wanderings of the Bear Clan." 

March. 1905. The Traditions of the Hon — Voth. 41 

a new chief being elected every four years: After the Blue-bird clan 
followed the Bear clan, then the Bdtki clan, and lastly, the Squash 
clan. The Sand clan, having lived in the village of Chukuvi, is said 
to have moved to Orafbi, east of which village they had had fields 
while they were still living at Chukuvi. At the time when the people 
lived at Chukdvi, Shupaulavi was also inhabited, but it seems that 
the people then, too, lived farther down, probably at the so-called 
First Ledge, but when Mish6ngnovi was built the people of Shupa<il- 
avi also moved on to the top of the mesa. 


Ishyaoi! In Oraibi they were living. In the home of the Reed 
clan lived the Ydyaa-mongwi. This Fraternity has now died out, 
but its altar paraphernalia are still kept in the house. A long time 
ago a man and his wife had one little boy. Some children of the 
village would often visit this boy. They were lazy, though their 
parents often told them to work, and get wood, herd sheep, etc. 
They would not listen, but often assembled at this house where they 
would prepare some food in the comers in front of the house, having 
stolen the food in the village. In a comer in front of the house they 
would build their fire. The wood they stole from the different houses 
in the village. So the men in the village were very angry at them 
and so were the mothers of these children. "You are lazy," they 
often told them. "You do not want to work, and we are not going 
to feed you." So they would go and steal some food in the houses 
and eat that. 

One time the priest's son suggested to the others: "Let us go 
and get some wood ourselves. Some one go and steal a hide strap 
(piq6sha) somewhere." So after they had eaten they went through 
the village and gathered up piq6shas of different Jengths and returned. 
They left the village on the east, drank at Keq6chmovi, and then 
went farther east and gathered some dry brush in the valley. After 
they had all gathered their bundles the priest's son said: "Are you 
all done?" "Yes," they said. "All right, then let us go home now," 
he said. But just when they were ready to start a Hawk in the 
form of a man came upon them. He wore many strands of beads 
around his neck and had a black line painted with specular iron run- 
ning over his nose down to the cheeks. The hair of all of the children 
was very much disheveled, so he laughed at them. "Are you getting 
wood?" he said. "Yes," they replied, and he again laughed at them. 

» Told by Wikvaya (Oraibi). 

42 -Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

His kiva was close by. "You come in here," he said to the chil- 
dren, so they went in. It was a kiva just like those in the village. 
He invited them to sit down on the banquette that ran along the 
wall, so they sat down. He then took a seat near the fire-place, 
filled a pipe and took two puflfs from it. He then said to the children 
that they should take a seat near the fireplace, too. He handed the 
pipe first to the priest's son, who smoked, addressing the man as 
"My father" (Inaa), which pleased the man very much. All then 
smoked, one after another, all exchanging terms of relationship, the 
older ones addressing the younger ones, "My younger brother," and 
the younger ones the older ones as "My older brother." He then 
said to them that they should remain, as he was going to feed them, 
and after having eaten they might go home. 

Hereupon he went into another room and brought back a large 
roll of q6mi (a bread made of the meal of roasted sweet corn-ears) 
which he fed to them. After they had eaten he went into another 
chamber and brought forth a large roll of kilts, eagle wing feathers 
(kwavotci), ear pendants, eagle breath feathers, to be tied into the 
hair, beads, etc., and handed all these to the children. Hereupon 
he dressed up all the boys, tying the kilts behind. He then handed 
an eagle feather to each one and directed them to stand in a line. 
Hereupon Kish Taka, the Hawk-man, took a moch^pu, which is a 
native cloth or owa, wrapped it up, and holding it under his left arm, 
took a stand at the south end of the line, saying to the youths : "Now 
then, whatever you see me do, you do the same." Hereupon he 
commenced to go around the kiva crying, "Ow" (long drawn). 
They went around in a circle in the kiva four times emitting the same 
sounds at short intervals. Hereupon he went up the ladder, the 
youths following him. Outside he again told them to do as they 
would see him do. He jumped off the kiva, ran about through the 
brush, the youths always following him and all constantly saying, 
"Ow, ow." Suddenly he threw down the mochapu, spreading it on 
the ground, grabbed the priest's son, threw him on the cloth, and then 
asked the other youths to take a hold of the cloth at different places 
and in this way they carried the priest's son to the kiva, throwing 
him through the opening into the kiva. 

Hereupon they waited, and in a little while the youth came out 
of the kiva again, unharmed. Hereupon he grabbed another of the 
youths and they threw him down, and in this same manner every one 
was thrown into the kiva and came out unharmed. Then the Hawk- 
man went into the kiva, being followed by all of the youths. He 
was called the uncle of the youths. After they had entered the kiva 

March, 1905. Tnii Tr.\ditions of the Hopi — Voth. 43 

he drew aside a curtain from one of the inner chambers and in the 
room behind the curtain were four round ovens (k6ici) dug into the 
earth, in which an old woman kept up a fire. The Hawk-man then 
grabbed the priest's son, threw him into one of the ovens, the old 
woman spurting some medicine on him as he fell in. Hereupon the 
other youths were thrown into the ovens. As soon as the costumes 
were burned off the bodies, the Hawk-man took them out again and 
placed all the bodies north of the fireplace in the kiva, and covered 
them with the aforementioned piece of native cloth. When this was 
done he sat down and sang a song over the bodies. Soon the bodies 
under the cloth began to move and the priest's son was the first to 
come out, the others following soon, all now being alive again. 

Hereupon he told them to sit down on the banquette on the west 
side of the kiva. The old woman now came out and washed the heads 
of the youths, giving a perfect white ear of corn (ch6chmingwuu) to 
each one. The Hawk hereupon addressed them, saying: "Thanks, 
that you are now done. You are now prepared. You can go home 
now. Take your wood to the Blue Flute (Cakwalanvi) kiva, and 
enter that kiva and remain there. Do not go into the houses to get 
something to eat, but wait for me there. After sundown I shall come 
to you." Hereupon he handed an eagle wing feather (kwdvotci) to 
the priest's son, whereupon the youths left. 

When they came with their bundles of wood to the Blue Flute 
kiva the people saw them and said: "Aha! the lazy boys have gotten 
their o^vvn wood. Now maybe they will not steal any more." When 
they had put down their wood, they ran to the houses where they 
had gotten the burden straps and threw them on and into the houses, 
without, however, entering them. They all returned to the kiva at 
once without having partaken of any food. The sun had now gone 
down. They waited awhile and after the evening dawn had dis- 
appeared and it was quite dark they heard somebody come. It was 
the Hawk, in whose kiva they had been, and he at once entered the 
kiva. "Are you all sitting here?" the Hawk asked. "Yes, we are 
all here. Sit down," the youths replied. So the Hawk took a seat 
near the fireplace and at once filled a pipe and they all smoked. 

The Hawk had brought with him a small bowl and some kwfptoci 
(meal from white com that has first been soaked and then popped). 
Of this meal he made a gruel in the bowl, which he fed to the youths. 
He then told them that they should not go home, but early in the 
morning some of them should take a seat in the north end of the kiva 
and the others in the south end of the kiva. The first should be 
fire jumpers (Tovuchochoyanitam) and also Yd,yaatus. The others 

44 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

should be the singers (Tataolcam). Between the two parties he 
sprinkled a meal line on the floor of the kiva. One he selected to 
act as watchman. He should keep up the fires at the fireplace and 
keep out intruders. He told them that they should remain in a sit- 
ting posture in the kiva all of the next day and that they should fast 
all day. In the evening he would return^and feed them again. Thus 
they were assembled here in the kiva, and each one had his "mother" 
(his white corn-ear) standing against the wall by his side. The people 
were wondering, the next day why the little thieves, as they called 
them, were not coming out to hunt something to eat. Finally one 
of the women approached the kiva, looked in, and saw them sitting 
in an erect posture. "Oh," she said to the people, "they are as- 
sembled (ytingiota) in there." 

They remained in this way in the kiva for four days, their uncle 
coming every night to feed them and look after them. Early in the 
morning after the fourth day he washed their heads. The following 
day it was Tot6kya (a name always applied to the day preceding a 
ceremony). In the evening of this day the Hawk-man brought with 
him the costumes for the youths, consisting of kilts, beads, eagle 
feathers, twisted yarn (naalongmurukpu) , ear pendants, ankle bands, 
and also some yellow paint (sil<ahpiki). All these he placed on the 
floor north of the fireplace. During the night the youth who had 
been watching the fireplace in the kiva dug four ovens on the plaza 
south-west of the kiva, while the others buried a long cotton string 
in the ground on the same plaza. They also stretched long strings 
along the houses of the village, pasting them to the walls with q6mi 
dough. Early in the morning the watcher of the kiva went around 
through the village begging for some wood. With this he heated 
the four ovens on the plaza. The people wondered what he was 
going to do, some suggesting that perhaps he was going to bake 
some pikami (a food prepared in small ovens outside of the houses 
for festal occasions). 

While this youth was heating the ovens the Hawk dressed up 
all the others in the kiva. He painted a wide yellow band from 
shoulder to shoulder running down over the chest ; the lower arms and 
lower legs he also painted yellow, and a yellow ring around the ab- 
domen. Their faces he covered with corn-pollen. They had many 
strands of beads and also some strands of the twisted yam consist- 
ing of dark blue and brownish red yarn. Large bunches of eagle 
feathers were tied to the top of their heads, and an eagle tail feather 
was tied on each side of their head in^such a manner that their 
points extended backward. From these tail Ffeathers were ' also 

March, 1905. The Traditions of thl: Hopi — Voth. 45 

suspended strands of the twisted yarn. Old Hopi women's belts 
were tied over the kilts. Strands of the same yam were tied around 
their wrists. 

At about noon the singers came out first, each one throwing a 
pinch of sacred meal towards the sun. The Hawk-man and the old 
woman remained in the kiva. As soon as the singers had emerged 
from the kiva they went with long strides to the plaza (the same where 
now the Snake dance takes place) where they lined up and sang. 
As soon as they had formed in line the Yayaatu also emerged from the 
kiva and went to the plaza with long strides, the priest's son carrying 
this time the mochapu which the Hawk-man had used when initiating 
the youths. While the first party continued singing, the Ydyaatu 
rummaged through the village, ascending the roofs of the houses, jump- 
ing onto the people, tearing up and throwing down chimneys, taking 
hold of children and people and swinging them over the edge of the 
roof and threatening to throw them down, etc. The people got very 
angry at them and beat them with sticks, so they finally returned 
to the plaza. Arriving there, the priest's son, now the leading priest 
of this order, handing the mochdpu to one of the others, jumped into 
one of the ovens. The others drew him out dead, wrapped him up 
in the mochapu, took him to the kiva and threw him into it. H^re 
he was at once resuscitated by the Hawk -man and the old woman 
and came up apparently unharmed, having on again the same cos- 
tume as the one that had been burned off his body in the oven. 
While this was going on, others had jumped into the various ovens 
and were drawn out immediately, thrown into the kiva, and treated 
the same way. 

By this time the parents and relatives of these youths became very 
much alarmed and began to cry and complain that their children were 
killed that way, but the young man that had been watching the kiva 
told them not to come near, saying that they were going to have a 
dance yet. After they were through with this performance, their 
leader went into the kiva and brought out a mochapu, in which he 
had something wrapped up. This he placed on the ground on the 
plaza and all the Yayaatu crowded around this bundle. Covering 
another large mochapu over them, they occupied themselves for a 
short time with the bundle. They then threw off the covering and 
standing in a circle around the bundle they sang. In a little while 
they opened the bundle and there were many fine, large watermelons 
in it. Leaving these watermelons on the plaza, the leader again went 
into the kiva, brought out another bundle, over and around which 
they went through the same performance. Uncovering this bundle 

46 FiiiLD Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

a great many little cotton-tail rabbits jumped up, which they dis- 
tributed among the children. The singers kept up their singing 
during all these performances. 

The Yayaatu now all entered'the kiva. Soon they came out again, 
some hunting and uncovering the strings that they had buried and 
attached to the houses. Others that followed them wound the 
strings up on balls. . Whenever one string was found and wound up 
another one was hunted and wound, so they all went through the 
village hunting and winding the strings that they had buried. Sud- 
denly they all proceeded to the house of the Cotton-tail Rabbit 
clan (Tdb-namu), where Homihoiniwa and his family now live, and 
here one of the strings ran into a water-jug. This they lifted up 
without drawing the string out, and carried it also to the plaza where 
they split it in two. It was found that on the inside a cloud symbol 
was painted in each half jug. They lifted up the two parts of the 
jug and showed the cloud symbols to the people. Hereupon they 
covered up the two parts, sang over them, and when they took the 
covering off the jug was whole again as before, whereupon they re- 
turned it to the house. 

The leader once more went into the kiva and came back with a 
bowl containing some diluted white kaolin (dumakuyi). This they 
took to the top of the Marau kiva, which is so situated that from it a 
long high bluff, which is called Canavitoika, can be plainly seen in 
the distance (probably eight or ten miles to the west). The Yayaatu 
now gathered around the bowl and putting eagle feathers into the 
white kaolin they moved them up and down in the air, as if white- 
washing that distant bluff, and behold, the bluff, though far away, 
at once assumed a white color. All the people could plainly see that 
it was being whitewashed, though it is far away. Hereupon they 
returned to the plaza, the singers now stopping their singing. They 
cut up the watermelons and distributed slices. All then entered the 
kiva again, the mothers and the relatives of these youths now crowd- 
ing towards this kiva wanting to get their children. The watcher of 
the kiva kept them back, saying, however, that they had not yet been 

When they had all entered the kiva the Hawk-man discharmed 
them and then set n6ekwiwi and white piki before them, sa3'ing, 
"Now eat 'and then you sleep in the kiva one night. In the morning 
when your people come for you you can go with them." In the 
evening the mothers again came and clamored for their children, but 
the youth, that was watching the kiva, told them to go home, as they 
were going to sleep there one night. The Hawk -man and the old 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 47 

woman then wrapped up all the costumes and other paraphernalia and 
returned to their kiva in the valley east of the village. Only the 
corn-ear mothers they left for each one. In the morning the youths 
all went to their homes, and after that they were no longer bad and 
dangerous. They formed the Yayaatu Society and directed their 
prayers towards the place where their uncle, the Hawk-man, lived, 
and where thev had been initiated. 


The Batki clan and the Sand clan come from Palatkwapi. When 
traveling, the Sand clan would spread sand^ on the ground and plant 
com. The Batki clan would cause it to thunder and rain (by sing- 
ing), the crop would grow in a day and they would have something 
to eat. At Homolovi (Winslow) they lived a long time. They 
brought with them the Soy^l cult, the Lagon cult, and the Soyal 
Katcina. They went to Aoatovi. Here they were not welcome, 
and hence moved on to Mishongnovi, where they found the Bfear, 
Parrot and Crow clans. They were asked what they knew to pro- 
duce rain and crops. They spread the sand, made corn grow, etc., 
whereupon they were welcomed and their leader was made the chief 
of the village. 

The spring Toriva was then very small. But the Batki -namu had 
brought from the Little Colorado River mud, grass, and water in a 
m6ngwikuru. This they put into the spring and that increased the 
flow of the water, and there was also much grass around it formerly, 
when there were fewer burros than there are now. The Bear clan 
had the Antelope cult, the Parrot and the Crow clans the Blue Flute 
cult. The Crane and Ihe Eagle clans had the position of the village 
crier, and the Drab Flute cult. The Batki were admitted to the 
Antelope and Blue Flute Fraternities, and hence Silcdnakpu makes 
the cloud symbols in the ceremony of the Blue Flute society. 

After that the Young Corn-Ear (Pihlcash) or Corn-Ear (Ka6) clan 
came from the east, from the Pueblo, SiK^nakpu thinks. According 
to SiRanakpu the earlier clans came to Mish6ngnovi as follows: 

The Parrot and Crow clans, who had the Blue Flute cult and the 
village chief. 

The Bear clan, who brought the Antelope altar now used in the 
Snake ceremony. 

' Told by Sikinakpu (Mish6ngnovi). 

' He says the lizards and snakes would come into the sand, and hence these names are also 
applied to the Sand clan. 

48 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

The Crane and Eagle clan brought the Drab Flute and Marati 
cult, and had the village crier. 

The Katcina clan, with the Katcinas. 

The Sand clan, with the Lagon, Soyal, and Snake cult. 

The Batki clan. These had no cult, but controlled the water. 

The Young Corn-Ear clan. These had no special cult, but brought 
a better quality of corn. 

Before the Batki people came, the corn was very small. They 
made it rain and so it grew large. The Pihlcash clan brought better 
and larger corn with them. 


After all the people, except the Zunis, had come out from the under- 
world through the sipahpuni, they remained for some time with 
Skeleton (Md,sauwuu) (see Story No. 3). When they were traveling 
eastward from here on different routes, and in different sections and 
parties, a large party came to a place called Palatkwapi, somewhere 
south-east of Flagstaff, in southern Arizona. Among these were 
the Divided Water clan (Batki-namu).^ 

So these people had their clan name before they arrived at the 
above-mentioned place, but with them a great many other people stopped 
at Palatkwapi. Here they remained for a long time, for the truth of 
which statement the extensive ruins at that place are proof. The name 
seems to be derived from a high bluff of red stone. The people, 
especially the young men, here became very bad. They ill-treated 
the people sometimes in a disgraceful manner.'^ One time a young 
man again shamefully mistreated an old man, who then became 
very angry. This old man belonged to the Bd,tki clan. He went and 
reported the same to the village chief (Kik-mongwi), crier chief (Chad,k- 
mongwi) and the warrior chief (Kalehtak-mongwi) , so they assembled 
in the old man's house and asked him what was the matter, why he 
had called them. "Yes," the old man answered, "these young 
men here are very bad, they treat one very mean when one goes to 
the rear, and I am angry at them, so I called you here to tell you 
about it, what you think about it. " So they talked the matter over 
and the village chief said: "We shall move away from here. " So he 
called his son and told him: "You run to a distant place. Pine Ridge 

' Told by Lomdvantiwa (Shupaiilavi). 

- Lomdvantiwa claims that this clan brought with them from the lower world a small water 
vessel which was later supplanted by the mongwikuru (a netted gourd vessel). He says that this 
small vessel was their tiponi, and from that they derived their name. 

^ A favorite sport being to follow those who went to attend to a call of nature, rush upon 
them and throw them backward, thus soiling their bodies. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 49 

(L6q6nmuru).* So the young man ran and when he came back his 
father asked him: "How is it now, are you strong?" "Yes," the son 
replied, "my legs are strong now." "All right," the father said. 
Both of them were sorcerers (Povv^aka), bad men. 

Hereupon the father dressed four masks for him : the mask of the 
Ydhponcha, the Ldnang Katcina, Aha Katcina (Oraibi: Kuruwd), and 
the Katcfn-mana. The first resembles that of Skeleton (Mdsauwuu), 
only it had small bunches of hair on each side and in front. All 
these masks the young man put on his head, first that of the Mdna, 
secondly the LAnang Katcina mask, thirdly the Aha mask, and 
lastly that of the Ydhponcha. The father had dressed them during 
the night. He then strung a number of fingers which he had cut off 
of old dry corpses, and tied them to both of his son's wrists as rat- 
tles. He furthermore prepared a long cedar-bark fuse which he 
handed to the young man. After he had thus dressed his son, the 
chief said : " Now you run back to Pine Ridge and set the pine timber 
there on fire, then you come back here. " The son did as he had been 
told and coming back he climbed up to the house of his father. He 
now acted as a Ghost (du^langwu). The people had not noticed his 
going or coming. After he had arrived in the house he ground com 
on his sister's small mealing stone. While he was grinding he sang: 
' ' Tdtawunaha ! t6tawunaha ! " =* Hereupon he left the house and again 
ran away and set other timbers on fire. 

The next night he returned, again ground a little corn, and 
departed. This time the people became suspicious, and when they 
assembled in their kivas in the morning they inquired who had been 
about. They said: "Some one had gone into the house of the chief 
and ran away again," and they requested some young men to hide 
away the next night and watch. By this time several fires could be 
seen in the distant timbers. The next night a number of young men 
watched, hiding away at the different comers of the village, and one 
also in the recess of the plaza. During the night the Powdka again 
lighted several fires in the timbers and came rushing into the village. 
When he arrived there his fuse had gone out, but they saw him enter 
into the village and ascend into the house of the village chief, where 
they heard him grinding and singing again. He again immediately 
left the house and passed one of the watchers, the latter jumping up, 
but the ghost dashed by springing across the plaza, where the watcher 
became so scared that he did not make himself known , but remained 
in a crouching position. So he dashed away and lighted other fires. 

' Simply for practice, it seems from the story. 
- The meaning of this could not be ascertained. 

50 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

In the morning they talked the matter over in the kivas, saying 
to the watchers: "You are of no account. Next night we shall watch 
again, many of us. " They agreed that they would watch at different 
places, one also taking a position on the path that led down from the 
village through a river or creek that passed by. So during the night 
many watchers were distributed and hid away in the corners and 
recesses of the streets, a weakly young man, an orphan, taking a 
position near the aforesaid path at the river. They again noticed 
the fires in the woods and all at once saw the ghost running towards 
the village again, crossing the plaza, and running up the ladder of 
the village chief's house. Again they heard him grind and sing for 
a few minutes, then he left the house. The watchers jumped up and 
wanted to grab him, but he jumped over them and tore away from 
them. The small plaza was filled with people, but he jumped over 
them and escaped, as he was very strong. But descending the trail 
to the water he came upon the lonely watcher there, who jumped 
up, grabbed him, and held him, crying out to the people on the plaza: 
"I have the dualangwu. " So the people rushed down to the water 
and saw that the young man had caught the ghost. The people then 
led him back to the village and put him into a kiva, made a light, 
and there they saw a Yahponcha sitting. The father had told him 
that in the fourth night they would capture him, and so this became 

Hereupon the crier cried out in the village : ' ' You that are living 
here, all of you come and assemble here. " So the people all assem- 
bled there and filled the kiva. The old men were crying and said: 
"There is some reason for this, certainly it is not without some pur- 
pose that he goes around this way and acts so. He certainl}^ wants 
to do something bad." The village chief now requested that some 
one go and take off the masks from the ghost. Then some one 
approached him, but the masks were fastened securely around his 
neck, so the man cut the strings with his knife and took off the first 
mask and laid it on the floor, and behold! there was another mask. 
So he took that off and laid it on the floor, but found that there was 
another mask, and he took that one off and laid it on the floor. But 
he saw that there was a fourth mask and that was a Katcin-mana: 
mask, so he took that off and they all looked at the personage, and 
behold! it was the chief's son. " Puyaami! " they all said (an expres- 
sion of regret and sorrow). "That is the chief's son!" They found 
that he had some bahos tied to each wrist and to each ankle. These 
they untied, also placing them on the floor. 

He was a nice, clean, handsome youth; had turquoise ear pen- 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 51 

dants, and many nice beads; his head was nicely washed, and on his 
face he had two black lines painted with yalahai, two lines running 
from the upper part of the nose to the cheeks. The young man who 
had now been exposed then said: "Take these bdhos and thrust them 
into the ground, one at the plaza, and the others in the different cor- 
ners of a house," which he designated. He furthermore told them 
that for four days they should have a feast, and having said this he 
left the kiva and went to his home. The people thought about it a 
great deal and were unhappy. They did not know what it meant, 
and whether or not some evil was planned for them, but they killed 
their sheep and prepared a feast and ate and feasted for four days. 
During the third day, they especially prepared much food, and were 
feasting all day and all night ; still many of them were looking for and 
expecting some evil to befall them the next day, but the sun rose 
higher and higher and nothing happened to them, and when evening 
came they felt very much relieved, saying: "Nothing has happened 
to us," and they became happy again. Thus three years passed 
without any especial evil happenings, but in the fourth year some- 
thing happened. The young man when telling the people that they 
should feast for four days, had not told them right. 

The people had been right in their suspicions that something evil 
might befall them after their four days of feasting, but instead of it 
happening after the four days, the plan of the ghost had been that 
it should happen at the end of four years, which, however, he had 
not told them. In the fourth year the expected evil came upon them. 
The old man, who had four years before complained to the village 
chief of the bad conduct of the young men of the village, was still 
living. He was still angry, and in the fourth year he prepared many 
b^hos of hard wood : tuv^vi, m6puovi, t^ve, kwingvi. He made the 
points of the bahos very sharp and made very many of them. In 
the fall of the fourth year when they had gathered in their crop, the 
village chief said to the crier chief, who was also bad and in league 
with the village chief: "Our time has now come. You cry out 
that the people again should feast four days." So the Crier Chief 
announced saying: "You that live here, thus I am informing you, all 
that have something living, kill the same and eat it for four days. 
All that have something good, eat it and have a feast." But the 
people were full of mistrust. They were afraid that at the expira- 
tion of the four days some evil would befall them, and they did 
not comply with the requests of the chiefs; they did not prepare a 

During the night following the announcement the chiefs met with 

52 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

the aforesaid old man, who told them that they should dress -him up 
and put him into the tiw6nyapavi (Katcina shrine on the plaza in 
which there was a stone image of a Katcina and which was supposed to 
belong to the Katcinas). So they dressed him up, painting his back 
black, his chest and abdomen red, and both sides of the front part of 
his body green. On the arms, chest, and legs they made the typical 
marks of P6okong (two short lines). To the back of his head they 
fastened a p6htakni,' of the tail of a sparrow-hawk, extending up- 
wards with the points of the feathers. To the top of his head they 
fastened a horn. His face was also painted black. He was to rep- 
resent the Balolookong. He wore no costume. 

When they were done they went to the plaza during the night 
when all the people were asleep. They dug a hole in the shrine 
already mentioned above, so that it would admit the man entirely. 
Hereupon they placed in his arms all the bdhos that he had made, 
and with them they placed a Balolookong whistle. They also gave 
him a little bowl with some water, into which he could blow the 
whistle, as is still done in some ceremonies. They then covered up 
the opening with a large flagstone, covering earth and dust over it 
to destroy all appearances of the opening that had been made, and 
finally placed a piece of native cloth over it. They then commenced 
to sing some sorcerer's songs. When they sang the third song, the 
old man in the ground began to eject rumbling, roaring sounds, and 
told the chiefs: "I have been successful, I have reached my object." 
"All right, " they said, and left the old man remaining in the ground. 
None of the inhabitants of the village had noticed anything. The 
buried man then thrust about half of his hand through an opening 
that he had made, and when the people arose in the morning, they 
noticed the hand and said: "Something is protruding here." The 
old man then sang: 

Ala kwikwi, ala kwikwi, 

Ala kwikwi, ala kwikwi, kwi — • (with a rising inflection). 
As he sang the last word he lowered his little finger. The sun was 
now rising. The next morning he sang the same words, lowering 
the next finger, and on the third morning he again sang the same 
song and lowered the third finger. By this time the people, who had 
seen and heard it, felt very unhappy and were afraid that some evil 
would befall them. They now noticed, that at the places where four 
years previously the bdhos had been planted by the direction of 
the ghost, water began to come out of the ground. These bd.hos had 

• A number of feathers which are arranged side by side, but close together, forming a fan 
shaped head-dress which is worn on many ceremonial occasions by various dancers. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 53 


really been B^lolookongs, who, it seems, had finally entered the ground 
and were now bringing out the water from the ground. 

The people now became alarmed and began to suspect that prob- 
ably a flood was about to destroy their village. That night they 
killed their sheep and prepared food and had a great feast, thinking 
that probably the next day they would all be destroyed anyway. On 
the fourth day just before sunrise, the old man in his grave sang the 
same words again and lowered the fourth finger as he finished his 
little song. Immediately he emerged from the opening in the form 
of a large Bdlolookong, and now Bdlolookongs were shooting forth 
from the ground with streams of water in all parts of the village, from 
the fireplaces in the kivas, in the houses from the water vessels, and 
in fact everywhere. Water began to fill the houses in the village. 
Soon the houses began to fall, burying many of the inhabitants under 
the falling walls. A number of them fled to the higher places on the 
east side of the village, where there was a large, strong house. In 
one of the houses a few old men climbed up on the shelves on which 
are usually placed the trays with com meal in Hopi houses. Here 
they sat in a crouched position and turned into turkeys. The water 
rose so high that their tails began to hang into the water. It did not 
reach the houses in the eastern part of the village where the people 
had assembled. None of the chiefs were destroyed. So when they 
had assembled in the house mentioned the chiefs met in council and 
asked what they were going to do now. So they began to make 
bdhos, took beads and turquoise, first crushed them and then ground 
them into powder. Of this powder they made two balls which they 
placed onto a tray on which they also had placed the bahos that 
they had made. There were a great many of these bahos. They 
then called the Village Chief's son, who had caused the destruction, 
and his sister, a very pretty maiden. They dressed up the latter in 
the same manner in which the Flute-manas are costumed, putting a 
white robe on her, over which they tied a white kilt, and an eagle- 
breath feather in her hair above her forehead, beads around her neck, 
etc. Her chin was painted black, white lines running from ear 
to ear over her upper lip. 

The young man was clothed in a plain white kilt and black zigzag 
lines were painted on his legs, arms, and the back and front part of 
his body. These two were to drive back the Balolookongs. The 
water was still coming out of the ground and the Balolookongs still 
shooting swiftly through the water. The one that had been the old 
man, who was buried on the plaza, was the largest and most power- 
ful of the Balolookongs and was still standing at the place where he 

54 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

had emerged from the ground. The rumbling of the falling houses 
could still be heard. When the two were dressed, the young man 
took some bahos in his left hand, the mana took the tray containing 
the two balls and the rest of the bahos, and thus they began to wade 
into the waters. They made straight for the large Balolookong, 
which was considered the chief of the water serpents. Arriving at 
the place where he stood, the young man grasped and encircled the 
serpent with both arms and pressed him down into the water, where- 
upon the serpents as well as the young man and his sister disappeared 
under the water and never returned. 

Immediately the water began to fall and disappear in a compara- 
tively short time, the powder of the beads and of the turquoise, which 
the mana had brought to the water serpent as an offering, causing 
the ground to dry and to become hard quickly because the powder 
was made of very hard substances. The water-serpents had all dis- 
appeared, but so had the young man and his sister. The place 
where the village had stood was full of mud and the people could not 
get there for some time yet. Everything was destroyed there. Only 
the old men who had been turned into turkeys survived. They had 
been very old and bald-headed, which is the reason that the turkeys 
to-day have no hair or feathers on their head. In one house, how- 
ever, which stood somewhat high, two children, two little brothers, 
had been sleeping during the flood and had not been drowned, but 
they had very little to eat now. The younger one had found a little 
piki in a tray, which they ate. 

The people in the eastern part of the village soon set to work to 
prepare to emigrate. They baked piki and made other food of the 
provisions that they still had left. Early in the morning the day 
after the water serpents had disappeared they took some of the food 
which they had prepared, and made a food altar (ton6sh-pongya) , east- 
ward from the village. Packing up the things, and especially the 
food which they had prepared, they all passed by this food altar, the 
village chief at the head of the line. Each one took a little quantity 
of each kind of food that they had placed there and ate it. They then 
passed on. The ground was still soft and muddy from the flood. 
The two children that had survived in the village had not been found 
and were left. They soon became hungry and hiinted something to 
eat. Occasionally they would find a little corn hanging on some of 
the walls that were still standing, or some other food The older 
brother would carry his little brother on his back. In the evening 
they would cry because they were lonely. The turkeys that had 
been Hopi saw the children and pitied them, but, although they cried 

March, 1905. The Tr.\ditions of the Hon — Voth. 55 

over them so that the tears would roll from their eyes, they could not 
say anything to them. Finally one of the turkeys took such a pity 
on the children that he commenced to talk to them. "You poor 
ones," he said to them, "how will you take care of yourselves here? 
There is some com hanging on the walls yet, but you cannot reach 
it. You go to the east there to those other houses. There the peo- 
ple made food when they left. There is a food altar standing there 
yet, of which you may eat!" So the children went there and found 
many trays full of piki standing on the ground. Of that they satis- 
fied their hunger. They also found a few rabbit -skin blankets in a 
house and so they lived there. 

The people that had left the village traveled on. One day the 
big Balolookong came out of the ground again and looked after the 
people. The place where he came out was now a large opening like a 
k6ici (a cistern -like oven in which sweet corn is steamed). He was 
a very large serpent and (the Hopis say), as no one was there to put 
him back again, he remained standing there. The two children by 
and by consumed all the food that they had found there and they 
began to suffer. They wanted to go back to their house but saw 
that water serpent standing there, and so they were afraid and did 
not know how to get back to their house, but their food was nearly 
all gone. Balolookong saw the children and had sympathy with 
them. They were the children of his daughter so he was their grand- 
father. He cried over their fate, the tears rolling down his cheeks. 
Stretching up high, he looked whether the mother of the children had 
gone very far, and saw the people, as they had not moved away very 
far, but the children were still afraid to go back to their house. Finally 
the serpent began to speak to them in Hopi: "Come here. Come 
here. Be not afraid of me, I am your grandfather." The children 
looked up and listened when they heard somebody speak to them. 
So they went to the serpent, who said to them: "I am your grand- 
father. I pity you, but what will you eat here? There is some com 
yet, but you cannot reach it, it is hanging so high on the walls. You 
find a place where there is some sweet com strung on a string hang- 
ing on the wall; then pile up some stones, and climbing on the stones, 
throw some of the ears down with a stick. These you take with you 
as food and then follow your parents. They are not very far yet and 
you will overtake them. But whenever you get ready to go you 
come here to me first. Now you go and hunt a knife, and if you find 
one bring it to me, maybe I shall want to follow them sometime, too. " 
So the children went through the houses and sure enough found a 
sharp knife of flint. They also found in one of the houses some com 

56 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

hanging on strings on. the wall not very high up. They piled up some 
stones and loosened some of the corn-ears with a stick so that a good 
deal of it fell down. This they ate and satisfied their hunger. They 
intended to leave the next morning. "To-morrow we will follow 
our parents," they said. So the next morning early they went to 
their grandfather and said to him that they would now go. He 
asked them whether they had any food to take with them. They 
said: "Yes, we have wrapped up some of the corn that we have found 
strung up and hanging on some of the walls and that we have thrown 
down." He said: "You follow your parents, and I shall stand here 
and keep looking after you so that nothing will happen to you. But 
you take your knife and be not afraid, but cut a piece out of my 
back. This you take with you and give it to the chiefs and tell them : 
"This is a piece of meat from the Balolookong, and when at any time 
it does not rain you make bahos and rub a little of this meat among 
the paint with which you paint the b^hos, and it will certainly 
rain." The children refused to cut out the piece of flesh, saying: 
"That will hurt you very much." "No, no," he said, "be not 
afraid." Finally they were willing, took the knife and cut out quite 
a large piece of flesh. They found that the meat was very tender 
and when they had cut out the piece the wound closed up immedi- 

So they started after their people. In the evening they were 
very tired and slept all night. The next evening they were again 
very tired and slept on a ridge that was covered with pine-trees. 
The older brother carried his younger brother and also the food and 
he was nearly exhausted. They were also very thirsty and hungry, 
but they were so weak that they could hardly eat the hard corn. 
On the third day at about noon they were nearly exhausted and were 
very thirsty. They sat down under a pine-tree. Their food was 
also all consumed. As soon as they had sat down they fell over and 
fell asleep. 

C6tukvnangi,' the God of Thunder, lived in the sky and saw the 
children and took pity on them. He concluded to descend and help 
them. He took a gourd vessel full of water and some rolls of nuva- 
muhpi (piki made of meal of fresh roasting ears) and then descended 
to where the children were. They were sleeping, their mouths were 
dry and parched. Soon the younger brother awoke and there some- 
body was sitting by their side, somebody very terrible. The person- 
age had three very long horns or projections on the head, two stand- 
ing sideways, and one standing upward on top of the head. They 

' Usually called Cotukvnangwuu. 

INIarch, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 57 

were of ice. His costume also consisted of ice and was full of little 
fringes or icicles that rattled all over his body. On the head he also 
had two large ice ridges representing clouds.* 

The little boy was very much frightened and grasped his brother 
and cried: "Get up, there is somebody here." So the elder brother 
jumped up and beheld the C6tukvnangi. He also was very much 
frightened and the two children embraced each other and cried. 
While the children looked downward, Cdtukvnangi removed his 
mask and when they again looked up they saw a very handsome 
man. "Do not cry, do not cry," he said to the children, "here, 
drink; I have brought some water for you," and handed them the 
gourd vessel, from which they drank and quenched their thirst. He 
then handed them the food, and they ate it and satisfied their hunger. 
"You remain here," he said, "you remain here at least two or three 
days and eat and drink this, and when you have recovered and be- 
come strong then follow your people. They are not far away. They 
are right east of here. " After he had said this and the children were 
not just looking .towards him he rose again and disappeared in the 
sky. When the children looked for him he was gone. 

So they slept there that night, stayed the next day and remained 
another night, and the following day at about noon C6tukvnangi 
again appeared to them bringing them some more of the same kind 
of food, also some water melons and drinking water. C6tukvnangi 
remained with them that afternoon and after the sun had gone down 
he began to talk to them, talking to them all that night. C6tukvnangi 
is the great warrior chief, arid he now gave to these two youths the 
lightning and the thunder, and he told them how to kill enemies and 
that when they had killed their enemies they should take their 
scalps; and he taught them the songs that they were to sing when 
they returned from their war expeditions and after they had killed 
some one, and told them that when they came to their home they 
should throw the scalps into the kiva, on the cloud symbol made 
with corn-meal by the warrior chief. They should then cut out a 
round piece of bear skin which they should place on the floor in the 
kiva and encircle it by a line of corn-meal. The warrior who had 
brought home the scalp should sit on this bear skin for three days 
and three nights, and on the morning of the fourth day the warrior 
should wash his head in the kiva (t6kasnaya). Then he should 
go to his home where his Raamu,* should also wash his head. 
Then he should put the scalp which he had brought on a stick and 

' Similar ridges are still made on top of the mask of the Tukwtinangw Katcinas. 
• Clan aunts. 

58 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

perform a dance on the plaza in which his kaamu should accompany 

After having thus explained to them many things about wars, and 
taught them many war and battle songs all night, it had become 
morning and he told them that now they should follow their people. 
He told them that their parents would probably not know them, but 
they would ask who they were, and they should then take hold of 
their mother and. tell her who they were and she would then proba- 
bly know them. Then Cotukvnangi returned to the sky. The 
lightning arrow (h6hu) and the thunder he had promised them, but 
had not yet delivered to them. He told them that whenever they 
needed them, wanting to go and kill some one, they should pray to 
him and he would give them those things. So the two brothers 
started off after they had refreshed themselves with the morning 
meal once more. Arriving at Hom61ovi * they came upon their peo- 
ple. They lived in two little villages, and in the one farthest north 
only a few people lived, and here they found their mother. 

The older brother was still carrying his younger brother as the 
latter was very tired. "Somebody has come," the people said. 
"Who has come? Whose children have come? Where are you 
from? " they asked. "We are from way over there from the village, " 
they said. "We have followed you. You have gone this way and 
our mother and our father are here and we have come after them." 
So they called the people together and said : ' ' Come here and see if 
there is anybody here who did not bring their children with them," 
and then the people gathered around the children. The people com- 
menced to ask now the different women whether there was any one 
who had failed to bring their children with them, but no one was 
found. They also asked the mother of the two children but she also 
denied. When no one could be found that would claim the two boys, 
they recognized their mother and went to her, taking hold of her 
hands, and said: "Our mother, we have come," then the mother 
remembered and acknowledged that her two children had remained 
in the house sleeping when they had fled, but she, of course, had 
thought that they had perished. And when she now saw her chil- 
dren before her, she embraced them and cried. So the children 
remained with their mother. 

The people living in the smaller village were the Batki-namu. 
Those living in the larger village were the people most of whom later 
constituted the Forehead clan (Kdl-namu). The two youths then 
told the people about the piece of flesh that they had cut from the 

' A place a few miles north of the present Winslow. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi ■ — Voth. 59 

back of Balolookong, and had brought with them. So when the 
Batki people made bahos they rubbed a little of this meat into the 
paint with which they painted the bahos, and then it thundered and 
rained. Before that it had rained only a very little, and hardly ever 
was there any lightning and thunder. After this there came heavy 
rains and weather, which made the Batki people "Great Batki" 

The two youths grew up to be young men, but they became bad, 
warring and fighting the Hopi children and the other youths, and 
when they had grown up they remembered what their father, the 
Thunder, had told them. They said to each other: "We have now 
grown up, let us go out and ask our father for what he has promised 
us, and then let us go and kill some one. " To their mother and the 
people they said that they were going to kill some deer, and so she 
prepared some food for them and they started off. In the evening 
they gathered some wood and built a fire. C6tukvnangi saw them 
and came down to them again. "You have now reached your ob- 
ject," he said to them. "Yes," they replied. "It is well that you 
have come, "he said. "Close by here are some Apache, and whoever 
becomes a warrior for having killed them, he is a great warrior, be- 
cause they are fierce. These Navaho do not amount to much, and it 
is well that you have come in this direction." So during the night 
he instructed them how to go out and kill the Apache, also teaching 
them some war songs. Hereupon he went home again. He first 
told them, however, that he would watch them, and that he would 
kill their enemies for them. They would do it, he said, but it would 
be he that would do it through them. Then when they were through 
they should come back again and he would come down again, then 
they would talk together and from here they should go back again to 
their home. 

So in the morning they proceeded and soon came upon some 
Apache (Utsaamu). There were a great many of them, who at once 
became excited and ran towards them and began to surround them. 
The two brothers at once began to shoot arrows into the crowd for 
some time, but did not hit any one, neither did the Apache hit them. 
The brothers had put the lightning (t^lwipiki) and the thunder 
(umiikpi) under their clothing. After they had been shooting for 
some time, they became tired, and the older brother all at once said: 
" Now then, it seems they are upon us. How long yet will this last?" 
Hereupon he drew forth the lightning and the thunder and aimed 
at the Apache and shot the lightning into the crowd. All their 
enemies were slain, their camps burned up, and the two brothers 

6o Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

laughed at their slain enemies. The Apache had previously made 
many raids on the Hopi at Homdlovi, and for this reason the two 
brothers had finally gotten very angry and taken revenge upon their 

Among the Apache warriors had been one very large and fierce 
one. This one they hunted up among the slain, scalped him and cut 
out his heart. Then taking the moccasins and costumes from all the 
slain, they returned. While they had killed all the warriors they had 
destroyed only one tent in which there had been women and children. 
This had been blown to pieces by the thunder. The objects in the 
other camps, in which the women and children were, they had left 
untouched. When they again arrived at the place where they had 
previously camped, C6tukvnangi again descended and talked with 
them during the night. He gave them further instructions with 
regard to warfare, but among other things he told them that they 
should not be the war chiefs among their people, but when they now 
came to their village, whomever they should select, on him they 
should throw the scalp which they had now brought, and he should 
be the war chief. 

In the morning C6tukvnangi again ascended and the two returned 
to their home, singing war songs as they went along. They went, 
however, to the larger village, as in the village where their mother 
lived there were so very few people, and here the rejoicings and rites, 
to be mentioned presently, occurred. When they arrived at the vil- 
lage they were received by the shouts of their people, who surrounded 
them, and snatching away the trophies that they had brought with 
them, swung them around, by which it is said they were discharmed 
from any bad influence, and then they threw them among the people 
— a custom which was always observed when Hopi warriors returned 
from their expeditions. 

While the rejoicings and wranglings were going on, the older 
brother took the scalp which he had been carrying on a stick while 
they were dancing, and forcibly threw it at one of the inhabitants 
from the larger village, saying: " It is you, you shall be our war chief. 
We give this to you. You shall lead us after this. " Hereupon they 
followed him, going around the village four times. They then en- 
tered the kiva where the two brothers instructed them as to the rites 
to be observed in connection with their warfare. They drew the 
cloud symbol already referred to on the floor, whereupon the newly 
appointed war chief threw the scalp upon the symbol. They then 
cut out a piece of bear skin, sprinkled a ring of corn meal around it, 
and placed the war chief upon it, where he had to remain for three 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 61 

days. Hereupon followed the public war dance on the plaza on the 
fourth day (as already referred to on a previous page). 

The people lived here in Hom61ovi a number of years, but how 
many cannot be ascertained. Finally they concluded to move on 
north-eastward because, it is claimed, there were so many mosquitos 
there which would sting their children and their people and caused 
great suffering. The Hopi say the reason why the people held out 
so long, although they always suffered from the mosquitos, was that 
they had such good fields there from which they raised good crops. 
The mosquitos are called by most of the Hopi salt flies (6ong-totoptu), 
but they are also called shipaulavitu by some, from which it seems 
the present inhabitants of the village of Shupaulavi have derived 
their name. When the migrating party had reached a certain bluff, 
called Coyote Spring Bluff (probably about twenty-five or thirty 
miles northeast of Winslow), they remained there, but not very long 
it seems. Here they separated, the Batki clan proceeding north- 
eastward to Aodtovi, the others going northward towards a place a 
few miles west of Mat6vi. Here they again remained for a number 
of years as they had good fields there. They finally proceeded farther 
north to a place called Nashiwamu (about a mile south of Shonga- 
pavi), where they probably remained about three years. Just as 
they arrived at this place, the sun arose, the upper part of the sun 
(his forehead, the Hopis say), just looming up above the horizon. 
For this reason they were ever afterwards the Forehead clan (Kal- 
namu). They made repeated efforts to get permission from the 
village chiefs of Shongopavi to move on the mesa into the village, 
but their efforts were unsuccessful. It seems that the chief had 
heard something of their doings in PaMtkwapi, because he claimed that 
they were dangerous, bad people (NAnukpantu). In the third year 
they concluded that they would return to their previous home at 

The chief of Shupaulavi, which village, however, was not called 
by that name at that time, but was called Wdki (refuge house), heard 
that these people were going to return and so he went to them and 
invited them to move up to and settle down in his village, which invi- 
tation they accepted. They are still by far the most numerous clan 
in the village of Shupaulavi. The village was fi*om that time called 
Shupaulavi, after the name of the new arrivals, who were called by 
that name because they had fled from Hom61ovi on account of the 
mosquitos which they called by that name. At that time Shupaulavi 
was considerably larger than Shongopavi, the latter having lost a 
great many inhabitants a long time before, when the people of that 

62 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

village killed a number of Spanish and destroyed their missions, on 
which occasion a number of Shong6pavi fled to Shupaulavi. 

The chief of Shong6pavi seems to have borne a grudge against 
Shupaulavi, because later on he informed the Spaniards in New 
Mexico, probably at Sante Fe, that they should come and take away 
the inhabitants of Shupaulavi, and said that this was the latter's own 
wish. So one time the news reached the villages that many Span- 
iards had arrived at Keams Canyon where they were camping. The 
next day they came to Walpi where they inquired who it was that 
wanted to be taken away. The chief of Walpi and the chief of Shu- 
paulavi were good friends with each other, and as soon as the Walpi 
chief heard about the matter he quickly proceeded to Shupaulavi and 
informed his friends about it, saying: "The Spaniards have come be- 
cause they have heard that you wanted them to come and take you 
east. They have come for you and for no one else." "That is 
false, " the Shupaulavi chief said. "It is not I that want that, it must 
be some one else. It is probably the chief of Shongopavi. " "All 
right, " the chief of Wdlpi said, "you had then better go and meet the 
Spanish chief and tell him about it. You take some presents with 
you, perhaps a ttiihi and a blue shirt. Give these to this Spanish 
chief, shake hands with him, embrace him, and tell him how the 
matter is." So the chief of Shupaulavi wrapped up a t6ihi and a 
blue shirt and went with his friend. When they arrived in the kiva 
where the leader of the Spaniards was, the latter, who was a powerful 
man, stood and looked at the new arrivals with his arms akimbo. 
The two men eyed each other for some time. Finally the Spaniard 
gave the Shupaulavi chief his hand and shook it. The Shupaulavi 
chief embraced him, the Spanish ofificer doing the same. All people 
present were crying. The chief at once drew forth the presents which 
he had brought, and handed them to the Spanish officer. "This is 
yours," he said. "I have heard that you came to get my children 
and my people. It is not I that wished it, it must be some one else. 
It certainly is not I." The Walpi chief then asked the officer: "Is 
this the man that came to you and said that he wanted you to come 
and get his people?" "No," the officer said, "this is not the man. " 
"Thanks, thanks, thanks," the Hopi said on all sides, and came and 
shook hands with the officer. "Thanks that this is not the man." ' 

"No," he repeated, "I never wanted that, it must be the chief 
of Shong6pavi. " The officer then said that the next day he would 

' The Hopi say that the chief of Shongdpavi was a Powdka (sorcerer), who was able to fly- 
when he wanted to do so. He had been over in New Mexico during some night and had informed 
the Spanish chief himself, being back the next day. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 63 

bring his soldiers to a place west of Walpi where there was a large 
pool of water at that time. He said that they were tired and would 
rest there awhile. He also explained that they had brought with 
them a good deal of clothing which they had wanted to give to the 
people which they had expected to take along. "Now," he said, 
' ' What shall we do with these clothes ? You tell your people that 
they should come to-morrow when we are camping there at that 
water and visit us, and if any of them have anything that they would 
like to sell we would like to trade with them, giving them clothing 
which we have brought along, and taking back some of your things. " 

The Shupaulavi chief consented to this and went home and told 
his people about it. All were very happy now that the impending 
danger had been averted. The next morning after they had eaten 
their breakfast the people from all the villages proceeded to the camp 
of the Spaniards where they were trading all day. In the evening 
the Hopi all returned to their villages, the Spaniards camping there 
for the night. In the morning after breakfast the latter returned. 

After that the Spaniards never encroached on the Hopi any more, 
but the Shongdpavi chief, whose village at that time was very small, 
spread the news that the Spaniards would come back again some 
time to Shupaulavi and get them. This so scared the people at Shu- 
paulavi that a majority of them left the village and moved over to 
Shong6pavi, which it is said accounts partly for the small number 
of inhabitants in the village of Shupaulavi. 


Haliksai! This place, Ka6tukvi, is somewhere east of the 
Pueblo Indians, and a long time ago many people lived there. West 
of them was a large mountain like the San Francisco Mountains (near 
Flagstaff). In these mountains lived many Katcinas. Those peo- 
ple sometimes had ceremonies (hihta totdka y6ngwa), but they did 
not yet know the Katcinas. 

One time some of the Katcinas also assembled in their kiva in 
the mountains, and dressed up, getting ready for a dance. They 
then descended and came to the village in the night, where they 
commenced to dance on the plaza. The people were still sleeping, 
but soon heard the noise of the dance and arose and came to the 
plaza. Here they saw the Katcinas dance. The latter, however, 
did not accompany their dance by singing. 

By the side of the line of dancers danced a Katcina Uncle (Katcina 

> Told by Pflhflnftmtiwa (Oraibi). 

64 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Taha). The people, not knowing what or who the dancers were, be- 
came angry and concluded among themselves that they wanted to 
kill them. The Katcinas heard what the people said about wanting 
to kill them and ran away. West of the village they jumped from 
a bluff into a large crack. These were the Snow (Nuva) Katcinas, 
the Uncle being a Hot6to Katcina. The Katcina Uncle was in the 
lead when they jumped in the crack. Here the people who had fol- 
lowed them set fire to them and burned them up. The Katcina 
Uncle who was at the bottom was not burned. Early in the morn- 
ing he crept out and returned home to the mountains, singing the 
following song as he walked along: 

Tanayo, tanayo, 

Kayohatii ! kayahatii ! 

Tanayo, tanayo, tanayo, tanayo 

Kayohatii! kayahatii! 

Nahanahay, Hot6to, palaka. 

T ir /.1 N TT w. 1 ) The meaning of this line 

1 myself (the) Hototo emerged. > . , , , , . , 

) only could be ascertamed. 

Shiwana towitowi ahaha (a) cloud. 

Towiwikaliyoyokana yaaahihi h- h- ; h- / . . ^ '. ^ . . 

_ ..,,., , > mg mfiection to imi- 

1 owiwikaliyoyokanayaaahihi h- h- h- i ° , , • 

■'■'■' 1 tate sobbmg. 

The Katcinas living in the mountains had fields at the foot of the 
mountains where they were planting corn and watermelons. Here 
the Heh^a was hoeing with a wooden hoe (wika), still used by the 
Hehea Katcinas in their dances. It was early in the morning. All 
at once he heard somebody singing, raised his wika and listened, but 
just then the singing stopped. The Katcina again commenced to 
hoe, and again heard the singing. Listening again he heard the sing- 
ing and the sobbing and behold ! somebody was walking along crying. 

When the Hot6to arrived at the Heh^a Katcina the latter asked : 
' ' Why are you walking along saying something and crying ? " " Yes, 
the Hot6to replied, "We were there in the Hopi village dancing, then 
they came out and threatened to kill us, so we ran away and jumped 
into the gulch west of the village, and there we were piled up, and 
all were burned up by the Hopi except myself. I had jumped in 
first and was not burned and escaped unharmed. That is the reason 
why I was moaning as I went along. " The Heh^a Katcina then also 
commenced to moan as follows: 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 65 

Ochitana, iyawa, iyava 
Ochitana! iyava, iyava. 
Alas ! (This is the only word of which meaning could be 

Hininiya ihihi io hiiohiio, h- h- h- h-. 

Hereupon they both went home into the mountain where there 
were a great many Katcinas, men, women, youths, and maidens. 
" Why do you come alone? " they asked the Hotdto, The latter here- 
upon repeated what he had said to the Heh^a Katcina. "We shall 
sometime take revenge," said the chief of the Katcinas, and ordered 
the Katcinas to assemble and to dress up. Hereupon they made it 
hail for three days. Early in the morning of the fourth day they 
caused a cloud to rise which hovered over the mountains. This was 
their emblem or standard (natsi); it was a very beautiful cloud. 
Then the Katcinas ate their morning meal. 

The people in the village saw the cloud. They had gone to their 
fields early in the morning for they had many fields around the vil- 
lage. After breakfast many more clouds began to rise above the 
mountains, towering upon each other. They soon spread out and 
during the afternoon they covered the sky, coming up from all four 
sides. The corn of the Hopi had at this time begun to mature and 
the people felt very happy over the clouds. They expected that they 
would have a good rain now. Towards noon it began to thunder 
and to rain in the mountains and the clouds began to move towards 
the Hopi village. When they had arrived there it was thundering 
and lightning and it rained great hailstones. All the crops were 
destroyed, and even the people, although they left their houses and 
fled to the kivas, were killed. Only one man and one woman re- 
mained alive. When everything had been destroyed, the clouds said: 
"We will stop now and return," and then they began to disperse in 
all directions, some of them returning to the mountains. The 
Katcinas were then happy saying, "Now we have revenged our- 
selves, let it be thus. " The woman that had been spared again bore 
children and the village was by and by again inhabited. 



Haliksai! In Orafbi the people were living. In the north-west- 
em part of the village was at that time a kiva called Hamis-kiva. 
Somewhat south of this kiva close to the present site of the Han6- 

* Told by Lomin6mtiwa (Oraibi). 

66 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol..VIIL 

kiva lived a maiden. She persistently refused to marry any young 
man in the village. At Red Sand (Palanvisa), a place north-east of 
the village, some maidens were playing the game "Jumping over the 
trays." The maiden mentioned above never played with the other 
maidens, but one time she went out intending to play with the 
maidens. When she came to the edge of the mesa she sat down and 
watched the other maidens play. A young man dressed in a blue 
Hopi blanket came by and asked her why she did not play with the 
other maidens. "Yes," she said, "I never play with them." Here- 
upon he sat down beside her and they talked together a little while, 
then the maiden returned to her home. 

In the evening she was grinding corn. While she was grinding 
a Katcina came to the village, danced first near the Coyote (Ish) kiva, 
then at the Singer (T^o) kiva, then at the Public plaza (Kiconvee), 
then at the Wrinkle (Wfkolapi) kiva, and finally at the Hamfs-kiva. 
Hereupon he left the village. The next morning the mana again pro- 
ceeded to the place at the edge of the mesa where she had been sitting 
the previous day, and again the youth joined her. This time he 
asked her if she would marry him if her father and mother were 
willing. She consented. He told her that if they were willing he 
would come and get her the next day. He then told her that he was 
the Katcina who was dancing in the village, saying that he would 
again dance at the same places as usual, and then after he would be 
through she should come and meet him at "The Place-Where-Scalps- 
are-Dressed" (Y6vutzrhrokwanpi). Hereupon they parted. 

In the evening she was again grinding corn and the Katcina again 
went through the village dancing at the places mentioned, and singing 
the following song while he was dancing, singing the same song at 
each place: 

Achipolaina, achipolaina, 
Koohochunisha, kowishkunishaa, 

Palainaiya aya. 

■ Waa-i-aha-ihihi. 
The mana had in the meanwhile obtained the permission of her parents 
to marry the youth. The mother filled a tray with meal for her, 
with which the mana proceeded to the place named by the Katcina. 
Here She was met by the Katcina after he had made his round through 
the village. From here they proceeded to the place called Kocantuika, 
a bluff named after a certain plant, kocana.* 

When they arrived here they saw a kiva and a light in it. A 
voice called out from the kiva inviting them to come in. They en- 

' Phellopterus multinerva. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 67 

tered and found here a great many different Katcinas. The youth 
was the Circle (P6ngo) Katcina. Hereupon the youth handed the 
mdna some pfki made of fresh roasting ears, and also some water- 
melon slices, which she ate. They then remained in this kiva, the 
mdna preparing the food for the Katcinas, and the latter preparing 
the bridal costume for the m^na. Every night the P6ngo Katcina 
would go to the village and dance, as already explained. When the 
bridal costume was finished the m^na went home in the same manner 
in which brides go home to-day. Her husband followed her, so they 
lived in the house of her parents after that. Her parents now found 
out that the husband of their daughter was a Katcina. 

By and by she bore two children, which were also Circle Katcinas. 
One time the young mother was drying corn -meal, stirring it in a 
pot over the fire. When she was done with this she left her house 
and went to the edge of the mesa outside of the village. Her husband 
had gone to visit the Katcinas at the Katcina kiva mentioned before. 
While the woman was outside of the village some one approached 
her. It was the Hot6to Katcina. He told her that she should go 
with him, to which sh,e consented. They descended the mesa south 
of the village and went' southward to Shong6pavi. When the Circle 
Katcina returned to the house he found his wife gone. Following 
her tracks, he found that she had gone away with some one, and soon 
heard who it was that had taken her away. He returned to the 
house, took his two children and went with them to the Katcina 
house already mentioned. Here they remained. The two little 
Katcinas learned the Katcina songs and dances. 

After a while the father and his two children concluded to try to 
find the mother of the two youths. So the people cooked some 
roasting ears and other food for them, whereupon they proceeded 
to the village, taking the food with them. Here they danced at 
Pisdvi, a place a short distance east of the Pongdvi kiva. While they 
danced they sang the following song: 

Ahahahahai ahahaai 
Ahahahaha ihihihihihi 
Umungu uyungnaya 
Umungu uchioli 
Ahahahahai ihihihihi-hi-hi-hi. 

When they were through singing, the father asked the women among 
the spectators whether some one would not nurse the children for 
these roasting ears that they had brought with them, but no one 
was willing. They went to the plaza, repeated their dancing and 

68 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

singing, whereupon the father again asked the women that some one 
nurse his children for the roasting ears, but no one was willing. 
They then proceeded to the Coyote kiva, where the same thing was 
repeated. No one being willing to nurse the two children, they left 
the village and when they came to the last row of houses, where the 
Katcinas often rest when they have dances now, a woman approached 
them declaring that she was willing to nurse the children. After she 
had nursed them and they had given her the roasting ears, they left 
the village along the trail leading south-eastward. Here they traced 
the mother to SiRakvu, a bluff on top of the mesa about three miles 
southeast of Oraibi. 

Here they found a kiva where they heard some one singing the 
following song: , 

Tciihiihihio tcihihiokaaha, 

Tcihihiokaaha tcihihiokaaha, 

Ha, ha, ha! 

It was the Hahdii Wuhti, who was opening comfviki as she was singing. 
When they heard the song they looked into the kiva and were noticed 
by the Hahd,ii Wuhti. "Oh!" she said, "here I am meeting you 
with this song. Recently somebody was fetching your mother by 
here." The three went into the kiva and were invited to remain 
over night. They were fed by the Hahaii Wuhti the comiviki. When 
they had eaten they danced, singing the following song: 

Ahahahaihahaiiya toywihihioyohokahai, 

Ahahaahaaiahaiya toywihihioyohokahai, 

Ocarasotikiiihi, polaihainahai, 

Kahaahaowkuruhukahai, koaowaikurukahaihai. 

In the morning they proceeded eastward. In the evening of the 
next day they arrived at a place called Owl Spring (M6ngkba) . Here 
they found another Hahdii Wuhti in a kiva, who was also engaged 
in opening comiviki. She was singing the same song that the other 
Hahdii Wuhti had been singing. When the three arrived they looked 
into the kiva. When the woman noticed them she said, "Utf! here 
you some one is going about and I am meeting you with this song. 
Recently some one fetched your mother by here." They went in and 
were fed by the Hahaii Wuhti, whereupon they again danced and 
sang the same song which they sang at the place of the other Hahaii 
Wuhti. They stayed over night at this kiva, and during the night 
the Hahaii Wuhti went to Kf'shiwuu, where many different kinds 
of Katcinas had a daiice. When one party had danced and gone 
away, another party would come and perform their dance and leave. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 69 

Then another party, and so on. When all had danced, Hahaii Wuhti 
returned to her home and told the three Circle Katcinas about the 
dance. She told them about it; then they also went and performed 
a dance at Ki'shiwuu, which, it Seems, was not far away. When they 
were through they again returned to M6ngkba. Here they remained 
until it became morning. 

In the morning Hahaii Wuhti again went to Kf'shiwuu to be 
present at another dance, the three Circle Katcinas remaining behind. 
When they had all danced Hahaii Wuhti again invited the three 
Katcinas. The people who had seen them in the last dance during 
the night and had not observed them during the day were waiting 
for them, thinking that they probably would come. They went over 
and also performed their dance. Before they went over Hahaii Wuhti 
told them that their mother was at Ki'shiwuu and that she would see 
them dance and she would certainly be anxious to return with them. 
They performed their dance on the public plaza, singing the same 
song that they had sung at the places of the two Hahaii Wuhtis. 
When they were through they again returned and soon met their 
mother, who had recognized them and had gone before them. So 
they took their mother back with them. 

Before they reached M6ngkba night befell them, so they stopped. 
The father said to the two children they should go ahead to their 
grandmother, the Hahaii Wuhti, which they did. He then took a 
pointed stick and killed his wife with it by thrusting it into her throat. 
Leaving the body at the place, he followed his two sons, but before 
he reached the place wherp they were the skeleton of his wife followed 
him. The two boys had safely gotten into the house of their grand- 
mother, but their father ran away, being followed by the skeleton. 
He finally arrived at the First Mesa, rushed into the village of Hano 
and there into a kiva where a number of women were making jugs. 
He begged them to hide him as something was pursuing him. Here- 
upon one of the women hid him under a pile of clay which they were 
using for making their pottery. The skeleton then arrived, saying, 
"Hav^! Did my husband not come here?" she asked. "No," they 
replied. "Yes," the skeleton said, "because his tracks end here," 
and hereupon she entered the kiva. She threw aside all the piles of 
clay and material that was lying there, and finally came to the pile 
under which the man was hidden. 

When he noticed that she was close by he jumped up, ran up the 
ladder and westward towards Wdlpi, being pursued by the skeleton 
of his wife. In Wdlpi he again entered a kiva.^Here they were 
practicing a war dance. "Hide me quickly," he said, "some one is 

7© Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

following me." "Come here," they said, and handed him a drum. 
So he beat the drum. The skeleton soon arrived and entered the 
kiva after having spoken the same words as in Hano. She shoved 
the dancers aside, but when she came to the one who was beating the 
drum, he threw aside the drum and rushed out, running to Mishong- 
novi. Here he again rushed into a kiva where they were assembled 
for the Lag6n ceremony. The women were making trays. He again 
asked to be hidden as he was being pursued by some one. One of the 
women told him to be seated in her lap, which he did. She covered 
him with a tray that she was working on and continued her work. 
Soon the skeleton arrived, asked the same questions, and was again 
answered in the negative. She came in, looked around, driving the 
women from one place of the kiva into another, until she arrived at 
the one who had her husband. When he saw that he could not 
remain hidden he rushed out and ran towards Shongdpavi. Here 
they also were assembled for the Lagdn ceremony and the same 
thing was repeated that took place in Mish6ngnovi. 

From here he ran towards Mat6vi (about fifteen miles south of 
Shong6pavi). At this place the Flute society had a ceremony. They 
were assembled at the spring when he arrived. He again repeated 
the same request to be hidden, as he was being pursued. They told 
him to go into the spring to a certain sunflower stalk that was growing 
in the spring. This he should mount and hide in its top. He did so. 
When the skeleton arrived and asked whether her husband was not 
there the Flute priest told her, "Yes, he has entered the spring." 
So she went to the edge of that spring and entered it. Looking into 
the water she saw the sunflower stalk reflected in the water and on 
top of it her husband. Thinking that he was in the water she dived 
in and disappeared. 

The pursued man came down and joined the Flute players. On 
the fourth day they heard somebody pound yucca roots in the water. 
When the sun rose the woman came out of the water, dressed in a 
bridal costume, and carrying in her arms a reed receptacle which 
contained another bridal robe and the white belt. She appeared in 
exactly the same manner as the newly married bride appears on the 
morning when she returns from the home of her husband to that of 
her own mother. When she came out the two priests called the two 
together, placed them back to back, made a road with sacred meal 
for each one; the one road southward, and the other northward. The 
priests told them to proceed four steps, each one in the direction they 
were facing. Then they should turn and meet again. But the man 
returned when he had taken three steps instead of four. The Flute 

March, 1905. Tjiii Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 71 

priests were very angry and called at the woman to run. She started, 
and her husband started after her. "You shall always follow each 
other this way," the Flute priests said. They both ran westward, 
and are still running in that way. The two stars, Nang6sohu 
pursue each other because one constantly follows the other, some- 
times overtaking it and then again remaining behind, are these two 


In Shongopavi they were living, and over there at KishiwuHhe 
Katcinas were living, and the Kokdshori was going about at the Hopi 
village. But he was stealing the Hopi children, and (one time) a 
Shong6pavi woman went to get water and her child followed her, 
crying. The mother threw a stone back because she was angry. The 
child now was afraid and sat down there and cried there. Thus the 
Kokoshori arrived and pitied it. Now he said (to the child) :" Oh ! 
now why do you cry?" The child said, " My mother has been hurting 
me." " Let us go to my house," he said. The child was a little girl. 

Now the child sat upon the back of the Katcina and the latter 
took it along. They now arrived at the village of those who lived 
at Kishiwu. There were a great many Katcinas. They saw some- 
body coming carrying a little girl. Now, those Katcinas were glad. 
"You, whom do you bring there ?" they said. Now the Hah^i Wuhti 
was very happy. "Ishunf!" she said. Now he put it down. "Where 
did you get that?" said the Hahai Wuhti. " I went about at Shong6- 
pavi and the mother of this one went to get water, and this one fol- 
lowed her, and alas! she threw at it with a stone, and I pitied it and 
have brought it." And now they pitied the child. "Very well," 
they said. "Alas! Why is it thus." Now they fed it. The Hahai 
Wuhti spread out p6v61piki, handed the child a vessel with peaches, 
she also cut up melons, split a watermelon, and laid before it some 
steamed com. Having done this she said, "Now eat." And the 
child ate. When it had eaten a little it was satisfied. 

After that it lived there. Now they always provided food for it. 
And because it ate this food it became big very soon. But now it 
became homesick. In the night the Katcinas danced. After the c 
dance they would distribute steamed com, watermelons and melons, 
but the child would only eat one occasionally, because it was home- 
sick. It did not talk, it was sad. Now they said, "Come, let us 

' Told by Loindvantiwa (Shupaiilavi) . 

* This name is spoken diflferently in different villages : Ki'shiwuu, Kishiwu, and Kishiwu. 

72 Field Columbian Museum -:— Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

take it to the village." Now the Kok6shori went to look after the 
father and the mother, and, alas! they too were homesick. They 
only lived a little yet, they were very homesick. They were no longer 
sitting up because they were so homesick. When he returned to 
Kishiwu he said, "Why, your parents are very homesick." And now 
they who lived there busied themselves. " Now then, dress yourself," 
said the chief, "when you are dressed we shall fetch you." 

Now they all put on something and now the Katcinas came and 
fetched the child. But the little girl had on an at66 and a beautiful 
belt and a pretty dress and some fine moccasins. But a Q6oq6qlom 
carried something in a burden basket on his back, a melon, peaches, 
and watermelons, etc. All the Katcinas brought something to eat. 
When they came to the village it rained very hard. So they arrived 
at Shongdpavi. They did not arrive dancing, but singing and walk- 
ing. They sang as follows: 

Kokooshori, Kokooshori, Kokooshori, 

Hakipa tiwungwiniyata 

Whose raised (we), 

Okwatowakae. Yuyata, Nayata 

Because (we) pitied (her). Mothers, fathers, 

Amutpipoo kachiyata nawoto. 

In front of them or their home heard (the girl) 

Katchiyata nawoto hap itamu, 

The home (of) having heard now we 

Ohokio! mana wungwupui 

Alas ! maiden bringing up (her) 

Soon shuhtokinihihi. 

Not will forget. 

Ahayahai Kokohoshori, 

Kokohoshori shori 

Ahahaha ihihihihihi. 

They now arrived (at the parents' house). "Now go up, here you 
live," they said (to the girl), so she went into the house, but her 
mother was sleeping. "My mother, get up, my father, get up, I 
have come," said the little maiden. Now they looked up a little, 
and recognized the child. Now they sat up quickly and embraced 
the child at once. Now the father also did so. The rnaiden now 
cried, but she was now comforted and was happy. They now revived 
and they were good. Now they (the Katcinas) came to offer some 
food. Now they ascended to the house and entered it. The Q6oq6q- 
16m had wrapped up some meat and laid it down. He also laid 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 73 

down some peaches and watermelons, so that everything there became 
filled up; and they also now distributed some among the people. 
Having done that they went home. "You must at once send your 
father," the Katcinas instructed the mana, "then your father will 
make the following announcement : 

"You people that are living here, thus I am informing you; from 
your houses there you must come down. Now you know our friends 
have brought something for us, and now you must all put that away 
somewhere, and to-morrow, when the sun shall rise, then we shall 
examine it." 

The Katcinas now went home, and the rain clouds went home, 
and hence it did not rain, and the people were now thinking: "Why 
did he announce that we should clean our houses?" but the people 
now slept. Now, in the morning the sun was rising and they looked 
through their houses, and they were filled with everything; corn ears, 
watermelons, melons, meat, beans, and with everything. And from 
then the people were rich on account of that maiden. So they were 
very happy. 

But when after a while they had eaten all that, they had no longer 
meat to eat. The maiden now became homesick after Kishiwu, and 
she thought of going there. She became sick and died, and on that 
account she went to Kishiwu, and there she is now living. 


Haliksai! In Oraibi the people were living. At the place where 
Tuwa-mana now lives, right east of the public plaza, lived a maiden 
who persistently refused to marry any of the young men of the village, 
although many of them were wooing her. North of the village at 
Achamali, lived an old woman with her grandson. "My. grand- 
mother," he said to her one time. "What is it?" she answered. 
"Yes," he said, "I am going to visit that maiden there in the village, 
and see whether she will not marry me." "Alas!" she replied, "she 
will not want you." "I am going to try it anyhow," he answered. 
So one evening, after they had eaten, he put his wildcat robe on, of 
which at that time nearly every young man had one, and proceeded 
to the village. It was moonlight. 

When he came to the house he stood outside at the comer of the 
house. The maiden was grinding corn opposite an open window. 
He went up to the place where she was grinding com, looked through 
the opening, and saw that she was very busy grinding com. "Stop 

' Told by Macihongva (Oraibi). 

74 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

a little," he said. She stopped and asked: "Why do you want me 
to stop?" "Yes," he said, "I came to you." "Who are you?" she 
asked. "Yes," he said, "it is I." And hereupon she began to guess, 
mentioning many names of young men in the village, and asked 
whether he was that one or that one. Finally she said: "Are you not 
living north of the village there?" "Yes," he answered. "So you 
are that one," she said. "All right, I am willing that we should live 
together." "That is what I came for," the young man said. "Ver}^ 
well," the maiden replied, "I shall ask my mother, and if she is 
willing, we shall live together. So you go home now and sleep." 

After he had left she went down and spoke to her parents, telling 
them that the young man living north of the village at Achamali had 
asked her to marry him. They said that they would be glad if he 
would live with them and he was welcome. "If he has not spoken a 
falsehood he will certainly come back again," they said. Whereupon 
they retired for the night. 

When the young man arrived at his home, he was asked by his 
grandmother what he had found out, "Yes," he said, "I have good 
news; she is willing." Hereupon they too retired for the night. In 
the morning the grandmother said to her grandson: "You have a big 
field here. Some of your corn has certainly matured, so you prepare 
some steamed sweet corn." "Very well," he said. So he gathered 
some sweet corn-ears, heated his oven, and threw into it a good many 
corn-ears. In the evening they were done. He took them out, took 
off the husks, and strung the corn-ears on strings of yucca leaves, 
preparing about ten bunches of corn ears. By this time the sun had 
gone down. After a little while he wrapped up the corn-ears that he 
had strung up, and proceeded to the village. 

The maiden was still grinding corn. He left the presents on the 
ground in front of the house, on the plaza, and went up. " Have you 
come?" the maiden said. "Yes," he replied. "Very well," she said, 
"come in." Hereupon he went down, got his bundle, and brought 
it in. A fire was burning at the fireplace. He took a seat by the side 
of the fireplace. The maiden stopped her grinding and took a seat 
on the opposite side. The young man had a mask on with three 
nodules on top, from which small turkey feathers were suspended. 
It was the Ball-Head (Tatciqto). He handed the maiden the sweet 
corn-ears that he had brought, saying to her, "You take this and 
eat it." She was happy and thanked him for it. "Thanks," she 
said, "on your account I shall eat it." Hereupon she took part 
of the corn down to her parents who were also glad, and ate of it 
because they were new corn ears. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 75 

Returning to the room where the young man was sitting, they con- 
versed together for a while. "Very well," the maiden said, "I shall 
now save the corn-meal that I am grinding, then sometime I shall 
come over to your house." Whereupon they separated, the young 
man going back to his house, and the mana also retiring for the night. 
Hereupon the maiden ground blue com for four days. On the fifth 
day she ground white corn. Every evening the young man brought 
over some fresh sweet corn-ears, which the people of the house ate. 
In the evening of the fifth day he did not bring any, but he came to 
fetch his bride. She and her mother filled a large tray full of the 
white meal, tied it up in an atrto, which she then took in her hands, 
and followed the young man to his house. When they arrived there 
he went in first. His grandmother welcomed the maiden to her 
house and invited her repeatedly to come in. The young man also 
told her to come in. 

So she entered. She first handed the tray with meal to the grand- 
mother, who thanked her for it, and put the meal away. They then 
ate the evening meal, which consisted of corn, melons, and water- 
melons. After having conversed for some little time they retired for 
the night, the mdna sleeping with the grandmother. Early in the 
morning when the yellow dawn was appearing the grandmother and 
the maiden went out to kuivato (to make prayer-offerings, consisting 
of sacred meal, to the dawn and rising sun). Returning to the kiva, 
the grandmother got out four Kohonfno trays (chukuvotas) and a 
lot of com, which the mana was shelling, filling the four trays. When 
they were filled, the grandmother told her grandson to go and call 
his animals. 

He went out and called them by saying "pi-pi-pi-pi!" whereupon 
a great many chickens came running to the kiva. When they had 
come in, the young man first took one tray, scattering the com to 
the chickens. When they had eaten that he scattered the com from 
another tray, and so on until they were all emptied. He then told 
them to sit down on the banquette that was running along the wall 
all around the kiva, which they did. The four empty trays he placed 
in a row north of the fireplace. Hereupon he said to the chickens: 
" I am going to sing for you now, so you listen to me attentively, and 
then afterwards sing the same way." 

Hereupon he hung a little drum over his shoulder, gave a signal 
on the drum, when all the chickens looked at him and listened at- 
tentively, while the young man sang the following song, accompanying 
it by beating the drum : 

76 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Aha ihi aha 

Kowakoho ngumanta (The chicken was grinding meal), 

Angwushihi ngumanta (The crow was grinding meal), 

Takahayakwi, tanaymahka. 

Ahaha! ihihihihii! 

The m^na was sitting near the fireplace. While the young man 
was singing the song, the chickens all swayed their bodies from side 
to side to the time of the singing, and by doing so ground the corn 
which they had taken into their bodies. When he had sung the song 
five times he said to the chickens: "Now then, come and vomit your 
meal into these trays. " So one after the other came and vomited the 
meal which it had ground in its body into the tray; It was very 
fine white meal. When they were all through they left the kiva, 
I In this way the chickens assisted the maiden in getting all that 
corn ground quickly, so that she did not have to grind it herself as 
is usually the case. This meal they then used afterwards. But the 
young man had no cotton, and so no bridal costume was prepared 
for the bride, for which she was sorry. The young man, however, 
was a hunter and often brought home rabbits and other game. After 
the maiden had lived there awhile the grandmother said to her: 
"Now then, you have been here a long time, you prepare some good 
food." This the mana did in the morning, preparing some pilcami 
and other food. The young man again went hunting and returned 
with rabbits. The grandmother prepared a great deal of ndqkwiwi. 
In the evening they spread the food on the floor, filling a great many 
bowls and trays. When they had spread out the food the grand- 
mother went out and called out: "You my neighbors here, come in 
and eat, and be not slow about it, but come in and eat. " 

Hereupon the three sat down and commenced to eat. While 
they were eating the people began to come in. The first one that 
came in carried under his arm a large white bridal robe; the second 
one a small bridal robe ; the third one a white knotted belt ; the fourth 
one a pair of bridal moccasins; and the fifth one a reed receptacle. 
Having placed the same on the floor, they sat down and ate. Here- 
upon they exhorted the young man, saying to him that when he 
would now take his bride home and live there in the village he should 
be good to the people and he should not be angry at them, but should 
benefit them, whereupon they left the kiva. 

Early in the morning the grandmother made some yucca suds 
and washed the mana's head. When her hair was dry she took her 
out and sprinkled meal to the rising sun. When they returned she 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 77 

dressed her up in the bridal costume. The young man put four water- 
melons in a blanket, and just as the sun was rising they all went out, 
the grandmother sprinkling a road of meal for her children , and then 
told them to go on now, whereupon they proceeded to the village, 
to the house of the bride. Arriving at the house they were welcomed 
by the mother of the bride who took the bridal costume and also the 
watermelons, which the young man had brought and put every- 
thing away. Hereupon the young people lived in the village, and 
as the young man was a Katcina the village prospered, it always 
rained and they had much to eat. But by and by his wife went 
astray, at which her husband became angry and left the village, 
returning to his house again. After that it did not rain so much, the 
people became poor, and it is still that way. 


Aliksai! In Walpi and Sitcdmovi they were living, but not at 
the places where the villages now are, but where they used to be. 
In Walpi lived an old man, the Ah61i Katcina. He had with him a 
little maiden who was his sister, the Katcin-mana. As he was very 
old and feeble this maiden would always lead him. In the other 
village, Sitc6movi, lived a youth with his old grandmother, and as 
she also was very feeble he took care of her and used to lead her. 
One time the Ahdli and the little maiden went to their field south of 
Walpi where they wanted to plant. They carried with them little 
pouches containing seeds. In their field was a b^ho shrine, and 
when they came to their field the Katcina first deposited some prayer- 
offerings in the shrine, first some com -meal and then also some nak- 
wakwosis which he drew forth from his com -meal bag. This bag he 
had tied around his neck. 

In this shrine lived Mdyingwa and his sister Naydngap Wuhti. 
"Have you come?" Miiyingwa said. "Yes, we have come," they 
replied. "Thanks," Naydngap Wuhti said, "thanks, our father, 
that you have come. You have remembered us. No one has 
thought about us for a long time and brought some offering here, 
but you have thought about us." And she began to cry. Here- 
upon Ah61i gave to each one a stick upon which some nakwdkwosis 
were strung, and also some corn-meal. Hereupon NayAngap Wuhti 
was crying still more. "Yes, we have come here," the Katcina 
said, "we are pitying our people because they have not had any 
crops for a long time, and now we thought about you here and have 

' Told by Kuhkuima (Shupadlavi). 

78 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

brought these prayer-offerings here. And now you pity them and 
let it rain now, and when it rains then a crop will grow again and 
they will have something to eat, and they will then be strengthened 
and revived, because they are only living a very little now. 

Hereupon he took out his little bundles of seed and gave to the 
goddess a small quantity of yellow, blue, red, and white corn as an 
offering. These he placed before her on the ground. The two 
deities then arose. M6yingwa had in his left hand a mdngkoho, 
m6ngwikuru, and a perfect corn-ear (ch6chmingwuu). These he 
pointed upwards towards the sky. The female deity held in her hand 
a squash, which was filled with all kinds of seeds, and as MAyingwa 
pointed up the objects towards the sky she raised the squash with 
both hands, and then forcibly threw it on the ground on the seeds 
which the Ah61i had placed there. "There," she said, "in this way 
I have now planted for all of your people these seeds and they will 
now have crops." Hereupon Mtiyingwa handed the objects which 
he held in his hand to the Katcina, saying, "You take these with you 
and with them you produce rain and crops for your children, the 
people in Wdlpi. " 

So the Ah61i and the Katcfn-mana returned, first going to their 
booth, or shelter (kfsi), that was near by in the field.. Here they 
partook of the food which they had brought with them. "Thanks," 
the Ah61i said, "thanks that our father was willing. We shall not 
now go back to the village in vain. " "Yes, thanks, " the mana also 
said. Hereupon they returned to the village. It was now late in 
the afternoon. As they passed the top of the mesa upon which Walpi 
is now situated, they heard somebody singing on top of the bluff, 
but they went on, and arriving at their kiva they sat down north of 
the fireplace and smoked over the objects which they had brought 
with them. "Thanks that we have returned," the Ah61i said, 
"that we have not been too late for our people. We shall now 
possess our people." And as they were smoking and thus talking 
somebody came and entered the house. It was the youth who lived 
with his old grandmother in Sitcomovi. He came in. "Thanks 
that you have come," he said, "thanks that you have come and pro- 
vided something for our people here," whereupon he shook hands 
with them. "Sit down," Ahdli said, "and smoke, too." So the 
youth filled the pipe with tobacco that he had brought with him and 
also smoked over the objects. He took special pains to blow the 
smoke in ringlets upon the objects. After he had done that four 
times, also praying to the objects, they became moist so that the 
water was beginning to flow from them, indicating that their efforts 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi ■ — Voth. 79 

had been successful and that these objects would produce rain, 
which was symbolized by this moisture. 

Hereupon the youth prepared to return to his home, but Ah61i 
restrained him and said: "Now, to-morrow when the sun rises we 
shall make a prayer-offering and you must do the same, because 
when we came we heard somebody sing away up there somewhere." 
So early the next morning they dressed up in their costumes, the 
Katcina being dressed in a tliihi, a kilt, and his mask; his body also 
being painted nicely. In his right hand he carried a stick, natfingpi, to 
the middle of which were tied beads and a bundle of bahos. In his 
left hand he carried the objects which he had obtained the previous 
day. The mana was dressed as the Katcfn-manas are yet dressed 
to-day. She carried in her left arm a tray (p6ta), containing 
different kinds of seeds. They proceeded to a baho shrine west of 
the present village of Walpi, half-way down the mesa. Here they 
sprinkled a little meal to the sun and on the shrine, this little rite 
being called kiiivato. As they were performing this rite they again 
heard the same voice singing on top of the mesa, which they had 
heard before. 

There were then no villages on top of the mesa, but the shrine of 
TaMwhtoika was there already, and at this shrine some one was sing- 
ing. When looking up they say that it was the Big-Hom (Wopakal) 
Katcina. Hereupon they returned to their house, but immediately 
started up on the mesa to look for and meet the one that they had 
heard singing. So they went up and reached the top of the mesa 
somewhat west of the bah6ki. Here they noticed some one dressed 
in a white mask with very small openings for the mouth and eyes. 
His body was also white and he wore a thin bandoleer with blue 
yarn over his shoulder. He was standing by the side of the shrine 
shaking a rattle of bones slowly up and down. After having shaken 
the rattle four times he started off. "Wait," the Ah61i Katcina 
said, "wait, we have heard some singing up here and want to see 
who it is." "Yes," the other Katcina, which was the Aototo, re- 
plied, "yes, I am not singing, but we are two of us here, and the 
other one was singing. " By this time the Big-Hom Katcina came 
from the west end of the mesa holding in his left hand a bow, and 
having a quiver strung over his right shoulder. He had a green 
mask with a big horn on the right side and an ear on the left. He 
wore a nice kilt, nice ankle bands, and his body was painted up 
nicely. When he arrived at the shrine he asked the Aototo: "Why 
do you tarry here?" "Yes," the Aototo replied, "these are detain- 
ing me. " "Why?" the Big-Hom Katcina asked. "We heard some- 

8o Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

body singing here," the Ah61i replied, "and we came up here to see 
who it was, and so it is you. Now, what do you think," he con- 
tinued, "let us go down all together and then we shall possess the 
people," and he told the Katcinas about what they had obtained 
and were going to do. So the two Katcinas were willing and they 
prepared to go down. 

The Aototo took the lead and was followed by the Ah61i Katcina, 
and the mana, the Big-Horn Katcina coming last. • This way they 
went down a part of the way at a place west of the present village of 
Hano. Here they made a baho shrine (bah6ki), erecting some stones 
as a mark between the villages of Hano and Sitc6movi. This shrine 
is still there. They then went farther down to the present gap north 
of Hdno to the large shrine with the twisted stone which is still there. 
Here they met somebody coming out of that shrine and then going up 
and down there. It was somebody dangerous (nukpana), who had 
large protruding eyes and a big mouth in his mask, and many rattles 
around his body and along the front part of his legs. His arms were 
painted white, his body red. Around his shoulders he had a small 
blanket of rabbit skin. On his feet; he had old, torn, black mocca- 
sins. In his right hand he had a large knife, in his left hand a crook, 
to which a number of m6sililis were attached.' It was the Cooyoko, 
who used to kill and devour children there. When the Katcinas saw 
him they said to him: "Do not trouble us, we are going to possess 
these people here. We are going home now. You can destroy the 
bad ones, since you are bad anyway, but do not trouble us. " 

Heretipon they descended and went to their home. When they 
arrived at the house of the Ah61i, which was a very beautiful house, 
the Ahdli said: "Now, here we are, and you stay with us. It is not 
good down here it does not rain, but up there where you are it is 
better. When it will rain here you can go back, but we want to help 
the people first. So to-morrow morning we shall go to the fields and 
plant for the people. " During the night they did not sleep but they 
were singing all night, on their masks, which they had standing in a 
row in the north side of the room. When the yellow dawn was ap- 
pearing before sunrise it commenced to rain, and it rained hard. 
Towards noon the Katcinas dressed up, putting on their masks, went 
out, crossed the mesa, came to the fields south of the mesa, and 
there they beheld large fields of corn, patches filled with melons, 
watermelons, and squashes. Everything was growing beautifully. 

' M6sililis, cone-shaped shells from one to two inches long, which are tied by means of thin 
buckskin thongs to sticks that are from six to eight inches long and bent at one end. These rat- 
tles are highly prized by the Hopi and are used in various ceremonies, but, chiefly in those of the 
Piute Fraternities. Shells of this kind are among the objects found in the ruins of Tusayan. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 81 

Having looked around a little while they turned around, taking with 
them a watermelon, an ear of fresh com, and a melon. It was still 
raining so that their feet sank deep into the ground. 

When they arrived close to the mesa somebody met them. It 
was Big-Skeleton (Wok6masauwuu), who owns the earth and the 
fields. He lived about half-way down the mesa near the mesa point. 
He told the Katcinas that they should go up the mesa and prepare 
a house there and- live there, and from there they should perform 
their rites. So they went up on top of the mesa and have lived 
there ever since. Soon after that the Walpi also commenced to move 
up the mesa and build the new village, where it is at the present time 


A long time ago Pookonghoya and his little brother Bal6ngahoya 
lived north of the village at the shrine of the Ach^mali. One day 
they heard that two beautiful maidens were watching some fields west 
of the village of Htickovi, of which the ruins may still be seen a few 
miles north-west of Oraibi. They concluded that they would go hunt- 
ing and at the same time visit those two maidens. When they arrived 
there the maidens joyfully greeted them and they were joking and 
teasing each other. The maidens believed that the two brothers had 
come with the intention to marry them, and they said, in a half -jest- 
ing manner, to their suitors: "We will cut off an arm from each one 
of you, and if you do not die you may own us. " The younger brother 
was at once willing, saying to his elder brother: "They are beautiful; 
let us not be afraid of having our arm cut off." The elder brother 
hesitated, saying, that that would hurt. So the younger brother 
said, "I am willing, " laid his right arm over the edge of the mealing 
trough at which the maidens had been working, and one of the maid- 
ens struck the arm with the upper mealing stone and cut it off, the 
arm dropping into the trough or bin. His elder brother hereupon 
laid his arm over the edge of the bin, which consisted of a thin, sharp 
slab, and the other maiden also cut his arm off with her mealing stone. 
Now the two brothers said: "If we recover, we shall come after you. 
Hand us our arms now. " The maidens did so and the two brothers 
left, each one carrying his severed arm. Arriving at their home 
north of Oraibi, they told their grandmother what had happened. 
"There," she said, "you have been in something again and have 
done some mischief." "Yes," they said, "We met two beautiful 

' Told by Qdyiwaima (Oraibi). 

82 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

maidens and liked them very much, and so we allowed them to cut 
ofif our arms." "Very well," she said, "I am going to set you right 
again. " So she asked them to lay down north of the fireplace. 
She placed the two arms by their sides, covered them up, whereupon 
she commenced to sing a song. When she was through singing, she 
told them now to get up. They did so and found their arms healed. 
The next day they proceeded to the house of the maidens, who 
were surprised to see them fully recovered. The older of the two 
sisters was the prettier one and P6ok6nghoya wanted to choose that 
one. His younger brother protested, saying: "Yesterday you were 
not willing to have your arm cut off, as you were then afraid, and now 
you want to have the first choice. I had my arm cut off first and I 
am going to choose first," to which his elder brother finally con- 
sented. They slept with the maidens that night and then left them 
and returned to their home north of Oraibi. 


A very long time ago a large monster, whom our forefathers called 
Shfta, lived somewhere in the west, and used to come to the village 
of Orafbi and wherever it would find children it would devour them. 
Often also grown people were eaten by the monster. The people be- 
came very much alarmed over the matter, and especially the village 
chief was very much worried over it. Finally he concluded to ask 
the Pookdnghoyas for assistance. These latter, namely P6ok6nghoya 
and his younger brother Bal6ngahoya, lived north of and close to the 
village of Orafbi. When the village chief asked them to rid them of 
this monster they told him to make an arrow for each one of them. 
He did so, using for the shaft feathers, the wing feathers of the blue- 
bird. These arrows he brought to the little War Gods mentioned. 
They said to each other: "Now let us go and see whether such a 
monster exists and whether we can find it." So they first went to 
Orafbi and kept on the watch around the village. One time, when 
they were on the east side of the village at the edge of the mesa, they 
noticed something approaching from the west side. They at once 
went there and saw that it was the monster that they were to destroy. 
When the monster met the two brothers it said to them: "I eat 
you" (Shita). Both brothers objected. The monster at once swal- 
lowed the older one and then the other one. They found that it was 
not dark inside of the monster, in fact, they found themselves on a 
path which, the younger brother, who had been swallowed last, fol- 

* Told by Qoydwaima (OraIbi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 83 

lowed, soon overtaking his older brother. The two brothers laughed 
and said to each other: "So this is the way we find it here. We are 
not going to die here. " They found that the path on which they 
were going was the oesophagus of the monster, which led into its 
stomach. In the latter they found a great many people of different 
nationalities which the monster had devoured in different parts of 
the earth; in fact, they found the stomach to be a little world in it- 
self, with grass, trees, rock, etc. 

Before the two brothers had left their home on their expedition 
to kill the monster, if possible, their grandmother had told them that 
in case the monster should swallow them too, to try to find its heart; 
if they could shoot into the heart the monster would. die. So they 
concluded that they would now go in search of the heart of the 
monster. They finally found the path which led out of the stomach , 
and after following that path quite a distance they saw way above 
them hanging something which they at once concluded must be the 
heart of the monster. P6ok6nghoya at once shot an arrow at it, but 
failed to reach it, the arrow dropping back. Hereupon his younger 
brother tried it and his arrow pierced the heart, whereupon the 
older brother also shot his arrow into the heart. Then it became 
dark and the people noticed that the monster was dying. The two 
brothers called all the people together and said to them: "Now 
let us get out. " They led them along the path to the mouth of the 
monster, but found that they could not get out because the teeth of 
the monster had set firmly in death. They tried in vain to open the 
mouth but finally discovered a passage leading up into the nose. 
Through this they then emerged. 

It was found that a great many people assembled there north of 
the village. The village chief had cried out that a great many peo- 
ple had arrived north of the village and asked his people to assemble 
there too. They did so and many found their children and relatives 
that had been carried off by the monster, and were very glad to have 
them back again. 

The two brothers then said to the others that they should now 
move on and try to find their own homes where they had come from, 
which they did, settling down temporarily at different places, which 
accounts for the many small ruins scattered throughout the country 
The old people say that this monster was really a world or a country, 
as some call it, similar to the world that we are living in. 

84 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Aliksai! At Shong6pavi they were living; at the place where 
Shongopavi used to be and where there are still the ruins of the old 
village, they were living. North of the village, but close by, lived 
P6okong^ and his brother. They lived there with their grandmother. 
Often they would play with their ball, and one time they were also 
playing with their ball, striking it, and playing with it towards Toriva. 
When they arrived here they were thirsty, and went into the spring 
to drink water. When they had satisfied their thirst they were 
going to continue their playing, when they saw a lot of bahos at the 
place where the water comes out. "Let us take these along," the 
younger brother said, and taking one of the bd,hos, he swallowed it. 
"You swallow one too," he then said to his elder brother; but by this 
time the latter discovered in the recess in the rocks somewhat high 
up, some potsherds, or bowls, with different kinds of paints which 
the Flute priests had deposited there. "Let us take some of this," 
he said to his younger brother, whereupon he put into his ball, through 
little holes and openings that had been made in the buckskin cover- 
ing through long usage, some of each kind of paint ._ After having 
put the paints into the ball he sewed up the holes. Hereupon he 
replaced the ball again and then said to his brother: "Now let us 
go, and before we will get home it will rain if we continue to beat our 
ball now in this way. " 

So they started, beating the ball towards the Corn-Ear Bluffs that 
are still standing at the place where the old village of Mish6ngnovi 
used to be. One of the brothers was beating the ball forward and the 
other one backward, and in this way they proceeded to the village. 
Before they had reached the village, the people of Mishongnovi had 
discovered them. They were beating their ball around north of the 
village for a little while, the children of the village looking on and 
shouting 'at them. Hereupon they entered the village and kept 
beating their ball through the village. All at once they entered one 
of the kivas and found that the Flute priests were assembled in this 
kiva for their ceremony. In one of the trays that were standing on 
the floor was lying a lightning frame, thunder board, netted water 
jug, etc. This tray they grabbed and went out. None of the priests 
said anything. 

Hereupon they went into another kiya where the Snake priests 

' Told by K<ihkuima (Shupatilavi) . 

2 P6okong and the diminutive form Pookonghoya are used promiscuously by the Hopi, as 
mav be seen in several of these tales. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Votii. 85 

were assembled for their ceremony. They were just washing the 
snakes in a bowl. The P6ok6nghoyas grabbed a bull-snake (I6I60- 
kong), put it into a snake-sack and left the kiva, the younger brother 
holding this bag under one arm, the elder brother carrying the tray 
with the objects. In this manner they proceeded towards the Corn- 
Ear bluffs, constantly beating their ball. When they arrived at the 
Corn-Ear Bluffs they found a great many bahos, little artificial melons, 
watermelons, and peaches which the Hopi had made and deposited 
in the different niches, cracks, etc. They had been deposited here 
by the different societies in their different ceremonies as prayer- 
offerings, that they might have an abundance of these things. On 
top of the rocks they saw the Watcher (Ttiwalahka), who owns this 
rock. It was Cotukvnangwuu, who was sitting there in the form of 
an old man. "Oh my!" the younger brother said, "How many 
prayer-offerings there are here ! Let us steal some of them and take 
them home;" but the elder brother refused to do so, so the younger 
brother ascended the rock along a crack and took from one of 
the places where the prayer-offerings had been deposited a corn 
baho, a watermelon, and a melon, and brought them down. 

Hereupon they started homeward again, beating their ball. They 
again went by the spring Toriva where they drank, this time, how- 
ever, not stealing anything. They then started towards Shongopavi 
along the trail. After they had gone a little distance they shot the 
lightning frame, and twirled the bullroarer several times. By the 
time they had reached the canyon, or gulch, right east of Shongopavi, 
and as they were beginning to ascend to the village, clouds had 
gathered in the sky and it began to thunder and rays of lightning 
began shooting through the sky. Soon it began to rain. 

They began to run towards their house, and just as they arrived 
there they once more shot the lightning frame and twirled the thunder 
board. By this time it thundered very hard and loud, and lightning 
was flashing. One of the Hopi houses in the village was struck and 
shattered. By this time they had arrived at their house. "Who 
are those little mischief makers that are coming there?" their grand- 
mother said. "You are bad." But the two brothers rushed into 
the house and put the lightning frame, thunder board, the snake, 
the little artificial melons, bahos and the paint, which they had 
brought with them, quickly but secretly into two pots which they 
covered up. And because the P6ok6nghoyas afterwards had these 
things they were the cause that it always rained and the Hopi had 
good crops. 

86 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 



Haliksai! In Oraibi the people were living, but there were a 
great many people at that time living there, and it frequently hap- 
pened that when the men or women would get wood, some of them 
did not return, and the people were thinking about it and wondering 
what became of these people, whether they had gone away or whether 
they had been killed. They were worried about it. So one time a 
man again went after wood. He took his straps, tied them around 
his body and went to H6tvala (a spring about five miles northwest 
of Orafbi). North of this spring he gathered some wood, made the 
usual frame-work of wooded sticks into which he piled the wood, 
put the wood on his back, and went to the path leading to Oraibi, 
when he heard a voice. Somebody was singing the following song: 

lya yahina kilicina hanaa, 

lya yahina kilicina hanaa, 

Honayish pichiya cakicta, 

Kooyna ahinahina, 

Tovashkakolita Coovokooo. 

These words are archaic 
> and are not understood by 
the Hopi. 

It was the C6oyoko. When he saw that somebody came with wood, 
he said: "Now then, I shall feast upon that one." The man carry- 
ing the wood, however, quickly threw down his large burden of wood 
and crawled under it. When the C6oyoko arrived at the place he 
.could not find the man, and thought he had escaped. "Let me go 
on farther, I may find some one else," he said, and so proceeded to 
another place in the woods singing the same song again. Here he 
found a woman getting a burden of wood ready. "Now then, I 
shall feast upon that one," he said again. 

When the woman saw him she was very much afraid and ran and 
climbed a juniper-tree, micturating as she did so. When the C6oyoko 
arrived at the tree he noticed some moisture on the ground and 
said: "There must be clouds somewhere, it has been raining." So 
he left the place and went westward saying: "I shall hunt somebody 
else," and as he went along he sang the same song again. The man 
whom he had met first, had in the meanwhile escaped, and the woman 
also climbed down, when the Cooyoko had left her, and ran away to 
the village. These two informed the people in the village that it 
was C6oyoko who killed the Orafbi people. When the village chief 
heard this he was very sorry and was thinking. He was thinking in 
the night who could help him. 

» Told by Kwdyeshva (Oraibi), 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 87 

So the next morning he went over to the shrine of Achamali 
(about one-eighth of a mile north of Oraibi), where the P6okongs 
(Pookonghoya and Bal6ongawhoya) lived with their grandmother, 
Spider Woman. Spider Woman told him to come in and sit down. 
The two brothers were playing with their ball and did not hear the 
chief enter. The woman told them to stop, as some one had come in, 
but they would not listen, so she struck one over the back. "What 
is it?" he said, but continued to play. She finally grasped him by 
both arms and told him to stop as somebody had come in. So they 
stopped their playing. Hereupon she said to the chief: "Now, 
what is it? You certainly have come for some reason." "Yes," 
he said; "these, my children here in Oraibi when they get wood they 
are killed, and it is C6oyoko who kills them, and I want you to take 
revenge on him. That is the reason why I have come here. " "Yes, " 
they said, "he does it. He is our uncle and he is bad, but we shall 
help you. We shall go there." Hereupon the chief asked them 
what they would want for it. They said that he should make some 
of those balls, when they had killed him, because those were what 
they wanted. 

The chief hereupon returned to the village. The next morning 
the two brothers took their bow, their arrows, which consisted of 
lightning, and their ball. As they went along they kept striking 
their ball before them. One of them struck it forward, and the 
other one backward, and in this way they slowly proceeded. They 
finally arrived at the Cdoyoko's house. This was located at Munaovi 
on top of the mesa, a short distance east of Oraibi (about four miles). 
When they came here they looked into the house, but C6oyoko was 
gone. His wife, Cdoyok Wuhti, had also gone away. They followed 
the tracks of the latter westward, and found her at a place sitting 
and killing white lice in her dress. "There is somebody sitting," 
they said to each other, and laughed at her. "Now let us do some- 
thing to her," the elder brother said, "because she does not notice 
us." Hereupon they both shot a lightning arrow at her, which 
shattered her to pieces. "Now, let us go to the house," they said, 
which they did. 

When they arrived there C6oyoko had not yet returned, so they 
went in and looked around. They found in one of the rooms still 
fresh human flesh that had just been fried, and they found hanging 
on the wall a great many beads, clothing, and scalps that had been 
taken from the Hopi whom the C6oyoko had killed. Here they now 
waited for the return of C6oyoko. Soon they heard him come. He 
was singing the same song that he had been singing before. "He 

88 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

is coming now," the youths said to each other, and when he came 
upon the roof of the house or kiva they heard him throw down some- 
thing. " He has killed somebody again, because he is throwing down 
something," they said to each other. When C6oyoko came into the 
kiva he found no one there, and said to himself: "She has not yet 
returned," referring to his wife, "because there is no fire at the 
fireplace." He laid down his bow and arrows and his stone axe, 
and hunted for something to eat. 

The Pookonghoyas had hidden themselves behind the mealing- 
bin. When they saw him walking around there they said to each 
other: "Now let us kill him." So each one shot lightning arrows at 
him and he was killed. The P6ok6nghoyas hereupon took his knife, 
scalped him, and then took many beads and a great many other 
things that they found in the house, and returned to their home. So 
they were now very wealthy. Going home they did not strike their 
ball before them because they had so many things to carry. When 
they had arrived in their home they had a dance, swinging the scalp 
of the C6oyoko while they were dancing and singing the following 
song : 

Aynikohinahina , 

Ay nikohinahina , 

Aynikohinahina , 

Hataina, hataina, 


Pookonghoyo, Cooyoyoko 

(The) Pookongs, (the )Cooy- 

Taalcha, hataina hataina 

Aynikohina hina. 

The words are archaic 

and no longer understood 

except the two proper 

)■ names and the word taal- 


cha. The last word is 
said to be the Navaho- 
word for kill. 

When the village chief heard that they had returned he cut two 
round pieces out of a large buckskin and made two nice balls of these 
two pieces. He also made a ball stick for each one. These he took 
and went to the house of the P6okongs. ' ' What have you found out ? ' ' 
he asked them. "We have killed them," they replied. "Thanks," 
he said, "that you have killed them." Hereupon he handed them 
the balls and sticks. After that the Hopi always returned when they 
went after wood. 

March, 1905. The Tr.\ditions of the Hopi — Voth. 89 


In Mish6ngnovi they, were living, and a bear used to kill the peo- 
ple. At the Skeleton Katcina house lived the P6okong with his 
grandmother, and'the bear was killing the people. If some one went 
to his field he was killed. The chief was unhappy over it and was 
thinking about it. He was thinking about sending P6okong after it, 
and for this now the time had arrived. And now he made a bow for 
the P6okong of hard wood, and he made arrows and put parrot 
feathers on the arrows, and on one of the arrows he put blue-bird 
feathers. He also made a ball that he cut from a buckskin. He 
sewed it and put cotton into it and then tied it up tightly. He made 
one of them and rubbed red ochre (ctita) on it, and for the grand- 
mother he made one b^ho. 

When he was done he brought this to the house of the P6okong. 
The grandmother asked: "What are you doing?" "Yes," he said, 
"when these, my children, are killed by a bear I am not happy." 
"Hao, " she said to him. and now the chief said: "Yes, hence I have 
brought this for you," and then he handed it to the grandmother. 
She was happy. "Thanks," she said, "thanks." Then he said to 
the P6okong: "With this you kill the bear, because I have made 
this for you;" whereupon he gave the ball, the bow and arrows, and 
the ball stick to the P6okong. "Thanks, thanks," the Pfiokong 
said, and was happy. Now he went to hunt the bear. The bear 
was just going around to hunt for some one, and the P6okong was 
also going about in that way, and sure enough, something came to 
him, running. Now it stood up, holding up the paws. Now the 
Pdokong being seated, aimed. " Haha (very well), " the bear had now 
about arrived, but when he had not yet quite arrived, the P6okong 
shot and hit him in the throat. When he had shot the bear fell, and 
now he hit him with the ball stick, and the bear died. 

He then skinned him, the legs first, but he did not cut the abdo- 
men. He left the skin in the form of a bag, pulling it over his head 
like a shirt, but from the feet he cut off the claws. Now he filled it 
up tightly with dry grass. When he was done he had made some- 
thing like a bear. Oh! it was like an ugly bear. Now he tied a 
woollen rope around his neck. Then he tied it to himself and drag- 
ging it ran very fast, screaming: "Uhii, a bear is following me," as 
he ran. Now the people saw it. Sure enough, a bear came follow- 
ing somebody, and he had almost caught him. "Why, he is follow- 
ing the Pdokong, " the people said, and then they ran. Now they 

' Told by Lomdvantiwa (Shupaiilavi) 

90 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

told the grandmother, "A bear is following your grandchild." Now 
alas! the grandmother ran away crying, and went into her kiva. 

The P6okong ascended to the house and threw the bear to the 
grandmother. The grandmother now, because she was so scared, 
died at once. The P6okong laughed at the grandmother and kicked 
her. "Get up^ " he said to her, and the grandmother woke up. 
.When she sat up she whipped her grandchild hard. "You are 
naughty, you have scared me," she said to him; but he had been drag- 
ging something dead. The chief was very happy because he heard 
that he had killed him. From that time the bear stopped. After 
that he killed no more people. So after that it was better. 


Haliksai! In Oraibi the people were living, and north of the vil- 
lage at Achamali lived the P6okongs with their grandmother. Spider 
Woman. One time the P6okongs heard that the Lalakontu were 
going to have a dance at Shongdpavi. "Our grandmother," they 
said, "Ha!" she answered. "They are going to have a dance at 
Shong6pavi, " the P6okongs said, "and we want to go and look on, 
too." "Very well," she said, " you go there, but you are unsightly, 
and no one will invite you in to eat, so you take this food along." 
Hereupon she handed them a little hurushuki. They took this and 
their feathered arrows and their corn -husk wheels and left. 

As they went along they changed about in throwing their wheels 
and shooting their feathered arrows at them. They thus arrived at 
the village, passed through the village, and down the mesa south of 
it, away into the fields in the valley south-east of Oraibi. It was noon 
by the time they got there. Here they came to a sand hill, where a 
great deal of kutuk-wuhci (a kind of grass) was growing. As the 
wind was blowing hard the grass was waving and producing a hissing 
noise. When the P6okongs saw it, they said: "This grass is dancing 
here, let us attend this dance," whereupon they stooped down and 
looked at the grass as it was swaying from side to side, being moved 
by the wind. 

In the evening they returned to the village, not, however, playing 
this time as they went along. When they arrived at their grand- 
mother's house she asked: "Have you come?" "Yes," they replied, 
"and we are very tired. " "To be sure," she said, "because it is far 
to Shongdpavi. Did you see the dance well? How did they 
dance?" "Yes," they said, "we looked at it well and we enjoyed it. 

* Told by Tangdkhoyoma (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The; Traditions of the Hopi — V'oth. 91 

We went to the fields south-east of Orafbi and there on a sand hill 
we found something in tassels there, and the wind was waving it, and 
it always said, psh-sh-sh-sh-sh-, and there we remained and looked 
at that dance." "You are fools," Spider Woman said; "that was 
not Shongopavi. Shongopavi is farther on and is away high up, and 
when the Lalakontu dance they hold p6tas in their hands and wave 
them up and down, and then they throw them into the air and the 
men shout and catch these potas. Now, I was thinking that you 
would also bring one that we could put our hurushuki in, and that 
is the reason why I sent you. Why, what you saw there was simply 
kutuk-wuhci that was waving in the wind. Fools you are!" 

They were then living there and soon a Lalakontu dance occurred 
at Mish6ngnovi. "Now, I am going to send you there," Spider 
Woman said to the P6okongs ; ' ' the Oraibis are certainly going there 
too, to look on. But you must go straight ahead there and not be 
playing as you go along. When you go down you will see the Orafbis 
going and you follow them, and when you get there you look on well. 
You will see them throw trays. You will hear the men shout and 
get the trays. You look at everything well and do not be slow about 
it; now go on." When they had eaten their meal Spider Woman 
said: "Now, do not take your wheels and arrows along." So they 
started and passed along through the village and followed the trail. 
They saw the Oraibis going to Mish6ngnovi. They followed them 
this time without playing on the road, and finally they also arrived 
at Mish6ngnovi. But they were filthy, and the phlegm that was 
running out of their noses they would wipe over their hands, and the 
people saw it. As the dance was going on, and the trays and sieves 
were thrown up, the P6okongs saw the men getting them, but they 
did not get any. Then the people of Mish6ngnovi invited their 
friends to come to their houses and eat with them, but no one invited 
the P6okongs. So they became very hungry, and towards evening 
they said to each other : " Let us go home now, because we are getting 
hungry. But we are going to take some trays along." While the 
women were dancing the two went into the circle and each one 
snatched a tray from one of the dancers and then they ran home. 

When the grandmother saw the pretty trays that they had brought 
she was very happy. "Thanks," she said, "thanks. Now you have 
been there, now you have seen it, and you have brought some pretty 
trays in which we shall keep our hurushuki." "Yes," they said, 
"we were there and saw the dance. So that is the way they are 
doing. We enjoyed it. But no one invited us to eat, and we are 
very hungry. " Hereupon Spider Woman placed some hurushuki 

92 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

before them and fed them. The P6okongs were angry that they had 
not been fed in Mish6ngnovi. 

At that time the Hopi found salt at a place north-west, not quite 
so far away as they have to get it now. The salt belonged to the 
P6okongs, so they said: "We are going to remove that salt farther 
away. If they had fed us, although we are unsightly, they could 
continue to get it from the place close by; but as they have not fed 
us we are going to remove it far away, so that they will be put to a 
greater trouble in getting their salt." Spider Woman at first ob- 
jected, but they would not listen and started. Arriving at the near- 
est place where there was some salt they picked that up and carried 
it away a long distance, descended a very steep bluff with it, and laid 
it down there. So ever since the Hopi can find only a very little 
salt at the first place and have to get most of their salt from that 
farther place, which is so very deep down and so difficult of access. 


Haliksai! In Orafbi they were living. There were a great many 
people. At Pilcd,chvi lived a family who had a pretty maiden who 
persistently refused all offers of marriage. P6ok6nghoya and his 
brother Baldonghoya, who lived at Pookongwawarzhpi with their 
grandmother, Spider Woman, heard about this. They were think- 
ing about it, and one time said to their grandmother: "Our grand- 
mother!" "What is it?" she replied. "There is a maiden in the 
village, " they said, "who refuses to marry any one of the young men 
of the village. We are going to try, too." "You poor ones," she 
said, "yoii are too small and you are unsightly, she certainly will not 
want you." But they would not listen and said, "But we are going 
to try it, anyway." "Very well," she said, "you go and try it, but 
she will not want you because you are not handsome. " 

So in the evening they took some squash seed and gathered some 
little sticks and went to the village. West of the house where the 
maiden lived a great many mice were living among the rocks. Here 
the P6okongs set a number of stone traps, putting the squash seed 
into them. While they were engaged in setting the traps towards 
evening, the maiden happened to go by there and saw them at work. 
"What are you doing here?" she asked. "Yes," they said, "we are 
setting traps here for the- mice." "You come to my house and set 
traps there, too," she said to them; "there are a great many mice 

• Told by Tangdkhoyoma (Oraibi) . 

^J ARCH. 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 93 

So she took them over to her house where they set traps in differ- 
ent parts of the house, also close to the mealing bin. They finally 
asked whether they did not have a piki tray. The mother fetched 
one from another room and they set that near the mealing tray, 
instead of a small stone like in the other traps. "Now, to-morrow 
you must look after these traps," they said to the maiden, and left. 
They at once went hunting and killed an antelope. This they took 
to the house of the maiden during the night and placed it under the 
piki tray, making it appear as if it had been caught in that trap. 
When the maiden examined the traps the next morning she found 
something large under the piki tray, and looking at it she saw that 
it was an antelope. She at once called her father. "My father," 
she said, "you go in there. Something large has been caught there, 
and do not be slow about it. " He was still sleeping, but got up at 
once, went into the room, and saw that something large had been 
caught there. "Thanks," he said. "Why this is an antelope; why, 
an antelope has been caught here. " Hereupon he took it out of the 
trap and carried it into his kiva. 

Here he skinned the antelope and cut it up into pieces. A part 
of the meat his wife cooked as n6ekwiwi, the rest he dried, and they 
were very happy over it. In the evening the P6okongs took some 
more squash seed and again repaired to the village, where they set 
traps as they had done on the previous evening. While they were 
doing so the maiden was eating of the antelope meat and then again 
went to the place where the P6okongs were setting the traps. Here 
she met them. "Have you come again?" she asked them. "Yes," 
they replied. "When you are done here, " she continued, "you come 
to our house again and set traps there, because something large was 
trapped there this morning and we are very happy over it." 

They went with her to the house and there set traps everywhere 
again. When they came to the tray the maiden said to them : "Here 
something large was caught' last night and of that we are eating now. 
We are very happy over it. So you must set that again, too. " While 
they were setting this the father came in and asked them: "Are you 
setting traps here again?" "Yes," they replied. "Very well," he 
said , ' ' last night an antelope was caught in this trap and of that we 
have been eating and we are very happy over it. You have by that 
terminated something here (referring to the persistent refusals of the 
maiden to enter into marriage), so if to-morrow morning something 
is caught in this trap again, you come here to-morrow evening and 
get our daughter. " 

In the night the P6okongs killed a deer, of which they owned 

94 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

many, and carried it to the house of the maiden, where they placed it 
under the piki tray trap. In the morning when the maiden arose 
she saw something under the trap with big antlers. Running to her 
father she called him, saying: "My father, come quickly. There is 
something large in the trap." So he came and found a deer there. 
"Thanks," he said, "this is a deer," and taking it out they carried 
it to the kiva where he skinned it and cut up the meat. His wife 
again cooked a part of it, while he hung all the rest up to dry. There 
was a great deal of meat hanging outside of his house and they were 
very happy over it. 

"To-night you wait for somebody here," he said to his daughter. 
Towards evening they were eating of the meat that the mother had 
cooked, and in the evening the maiden was grinding com. In the 
house of the two P6okongs the two brothers were getting ready to go 
to the house of the maiden, but they began to quarrel about it. "I 
am going," P6okong said. "No, indeed," his brother replied, "I'm 
going," and thus they were contending with each other. "Now, 
why do you quarrel about this?" their grandmother asked them. 
" Certainly P6okong must go because he is the older one. " Thus she 
spoke to them. 

So in the evening P6okong proceeded to the house of the maiden, 
whom he found grinding corn in an upper room. He entered and 
said : " I have come because your father wished it that way. " "Very 
well," she said, and went to call her father. Her father went to 
Pdokong and told him; "Yes, you know I told you that you could 
come and fetch our daughter because you have trapped this game 
for us, which we are eating and for which we are glad." Hereupon 
the mother filled a tray with meal for her daughter, and P6okong 
then led her away to his house in order to marry her. When they 
arrived there the grandmother told them to come in, but she doubted 
whether her grandchild had brought the maiden until she saw her 
enter. She was then very happy and told them to sit down. She 
took the tray of meal from the maiden and put it away into an inner 
room towards the north. Coming out she placed before the maiden 
a small tray with a very small quantity of hurushuki, and invited 
the maiden to eat. The latter took the entire quantity and placed 
it into her mouth. Spider Woman was watching her and when she 
saw that she put all the hurushuki into her mouth, she said: "You 
must not do that, why that is 'very something,' and you must just 
take a very little of it. " So the maiden replaced the hurushuki into 
the tray and then put a very small quantity into her mouth. When 
she began to eat this it increased in her mouth so that her mouth was 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 95 

filled. She repeated this until she was satisfied and then there was 
some of the hurushuki left. 

When the maiden had eaten they soon retired for the night, the 
maiden sleeping with the grandmother. Early the next morning the 
grandmother and the maiden went out to throw an offering of sacred 
meal to the sun, which they did close by the entrance of the kiva. 
Returning to the kiva the grandmother, or Spider Woman, got some 
com -ears, shelled them, and then the maiden ground this corn for 
three days. Early on the fourth day when the yellow dawn was 
rising, the grandmother went out and called out to her neighbors that 
they should come in and assist in washing the heads of the two. She 
then went in and brought out the maiden and told her to be sitting 
close to the kiva entrance and then wait. Soon a great many clouds 
came and rained upon the maiden, thus washing and bathing her. 
"Thanks," the grandmother said, "that you have thus washed the 
bride." Hereupon she took her into the kiva. 

The maiden then again ground corn all day, and in the evening 
prepared some chukiiviki. Spider Woman got some meat from one 
of the inner rooms, of which they then all ate. The next day this 
was repeated, and the maiden then made some comiviki, and in this 
way she prepared food for all of them day after day. But she felt 
unhappy because no one was carding and spinning cotton and pre- 
paring a bridal costume for her, as is always done for. a bride. That 
way they were living there for some time. The two P6okongs were 
constantly playing with their ball and stick, also with feathered 
arrows, but no one was preparing a bridal costume for the bride, 
about which she was very unhappy. But Spider Woman would often 
go into an inner room and they would frequently hear her say, 
"Thanks, thanks," to some one, but the maiden did not know to 
whom she was talking, but there in that room the spiders were pre- 
paring a bridal costume, first carding the cotton, then spinning it, 
placing it onto a loom and then weaving it. 

Finally Spider Woman said one day to the bride: "you prepare 
some , pikami now. Your parents are homesick after you and we 
shall then send you home. " The maiden prepared some pikami, and 
Spider Woman some n6okwiwi, and in the evening the maiden took 
out the pikami from the oven. Spider Woman dipped out the nrtok- 
wiwi, and all ate and then retired for the night. In the morning 
Spider Woman prepared some yucca suds and with it washed the 
heads of P6okong and his bride. She then entered an inner room 
and brought forth a complete bridal costume, which she handed to 
the maiden. She then again went into an inner room and brought 

96 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. Vlll. 

out a large quantity of meat which she handed to P6okong. He 
tied it into a bundle. Hereupon Spider Woman dressed up the brides, 
in the bridal costume, the way it is done to-day, and then sent her on 
to her mother's house. P6okong followed her, carrying on his back 
a large quantity of meat. 

Before they started Spider Woman instructed P6okong that when 
his wife shall have taken him home now to her house and he should 
stay there, he should not talk much, but in the evening he should sit on 
the floor with his arms folded over his knees and he should be looking 
at his wrist bands (by which she meant that he should simply be 
sitting there silently, as the Hopi are usually sitting on their floors 
and observe silence). While they were going to the village the men 
who had gotten up early were sitting on their housetops and saw 
them come. "Here somebody is coming, " they said. The two went 
to the house of the maiden's parents where they were welcomed by 
the mother, who said, "Thanks that you have come," and received 
from them what they were carrying. 

The mother cooked all the meat which P6okong had brought, in a 
vessel, and prepared a feast. After they had eaten they sat and 
conversed. P6okong sat on the floor with his arms folded over his 
knees, but instead of looking at his wrist band, he took it off, and 
holding it before his eyes he looked through it. The people kept 
looking at him and said among themselves: "So that is his custom, 
that is the way he does. " After they had^all conversed a while they 
retired for the night: Early in the morning P6okong went to his 
house to visit Spider Woman. When he arrived there she asked him 
whether he had done as she had told him to do about the wrist band. 
He replied : ' ' When we were through eating and they had taken away 
all the things, and the men were conversing, I took off my arm band 
and held it before my eyes and looked through it." "You are 
naughty," his grandmother said, "I did not tell you to do that way. 
If any one becomes a son-in-law he has to sit there quietly with his 
hands folded over his knees close before his face so that his eyes 
appear to be looking at his arm band. You are ka h6pi. " 

Hereupon he returned to the house of his wife again. After some 
time it was planting time and the men began to plant. P6okong 
went to Spider Woman and said : "It is planting time and we are 
going to plant. " "Very well, " she said, and gave him a small parcel 
of different kinds of com to plant. This he took over to the house 
where he saw his father-in-law ready to go and plant. He had pre- 
pared a small sack full of corrt, but Pdokong said to him: "Do not 
take that along, I have brought some planting-corn with me." 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 97 

Hereupon he produced a very small parcel. "That is not enough," 
his father-in-law said. "Yes, let us take this," Pdokong said, "this 
is a great deal." "Very well," his father-in-law replied, "we shall 
take that," whereupon he put away the sack of com which he had 
gotten ready. 

Hereupon they proceeded to the field of his father-in-law and 
commenced to plant. P6okong always put one grain into the hole 
which he had made with his planting stick, but when the man planted 
the first hill he put in a great deal, the way the Hopi do to-day. When 
Prtokong saw it he said: "You must not do that way, but just put in 
one grain, that is enough." The man immediately replaced the 
com into the sack and put in one grain of com only, after that, and 
when they were done planting they had not planted all the com. It 
had kept increasing. The com, which they had planted, soon grew 
up and when it rained it became larger and larger. One time it 
rained heavily and then much grass also came up. 

P6okong went to visit Spider Woman again. "Have you plant- 
ed ?" she asked him . " Yes , " he said . ' ' And when it rained a little , ' ' 
she kept on inquiring, "did the grass come up?" "Yes," he said, 
"much grass and weeds came up'." She then told him that a son- 
in-law ought to help his father-in-law to hoe his field, so he should 
return and go and do that. He should take his hoe and form ant 
hills throughout the field (referring to the small piles of sand and 
earth that are formed as* one is drawing a hoe through the ground; 
in other words, she meant that he should diligently hoe the field). 
"Very well," he replied, and returned to the house, where he asked 
for a hoe. They gave him one and he went to the field. Here, how- 
ever, he laid it down and at once began to hunt ants. Finding a very 
large ant hill at the edge of the field he put the ants together with 
the earth into his blanket and formed small ant hills throughout the 
field, scattering ants in that way all through the corn-field. 

The next morning he again proceeded to his grandmother who 
asked him: "I told you yesterday to go and hoe the field, what have 
you done about it? How much did you hoe?" "Yes," he said, 
"you told me yesterday, so I went to the field, laid down my hoe, 
and then hunted ant hills along the edge of the field, and when I 
found a large one I placed it into my little blanket and made little ant 
hills throughout the field, all day. " " Now, that is the way you have 
done again, " she said. "You certainly are a fool. I did not tell you 
that, I meant that when a man is hoeing and he draws his hoe through 
the weeds from different sides, the earth and sand is drawn together 
in little piles, or hills. These are called ant hills. That is what I 

98 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

told you to do. You are a fool, a fool you are. You go back again, 
take your hoe, and expose the moist ground by removing the dry 
surface in cutting off the weeds (wfklolantanangwu). " 

He returned to the house, and the next morning when they had 
their morning meal he asked for a little grease of fat. They hunted 
some, tied it up, and handed it to him. He took his hoe and fat, and 
went to the field. Here he laid down his hoe and taking a little of 
the tallow which he had brought with him, he scattered it all through 
the corn-field, an act which in the Hopi language is expressed by the 
same word, wfklolantanangwu. Hereupon he returned to the house 
without having hoed any at all. Early the next morning he again 
visited Spider Woman. "Have you come again?" she asked. "Yes," 
he replied. "Now," she said, "you remember what I told you to do 
yesterday. Have you done that way this time at least?" "Yes," 
he said, "when we had eaten yesterday's morning meal I 
asked my wife's mother for some tallow, which she gave me. I 
wrapped it up and took it along to the field where I scattered it 
throughout the field." "You are a fool, you are a fool, you are a 
great fool. I never told you to do that. I told you to go and hoe 
the corn, and you know if any man hoes and cuts off the weeds he 
stirs the dry surface and the moist ground appears a little, and this 
is what I meant, this is what I told you to do. But you go now, take 
your hoe and you go and hoe the field." 

When he returned to the house he found his father-in-law sitting 
and meditating, evidently being very sad. He had been to the field 
several times, and although his son-in-law had always gone to the 
field he did not find any work done there. The grass was growing, 
the corn was becoming tired (dry) and wilted, and he was thinking 
whether his daughter should not, send his son-in-law away. While 
he was thus thinking, P6okong came to the house. When the latter 
saw his father-in-law sitting there and evidently being very dis- 
appointed, he asked him why he was so sad. "Yes," the man said, 
"I have been thinking about our field. The grass and weeds are 
growing and the com is getting tired. There ought to be some com 
ears forming by this time, but it is getting dry. " "So that is what 
you are thinking about," his son-in-law said. "Now, you must not 
think about that any more. I shall go there to-day and we shall 
finish hoeing that field to-day." Hereupon the two went to the 

Spider Woman had in the meanwhile asked the clouds to hoe the 
field of her grandchild, and when the two commenced to hoe, a cloud 
was forming over the San Francisco mountain. Soon many clouds 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 99 

began to move towards the village. When they had hoed a little it 
commenced to rain. They ran to a shelter where they sat and 
waited while it was raining. The water soon began to run through 
the corn-field in little streamlets and covered up with sand and earth, 
the grass in the field. When it stopped raining the two went through 
the field and saw that the weeds had all been covered up by the 
floods. "Thanks," the old man said, "that these have cleaned the 
field for us. We shall go home now. " So they went home, and that 
way were quickly through ridding their field of the weeds. 

They were now living happily in their home. By and by P6okong's 
wife bore a little son who grew up and played with the children. 
His father soon made him a bow and arrows with which he learned 
to shoot. He sometimes shot the Orafbi children and killed them. 
At this the Orafbi became very angry and said that P6okong 
should not live in the village, but they should move away to their 
own house. So one time P6okong said, "I am going to go back. I 
shall take my little son with me, on whose account they are driving 
us away. But you shall stay here at your father's and mother's," 
he said to his wife. So he took his little boy on his back and returned 
to his home where he remained. 


Aliksai! At Zuni the people were living, and the two sons of the 
village chief were racing with each other. At a place called A^musha 
some one dangerous (nukpana), lived. A path led by this place, and 
as the two brothers were racing they came to this blufif and when 
they were close by they heard some one call, "Come here. There is 
something beautiful here, come and see it. " "Oh, no, there is nothing 
there, "the boys said. " Yes, come and see, there is something beautiful 
here," the voice replied. So they approached closer, and they saw 
on the top of the bluff a beautiful maiden. It was an Antelope Maiden. 
She at once drew up the elder brother by a long, deep inhalation. 
She then said to the younger brother : ' ' Even if you bring your beads 
here, the most valuable possession of the Zunis, I shall not give you 
back your brother, as I do not want your beads." 

Hereupon the younger brother ran home. "Why do you come 
alone?" his father said. "Yes," he said, "when we were racing 
there a beautiful maiden called us and then drew my brother up with 
her breath, on top of the bluff." "Oh!" the father said, "Yes, 
some one dangerous lives there." The father then told his son to 

' Told by Tawiima (Mish6ngnovi). 

loo Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

go and hunt up the Pookonghoyas and ask their assistance. He cut 
a round piece from the middle of a buckskin and made a ball which 
he tied to a stick; also an arrow, to which he fastened blue-bird and 
parrot feathers, and finally gave his boy some tobacco and then sent 
him on his errand. Going south, he all at once heard some one call- 
ing, and saw Pookonghoya and his brother, both being very small, 
wandering and playing around there. He went first to the house 
where Spider Woman (S6 Wuhti),' the grandmother of the two brothers 
lived. She called to the latter and said, "Stop, and come here, some 
one has come," but they at first did not listen; so she called again. 
They then came into the kiva and the messenger, handing them the 
presents, said to them, "This I have brought for you. Way over 
there lives a pretty maiden who drew my brother up to her, and now 
my father has made these things and told me to bring them to you 
in order to see what you thought about it and could do for us." 
They told him to go westward to the Mole, his uncle. They said 
he would come to a hollow place where a ladder was protruding, 
there the Mole lived, and he should see what the Mole thought about 

So the young man went to the house of the Mole, who told him to 
go northward to his uncle. So he proceeded northward and came to 
a little opening in the ground from which there came a breeze. "This 
must be the place, " the young man said, and thereupon a great strong 
wind came out of the opening. It was the Storm (H6I<angwuu), who 
then invited him to come in, so he went in and found a Hopi sitting 
in the house. He was a handsome man, nicely dressed up, wearing 
a bandoleer over each shoulder, also two buckskins tied crosswise over 
his chest. He wore a hurunkwa on his head, a kilt about his loins, 
and had black lines on each cheek, while his body was painted up 
like the bodies of warriors. When they were seated, Hfilcangwuu asked 
him why he had come, then he related his story. Htilcangwuu then 
said: "Let us smoke, then we will see what we think about it. " So 
he got out a large pipe and the young man smoked, swallowing all 
the smoke without again exhaling it. He then said to his host. 
' ' Itaha ! " ^ " Itiwaya, ' ' ^ the uncle replied ; and then added : ' ' You are 
surely my nephew. Now, what is it that you want? what has hap- 
pened ? ' ' He then said : ' ' My older brother and I were racing there and 
came to a place where a beautiful maiden called us and she drew my 
brother up, and now my father sent me out to see whether we could 

1 Kohkang Wuhti (Spider Woman) is often called S6 Wuhti (Old Woman or Grandmother). 

2 My uncle (on father's side). 

3 My nephew (on brother's side). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. ioi 

do anything to get him back. Our beads, she said, she does not 
want." His uncle then said, "You go to Walpi (a Hopi village dis- 
tantly located), and see the Snake people there, who used to have 
snake dances here and were driven away from here to Wdlpi when 
the snakes bit somebody, and see what they have to say about it." 
So the young man proceeded to Walpi, although it was far away. So 
he came to Walpi and there found the Snake people. They were 
handsome and dressed up like warriors and like Snake people (Tcu- 

When he had entered they asked him: "Why have you come 
here?" "Yes," he said, "we were racing there where we live, and 
coming to the bluff, Admusha, somebody spoke to us and said : ' You 
come here, come in here. There is something handsome in here, ' 
and then she drew up my elder brother, and now my uncle. Storm, 
told me to come here and see you. Now, are you the ones, and what 
now? What do you think about it?" "We shall see," they said, 
and then began to smoke. The young man again swallowed all the 
smoke, which pleased the Snakes ' and they said, "You are truly our 
nephew. What is it that you want ? " " Yes , " he said , " we were racing 
there and that maiden drew up my elder brother and said that 
she did not want our stone beads even if we would bring them." 
"Yes," the Snakes said, "she does not want them." The Tcutcu- 
cona then showed him a baho, saying, "This the maiden -i^ants, she 
does not want beads, but she wants such bahos. You look at 
this baho well and then make one like it; or," they continued, "we 
shall make one for you. You take that along and then you look at 
it well and make bahos like it and give them to the maiden. These 
she wants. " So he took one with him and returned home. 

When he arrived at his home he showed the b^ho ; they looked at it 
and then made a good many of them. With these they proceeded to 
the place where the maiden had enticed the young man. The young 
man, his father, the two P6okongs, their grandmother (Spider Woman) 
and Storm were in the party. Spider Woman had taken a seat be- 
hind the ear of P6ok6nghoya. When they arrived at the bluff the 
father said, "We have come to get my child." "What have you 
brought with you?" the maiden replied. "We have brought these 
b^hos," the father said, and hereupon Storm raised them all up and 
lifted them on the bluff. The mdna at once fled into her house, and 
Storm pushed the whole party into the house also. " What have you 
brought ?" the mdna again asked. "This we have brought, this here." 

' The idea that swallowing the smoke, when smoking, is considered as an accomplishment, 
reqixiring special courage and strength, occurs in various Hopi tales. 

I02 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Whereupon they showed her the bdhos. "Thanks," she said, "these 
I want. Of course I shall give him to you, but let us first play a 
game," whereupon she spread sand upon the floor. "Now, you play 
first," she said. So the Hopi planted different kinds of seed in the 
sand and thrust the bahos into the sand around the border, where- 
upon the things planted grew up quickly. "Thanks," she said, 
"you certainly know something. These I want and you shall cer- 
tainly take him along. But we shall race first, we shall follow the 
sun." So she and the young man that had procured the baho 
arranged for a race. The young man mounted an eagle breath 
feather, the mdna turning into a Tokchii (a swift snake, similar to 
the racer). They started together, but by and by the mana got 
ahead of the young man. They circled around the sun, started back, 
the maiden still being in the lead. Spider Woman fhen took a reed, 
pointed it towards the racers, and by a strong inhalation drew the 
young man forward, increasing his speed so that he arrived at the 
house first, thus having beaten the mana in the race. The mana 
then said, "You take him along, you have beaten me." Where- 
upon she drew him forth from another room. He was nearly dead. 
In the inner room were many bones of young men who had perished 
there. The Antelope Maiden had been angry because no bahos had 
been made for her for a long time, and hence she had killed so many 
young men. But since these people now revived her bahos, she was 
reconciled, and after that killed no more people, and the Zunis were 
freed from this danger. 


Aliksai! In Mishdngnovi where now are the ruins, the people 
lived, and there lived a family consisting of a father, mother, a youth, 
and a maiden. One day at noon the latter went after water to Toriva. 
There "was a great deal of water in the spring at that time. As she 
was dipping out the water it began to move and a Bdlolookbng came 
out. He at once began to draw the maiden with strong inhalations 
towards him, embraced her, and disappeared with her into the water. 
Her mother was waiting for her to return, but she did not come. 
When she did not return the mother began to worry and said 
she would go and look for her. Following her tracks and not meeting 
her on the way, she went down to the spring. There she hunted for 
her tracks but only found them descending to the water. The jug 
was standing there, but the daughter could not be found, so she 

» Told by Sikihpiki (Shupalilavi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 103 

finally picked up the jug and the old blanket in which the jug had 
been carried and went home. "I have found the tracks," she said 
to her husband, "but they simply lead to the edge of the water, and 
I cannot find our child anywhere." "Oh!" the father replied; so 
the father bestirred himself and made a ball and an arrow; to the 
latter he tied some blue-bird feathers. These he took to the house of 
Pookonghoya and his younger brother Bal6ongahoya, who lived some- 
what higher up, north of the village. 

When he arrived at their house the two youths were romping 
about. "Be quiet," their grandmother. Spider Woman, said, "be 
quiet, somebody has come here." So they were quiet. "Sit down, 
sit down," she said to the man, and then set some hurtishiki ' before 
him, of which he ate. It was just a small ball, but as he ate from it 
it kept increasing again. When he was done she said to him, "Now, 
why do you come? What is the matter?" "Yes," he said, "yes, 
yesterday our daughter went after water and she did not return. 
Her foot tracks only lead to the edge of the stream, and now I came 
here, as you have a strong heart, and thought that may be you could 
do something for us. " Hereupon he handed two bows to the youths and 
an eagle nakwakwosi, which he had also prepared, to Spider Woman. 
They were all happy over these things. "Askwalf," she said, "yes, 
these, my youths, know about it, for they have seen it. Bd,l6l6okong 
dragged your daughter into the water, and to-morrow we will bestir 
ourselves and we shall go there. Now, you go back and invite your 
friends and you must also go to work making nakwdkwosis." Spider 
Woman also instructed him that they should then dress up the brother 
of the maiden. 

So he went home, invited his friends, and they made many nak- 
wdkwosis which they placed into a handsome tray. Early the next 
morning Spider Woman and the two youths repaired to the village. 
When they had arrived there they dressed up the brother of the lost 
maiden, putting a kilt, sash, bunch of breath feathers, numerous 
strands of beads, and ear pendants on him. He took a ball in his 
right hand, and the taldwayi (a stick with two eagle feathers and a 
string of horse hair attached to it) in his left hand. The father took 
the tray with prayer-offerings, and the chief of the village also went 
along. Spider Woman told the young man not to be afraid. While 
the P6okong and his younger brother would sing at the spring he 
should dance, and if the Bdlolookong pitied them and would come out 
with his sister, he should not be afraid and he should not cry, but 
should grab his sister and then strike the Bdlolookong with the tonlpi 

' Prepared of com-meal and water and sometimes formed into balls. 

I04 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

(a club^ith a stone attached to it), which the P6okongs had handed 
to him. 

When they had arrived at the spring they stood there. "Now 
we are ready," the young man said. Hereupon the P6okongs sang 
the following song : 


Slowly : Aha'naha yuyuna ha 
Aha'naha yuyuna ha 

J- 1-11 LA. iicA-iicv y u. y ^^iicAf x±%^ 

Aha'naha yuyuna ha hahahaia „_ , 

T, , . , . , . 1 y Words are 

rast: Ahamahai yuyuna ha ., . . 

., . , . , all archaic. 

Ahamahai yuyuna ha I 

Ahainahai yuyuna ha hahahaina. j 

While they were singing the young man was shaking his ball and 
holding the tal^wayi in his left arm, dancing at the edge of the spring 
to the time of the singing. All at once the water began to move and 
the Balolookong came out holding the maiden in his left arm. She 
was still nicely dressed, having her turquoise ear-pendants still in her 
ears. "My elder brother," she said, to her brother, "take me." 
"Yes, you go nearer now, and have a big heart, but do not cry," 
Spider Woman urged him. So he approached the edge of the spring 
and reached for his sister. But as he did so he began to cry and im- 
mediately the Balolookong disappeared in the water with the maiden. 
"Oh!" they all said. "Now let us try it again," Spider Woman 
suggested. "Let us try it once more, but you must not be afraid; 
you must have a big heart ; you must not cry. I did not tell you you 
must do this way, but have a big heart this time." And now they 
were ready again. 

As they were singing the same song that they had sung before, 
the young man again shaking his ball and dancing at the edge of the 
water, the water again began to move and tlie Balolookong once more 
came out, again holding the mana in his left arm. "Now go nearer, 
close to the edge," Spider Woman urged him, "do not be afraid now." 
So he danced slowly to the edge of the water and again his sister 
reached out her hands towards him and said : " My elder brother, take 
me." So when he was still dancing he held out his hand, grasped the 
maiden and struck the Balolookong on the head with the club. Im- 
mediately the serpent released the maiden and only his skin was 
floating on the water like a sack. "Thanks," the maiden said, 
"thanks! You were slow in taking me, you cried." Hereupon he 
drew her out of the water, "Thanks!" Spider Woman said, "thanks 
that you were not too late." Hereupon they put other clothes on the 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 105 

maiden and laid a pflhu of red feathers for her on the path.' The tray 
with all the nakwdkwosis they threw into the spring for the maiden, 
because with this price they had purchased the mana back from the 
water serpent. And they threw the prayer-offerings into the spring 
that nothing further should befall the m^na. 

They then returned to the village, but it seems that Bdlolookong 
just left his skin and slipped back into the water when he was struck, 
because he is still there and is occasionally seen by women, and who- 
ever sees him becomes sick. Only lately, the narrator continued, 
he was seen by a woman, Corn-Ear (Kdo), but the women that have 
seen him say that he now is just small. One time he was also seen 
by a man. Sometimes those who see him get sick, because he is 

After they had returned to the village Spider Woman and the 
two P6okongs returned to their house. And so that way they were 
in time to save the mdna. 


A long time ago two maidens lived in Orafbi. They were 
close friends and often used to grind corn together, one time at the 
house of one, at another time at the house of the other. But after a 
little while they both fell in love with a certain young man of the 
village, which led to disagreement and quarrels between them. The 
Yellow Corn-Ear maiden was possessed of supernatural powers and 
concluded to destroy her friend and rival. One time early in the 
morning they were both going to get some water from Spider Spring, 
which is located somewhat north-east of the village. They took their 
so-called maiden's jugs (m6nwikurus) with them. When they were 
returning to the village they came to a sand hill, and the Yellow Corn- 
Ear maiden suggested that they rest there for a little while. 

After some time she said to her friend: "Let us play here for a 
little while. You go down this hill and I shall throw something at 
you. You catch it and throw it back to me," whereupon she drew 
forth from her bosom a very pretty little wheel that showed all the 
colors of the rainbow. When her friend had reached the foot of the 
hill she threw this wheel at her, and when her friend caught it it was 

■ A puhu (road or path) consists of one or more small feathers — usually eagle feathers — to 
the stub end of which are fastened a single and a twisted string. These feathers are placed near 
springs, in front of shrines, altars, on paths and near graves, as paths for clouds, spirits, deities, 
etc., whom the Hopi wish to follow these paths. 

2 Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi) . 

io6 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

so heavy that it threw her down. When she rose she had been turned 
into a coyote. Her friend at the top of the hill laughed at her and 
said, "You have been quarreling with me about that young man, now 
that is what you get for it. Now, you go about that way." Where- 
upon she picked up her jug and went to the village. 

The other maiden, now a coyote, felt very sad and ascended the 
hill to her water jug, which she tried to carry but could not do so in 
her present form. She waited there until- evening and was crying 
most of the time. After dark she tried to enter the village, but the 
dogs of the village immediately drove her away. She made a large 
circuit around the village and tried to enter it from another side, but 
was again driven away by the dogs. So she went westward, and 
having become very hungry by this time, she was thinking where she 
might find something to eat. It was in the fall of the year, and the 
people were watching their crops in the fields, so she thought she 
might perhaps find something in some of the sheds or temporary 
shelters in which the people were living, and approaching one of them 
she found on top of a shelter two roasted ears of corn that had been left 
there. These she ate. She then made another effort to enter the 
village but as soon as the dogs of the village smelled her presence she 
was again driven away. She then concluded that she could not get 
into the village and again went westward. She knew that somewhere 
west of Ap6hnivi there was a place called Yung^chaivi, where 
some herders had also built temporary shelters and were staying while 
they were herding their sheep at that place. She thought that per- 
haps there she might find some shelter and food. 

By and by she arrived at a hut which belonged to two Q6oqoql6m 
Katcinas who were hunting in that region. In this hut she found a 
great deal of rabbit meat, a good many rabbit skins and some entrails 
of rabbit. The latter and the meat were slightly baked. She was 
very hungry and ate a little of the entrails, which she did not like 
very much, however. It was about the time of the morning meal 
and the two hunters had had their early meal and had already left 
for the hunt. She was very tired, having spent all the night trying 
to get into the village and find shelter, and so concluded to remain 
and rest here all day. In the evening the two Q6oq6qlom hunters 
returned. When coming near their hut one of them said, "There is 
a coyote in our hut and has eaten some of our meat. Let us kill him." 
Whereupon he got ready his bow and arrows and was aiming at the 
intruder, when the other one said : "No, let us try to capture him alive 
and take him home to our grandmother. Spider Woman." Upon 
entering the hut they heard the coyote sob and saw tears trickling 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 107 

down his eyes. "Oh!" one of the hunters said, "This coyote is sad 
and has been crying. Let us feed him." So he took a large piece of 
meat, broke it in two and gave a portion of it to the visitor, who ate 
it with relish. Hereupon they concluded that they would go home 
that evening. They tied up the meat and the skins, and also tied the 
feet of the coyote, and loading everything upon their backs they re- 
turned to their home, which was at Katcina Gap (Katcfnvala), a 
short distance northwest of Oraibi. 

Arriving there they called to Spider Woman saying, "We have 
brought you an animal. Come and help us lift it off of our backs." 
She did so and expressed her satisfaction at the present that she had 
received. They then placed the coyote and the meat north of the 
fireplace. The woman looked closely at it and then said to the two 
hunters : "Alas ! that poor one ! That is no coyote. Thanks that you 
have not killed it. Where did you find it?" They told her that they 
had captured it in their hut where they had been hunting, and related 
all the circumstances; She at once sent one into the village after 
some Tom6ala,' the other one she sent to the woods after some juniper 

While they were gone she boiled some water, and when the man 
with the Tom6ala returned, she poured the water into a vessel and put 
a hook from the pods of the Tom6ala into the neck and another one 
into the back of the coyote. She then placed the latter into the water, 
covered it with a piece of native cloth (mochdpu), then placed her 
hand upon the cover, took hold of the two hooks and kept twisting 
and turning them, by which operation she pulled off the skin of the 
coyote. Throwing aside the covering of the vessel she threw away 
the skin, and in the vessel was found the maiden whom she had thus 
restored. She still had her clothes on and her hair tied in whorls just 
as she had left the village. The woman asked her how she had met 
with this fate, and the maiden told her the whole story. Spider 
Woman comforted her saying, "You poor one. That Yellow Corn- 
Ear maiden is bad, but you will take revenge on her." 

Hereupon the other hunter returned with the juniper branches. 
She took the maiden, the branches, and the water into another room 
and there bathed the maiden, then gave her some com which the 
maiden ground into meal. After a number of days Spider Woman 
told the maiden that she should go home now as her mother was very 
homesick after her child, but she said she would call somebody in first; 
so she ascended her housetop and cried out to her neighbors that they 
should come in. In response to her announcement a great many 

' Martyinia proboscidje, Miller. 

io8 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Katcinas who lived around there came into her house, asking her 
what she wanted of them. "Yes," she said, "there is this maiden 
here and I want you to return her to her house," and then told them 
the whole story. They were willing. She then dressed up the 
maiden nicely, putting her hair into new whorls and placing over her 
shoulders a new at66, and then instructed her that she should have 
her father make two bdhos and a number of nakwd.kwosis for the 
leader of the Katcinas and for the leader of the singing, and also told 
.her how she should behave towards and get even with her enemy, 
the Yellow Corn-Ear maiden. Hereupon they went to the village, 
the maiden going in the rear of the line of Katcinas. Having arrived 
near the house of the village chief (Kik-mongwi) , where the Pongowe 
kiva is at present situated, they performed their first dance, singing 
while they danced. 

This was at early dawn, the so-called white dawn (qoydngwunu) . 
Their singing at once arrested the attention of some of the early risers, 
who hastened to the place where the Katcinas were dancing. Soon 
the news was whispered around that the Katcinas had brought a 
maiden to the village, and some soon recognized the girl and ran to 
the house of her parents. The latter, however, refused to believe the 
news, and four messengers had to be sent to them before they believed. 
They then went to the dancers, who in the meanwhile had arrived at 
the dancing plaza in the center of the village. "So you have come," 
the mother said, and began to cry and wanted to take her daughter 
with her, but the latter said, "Wait a little," and then told her father 
that he should take two bahos and a number of nakwakwosis, and 
while he did this the Katcinas continued their dancing and the mana 
remained waiting by their side. When finally the father brought the 
prayer-offerings he gave one baho to the leader, the other to his 
daughter. After the dancing was over, the daughter gave her baho 
to the leader of the singing. The nakwakwosis were distributed 
among the other Katcinas, and after the father had thanked the Kat- 
cinas for returning his child and had told them that he was very 
happy, they returned to their home, the parents taking with them 
their daughter. 

She rested there during the whole day, but early the next morning 
went to grind com, singing a little song which told about her recent 
adventures. Her friend, the Yellow Corn -Ear maiden, heard her 
sing and at once visited her, expressing her great delight at her return. 
She was treated cordially, the maiden just having returned not 
manifesting any ill-feeling towards her at all, according to the instruc- 
tions of Spider Woman. She was biding her time. They ground 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 109 

com together all day again as they had done formerly. In the evening 
they went after water again to the same spring where they had gotten 
water before. While they were filling their jugs the Yellow Corn- 
Ear maiden noticed that her friend was dipping her water with a 
peculiar little vessel (which Spider Woman had given to her) and that 
the water, as it was running into the jug, looked very beautiful, show- 
ing the different colors of the rainbow. She said to her friend : "What 
have you there? Let me see that little cup." "Yes," her friend 
said, "that is a very good cup, and the water tastes well from it, too." 
Hereupon she drank from it and handed it to her friend. She ad- 
mired it very much and also drank from it. Immediately she fell 
down and was turned into a bull snake. "There! You remain that 
way now too," the Blue Corn-Ear maiden said; "you tried to destroy 
me, but you will now have to remain that way because no one will 
help you and restore you." She then laughed, picked up her jug and 
returned to the village. 

The bull snake left the place and wandered about. It often gets 
hungry, but as it cannot run very fast it has difficulty in getting its 
prey, hence it captures its prey by charming and drawing it towards 
it by its powerful inhalations, which is still frequently observed by 
the Hopi. It lives on little rabbits, mice, birds, squirrels, etc., which 
it charms by its inhalations and then kills them. 

This maiden in the form of a bull snake later on went to the village 
once and there was killed by her own parents, who of course did not 
know that they had killed their own daughter. Hereupon the maiden, 
or rather her soul, was liberated and could then go to the Skeleton 
House. Ever since some of the sorcerers (P6pwaktu) will occasion- 
ally leave their graves in the form of bull snakes. Bull snakes are 
often seen coming out of certain graves still wound in the yucca leaves 
with which the corpse was tied up when laid away. If such a bull 
snake in which a sorcerer is supposed to have entered happens to be 
killed, the soul of the sorcerer living in it is set free and then goes to 
the Skeleton House (Mdski). 


In Orafbi the people were living, and over there at H6nletsn6ma's 
house there lived a youth. He was always sitting at the edge of the 
mesa early in the morning. He was always thinking about that 
graveyard there. "Is it true that some one is really living there?" 
he thought. "Is it true that if some one dies he goes somewhere?" 

• Told by Qfiydwaima (Oraibi) . 

no Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

thus he was thinking. ' ' If only some one would tell me whether these 
that are buried here are living somewhere." Now, at last he got some 
corn meal, then he went to the edge again, and then he prayed with it 
to the Sun and said: "Now then, have you perhaps seen anywhere 
these that are buried here?" Thus he prayed. "Now, if you have 
seen them somewhere, inform me." Having thus prayed he returned. 
And then after that he thus continued to pray. After having thus 
prayed for four days he sat down there and some one came ascending 
the mesa. The one that ascended asked him ; " Now, why do you want 
me?" "Yes," said the one that was sitting there, "I am always 
thinking about these who are buried there, whether it is true that" 
they are living in some other life." "Now," he, the Sun, said, "yes, 
they are living. Are you really anxious to see them?" Now the 
young man answered. "Yes," he said. "Very well," answered the 
Sun, "I shall then give you this here." He handed him something. 
"When you will sleep in the evening, eat a little of this, but you tell 
your mother and them all about it." "Very well," the youth said. 
"I shall leave," said the Sun. 

The young man now went home to his house. He arrived there. 
His mother was preparing food. When they had eaten he said to his 
father: "My father," he said, "is it really true that if some one die he 
remains somewhere? I want to find out about it." Now, hereupon 
the mother said to him : ' ' You must not do that way ; yet it is for you 
(to say)." "Yes," said the young man, "yes, as soon as I shall sleep 
in the night I shall not wake up quickly; hence, as soon as the sun is 
risen and is high up, you must work on me and then maybe I shall 
return and wake up." Now the father said, "Very well." It now 
was evening. He now ate a little of the medicine. Upon that he 
slept. He was entirely dead and he went to the Skeleton House. 
He came to Ap6hnivi. There was a plain trail. On the north side 
he descended and there somebody was sitting, but that one had died 
long ago and (behold!) it was that one. He recognized him. 

That one said, "Have you come?" "Yes," the young man said. 
"Now you carry me," said the one who was sitting there, "at least 
four steps. There you set me down." "No, I am in a hurry," the 
young man said to him, and thereupon proceeded. Now the one that 
was sitting there cried. When he (the youth) had gone a little way 
again some one was sitting there. He spoke to him in the same 
manner. He again did not want to. Now he ascended Bow Height 
(Aoatovi), but there somebody went backward and forward and 
carried something. It was a woman. She had in a carrying basket 
some very hard stone (kal^vi), but a bow string was her burden band. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. hi 

It had cut into her head skin. Now that woman said, "Take this 
from me." "No," the young man said, "I am in a hurry," and pror 

Again somebody came, and now he had reached him, but this one 
was carrying a meahng stone. His burden band was a hair string. 
Cactus was tied to the right foot of that one and p6na (also a species 
of cactus) to his left foot, so how could he get along fast? If he 
hurried a little that pricked him very much. Now that one said, 
"Take this away from me." "No," he replied, I am in a hurry," 
and again he proceeded. After that he ran fast. Now then he came 
to the salt, and there somebody was shaking a bell very loudly. Now 
he arrived at him, and it was the Kwanitaka. The Kwanitaka said 
to him: "Have you come?" "Yes," the young man said. The 
Kwanitaka now said, "Have you seen them? Thus you want it. 
Now I shall inform you. There where you first came upon one, that one 
is very wicked. He does not want rain in summer. That one when he 
does something offensive to these here clouds they all run away. Then 
again, you know, you arrived at another one. That one killed some 
one. That one when he put something bad into somebody he died 
from it, hence when will those arrive here? You see when they have 
taken four steps, there they remain again. Then these at Aoatovi 
are carrying something. They also take four steps and then remain 
there, but they always remain eight 'times' before they proceed, 
hence when shall they arrive here? Now go on, but you go this way 
here (pointing to one of two diverging roads). Now you go on hap- 
pily and then somewhere some one will ring again." And sure 
enough when he drew near, somebody was ringing, and again he 
arrived at some one who spoke to him in the same manner. " Have 
you come?" he said. "Yes," the young man answered. "All right, 
goon," said the Kwanitaka, and taking hold of the young man he 
led him. Now they came somewhere, and there was a fire. Now 
they arrived there and it was very deep there, like a corn steaming 
oven (koici), but it was burning very much. "Don't you know, those 
that you first came upon, they come here. Them I bum up here. 
Those wicked ones there in Oraibi, them I bum up here, but they 
at least will come out. Do you see, as soon as burned, as soon as it 
smokes, it comes out. Now you see sometimes it (the air) is filled 
with smoke. Now that (smoke) is these. They eat nothing. They 
are never happy. But it was themselves when they planned it. 
Now then, let us be this way again." 

Now they arrived at a place where it was very deep and where it 
was very dark deep in. "Here I throw some of them in, but they 

112 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

always remain in here. They never come out. Now, come on, let us 
be back. Thus you wanted to understand this." Now he left him. 
Now he returned to the other Kwanitaka, and he arrived there. And 
he again said, "Have you come?" "Yes," said the young man, and 
again he led him to a road, directing him to the other of the two roads. 
"That way you go," he said, and now he came somewhere to a village, 
but it was a large village. They lived there in white houses only. 
There at the extreme edge of the village a Kwanitaka was going up 
and down. He said, "Have you come? Come this way," and then 
took hold of him and took him to the village. He arrived there. 
There another chief, a Kwanitaka, stood close at the village. "Have 
you come?" he said to them. "Yes," they answered together, where- 
upon he said, "Now please enter." Upon that this other also took 
hold of the young man and they entered, and sure enough, there also 
some were living and he knew them. He had been a chief in Oraibi 
a longtime ago. Now the Kwanitaka said to the young man. "This 
way, this you wanted to know." But in a large blossom he was living. 

That deceased chief and three other chiefs were living in blossoms 
that were standing one after the other. "Thanks," said the Kwani- 
taka, "these were never bad in Oraibi; they were always good, there- 
fore they are here this way now. Now, then, let us go and look there, 
too." So they again entered. There all kinds of grasses and plants 
and blossoms of every description were. "Thus these are living 
here," said the Kwanitaka. "This you wanted to know, hence now 
you look well. When you return you tell them. You see if any one 
is not wicked there in Oraibi he shall certainly come here. Here you 
have seen it. You see, there a road has been prepared for them. 
Now as soon as you arrive you tell them everything about this our 
life here, and if some one thinks to himself (has his welfare at his heart) 
he must live accordingly. Thus you wanted it. Because you have 
entered our dwellings here everywhere you have found out every- 
thing, but as soon as you think of coming here sometime, you must 
eat a little of your medicine again, but you must tell this to your 
mother and your father and to them, but they must never do that 
way, and if they do not believe my talk they shall never live with us 
here. Now then, proceed. Run fast, as your father and mother are 
waiting for you." 

Now then, from there he ran very fast. He arrived at the Kwan- 
mongwi, where the road divided. He said to him, ' ' Have you come ? " 
"Yes," the young man said. "Very well," he replied, "run fast now, 
your father and mother are waiting for you." He now came run- 
ning very fast. At Aodtovi he again came upon them who were 

March, 1905. The Tr<\ditions of the Hopi — Voth. 113 

being punished there, those who because they had stolen. They 
were going to the Skeleton House, but were still punished there, but 
they were concerned that their thieving should come to an end,' 
and then sometime they might arrive at them in the Skeleton 
House. Now when he came upon them the one that was sitting there 
said to him: "So you have come back again!" "Yes," the young 
man replied, and at once proceeded, running very fast. Now he came 
upon the woman. She said, "So you have come back again !" "Yes," 
he answered, and upon that proceeded, running very fast. 

He now came upon the one that had killed some one, north of 
Ap6hnivi. "So you have come back again," said the one that was 
punished there. "Yes," he answered. Having said this, he pro- 
ceeded, running. Now he arrived a little north of Apdhnivi. Now 
there the one that did not want it to rain was sitting. He also said 
the same thing. "Yes," the young man said, and proceeded, running. 
Now he arrived at his house in Orafbi and entered his body. Now 
when the sun was rising he awoke and sat up. He was thinking. 
The sun was somewhat high already. Now his mother, because she 
was through making the food, came to look after him and he had 
awoke. "Are you awake?" the mother said. "Yes," he replied. 
"Come then, let us eat; come this way," the mother said. "Very 
well," answered the young man. So they were eating. When they 
had eaten the father asked the young man: "Now what have you 
found out?" "Yes," he said, "yes, truly they are living. I have 
seen everything there in the Skeleton House and there the chief told me 
thus, thus I tell you. There that Kwan-mongwi bums these wicked 
ones there, and these others he throws into the dark, and then again, 
these that have been chiefs here they live well there and they are chiefs 
there again. I have seen their way of living there. So when some 
time you will not see me here, you must not worry over that; truly 
they are living there." Thus he told them. And after that they 
were living together. By and by the young man wanted to go back 
again, and he said to his father, "My father, my mother." "Hah," 
they said. "I shall go back again," he answered. "Very well," said 
the father, and that night he took some of that medicine and then 
slept, but now he was really dead. And (in the morning) the mother, 
in order that he should eat, in order that he should refresh himself, 
looked after her boy, but he had died. Now they wrapped him up 
and put him away, there below Kuivo. There they buried him. 

' The meaning is somewhat obscure; bat the narrator explained, that those souls wished that 
their thefts and the attending punishment might terminate so that they could go on to the other 

114 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

After that they lived (alone), but they, the father and the mother, 
were homesick after their boy. 

Now the father went to his field, and when he came there he hoed 
his field. Then at the edge of the field something was running. It 
was a bird, a B^chro. Now the Bachro spoke. "Alas!" he said, 
"alas, my father is homesick after me." "Yes," the father said, "I 
am homesick after you." The Bachro said, "Now you must not be 
that way; why I told you (all about it). In four days I shall come 
back again, hence you must both come." Having said this he flew 
away. Now, after four days the father said to the mother: "Let us 
go together." "Very well," she said. Now his wife prepared some 
lunch and then they left. When they arrived there they were making 
the field. Now the husband said to his wife, "Now somebody will 
come." "Who?" she asked. When they were still thus talking it 
arrived. Close by them something was whistling, and now he came 
running towards them and arrived at them. As soon as he had ar- 
rived at them he said, "Alas, you are homesick after me." Now the 
father said, "Yes." "Now you must not be that way," he said. "I 
live well." Now the mother said: "Yes, I am homesick after you." 
Now again he said, "You must not be that way. I shall come and 
see you." Having said this he again flew away. In the evening they 
went home and surely after that when the father was walking in the 
field that came there. After that they continued to live there. 


Haliksai! In Shong6pavi the people were living first, and there 
a young man was often sitting at the edge of the village looking at 
the graveyards and wondering what became of the dead, whether it 
is true that they continue to live somewhere. He spoke to his father 
about it. His father could not tell him very much. "We do not 
know much about it," he said; "so that is what you are thinking 
about." His father was the village chief. He said to his son that 
he would speak to the other chiefs and to his assistants about it, 
which he did. He talked about it especially to the village crier, and 
told them that those were the things that his son was thinking about, 
and whether they knew anything about it. "Yes," they said, "the 
Badger Old Man (Hondn Wuhtaka) has the medicine for it and knows 
about it. We shall inform him." So they called the Badger Old 
Man. When he arrived he asked them what they wanted with him. 
"Yes," they said, "this young man is thinking about these dead, 

' Told by Sik4hpiki (Shupaulavi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 115 

whether they live anywhere, and you know about it, you have med- 
icine for that, and that is the reason why we called you." "Very 
well," he said, "so that is why you wanted me. I shall go and get 
my medicine." 

So he went over to his house and looked over his medicines and 
finally found the right one. "This is the medicine," he said, and took 
it, returning to the village. "Very well," he said ; "now when does he 
want to find out about it?" "To-morrow," they said. "Very well; 
have you a white kilt?" "Yes," the village chief replied. "You put 
this on your son the next morning," he said, "and then you blacken 
his chin with t6ho (a black shale), and tie a small eagle feather (piphii) 
to his forehead." The next morning they dressed up the young man 
as they were instructed, preparing him as they prepare the dead. 
Hereupon the Badger Old Man spread a white 6wa on the floor and 
told the young man to lie down on it. He then placed some medicine 
into his mouth, which the young man ate. He also placed some 
medicine into his ears and some on his heart. Then he wrapped him 
up in a robe, whereupon the young man, after moving a little, "died." 
"This is the medicine," the Badger Old Man said, ""if he eats this he 
will go far away and then come back again. He wanted to see 
something and find out something, and with this medicine he will 
find out." 

After the young man had fallen asleep he saw a path leading west- 
ward. It was the road to the Skeleton house. This road he followed 
and after awhile he met someone who was sitting there. "What 
have you come for?" he asked the young man. "Yes," he replied, 
"I have come to find out about your life here." "Yes," the other 
one replied, "I did not follow the straight road; I did not listen, and 
I now have to wait here. After a certain number of days I can go on 
a little, then I can go on again, but it will be a long time before I shall 
get to Skeleton house." This one was simply living in an inclosure 
of sticks. That was all the house and protection he had. 

From here the young man proceeded westward. The path led 
through large cactus and through many agave plants so that some- 
times it could hardly be distinguished. He finally arrived at the rim 
of a steep bluff. Here somebody was sitting. He asked the young 
man why he had come, and the latter told him. "Very well," the 
chief said. "Away over there is the house that you are going to," 
but as there was a great deal of smoke in the distance the young man 
could not see the house. But hereupon the chief placed the young 
man's kilt on the ground, placed the young man on it, then lifted it 
up, and holding it over the precipice he threw it forward, whereupon 

ii6 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

the young man was slowly descending on the kilt as if he were flying 
with wings. 

When he .had arrived on the ground below the bluff he put on his 
kilt again and proceeded. In the distance he saw a column of smoke 
rising from the ground. After he had proceeded a distance he came 
upon Skeleton Woman (Mas Wuhti). He asked her what that was. 
"Yes," she said, "some of those who had been wicked while living in 
the village were thrown in there. There is a chief there who tells 
them to go o»ver this road, and throws them in there. Those who 
are thrown in there are destroyed, they no longer exist. You must 
not go there," she added, "but you keep on thisj-oad and go straight 
ahead towards Skeleton house." When he arrived there he could not 
see any one at first except a few children who were playing there. 
"Oh!" they said, "here a Skeleton has come." There was a very 
large village there, so he went in and now the people or Skeletons living 
there heard about him. So they assembled there on all sides -and 
looked at him. "Who are you?" they asked the young man. "I 
am the village chief's son. I came from Shongopavi." 

So they pointed him to the Bear clan, saying, "Those are the 
people that you want to see. They are your people." Because there 
were a great many different clans there. They are sleeping there in 
the daytime. So the Skeleton took him over to the house where his 
clan lived. "Here your ancestors are," they told him, and showed 
him the ladder that led up to the house, but the rungs of the ladder 
were made of sunflower stems. He tried to go up but the first rung 
broke as soon as he stepped on it, but when the Skeletons went up 
and down the ladder the rungs did not break. So he was wondering 
how he should get up. "I shall stay down here," he said ; " I shall not 
go up. You bring me food here and feed me down here," he said to 
them. So the Skeletons brought him some melon, watermelon, and 

When they saw him eat they laughed at him, because they never 
eat the food, but only the odor or the soul of the food. That is the 
reason why they are not heavy. And that is the reason why the 
clouds into which the dead are transformed are not heavy and can 
float in the air. The food itself the Skeletons threw out behind the 
houses. So this young man, when he was wandering around there, 
would sometimes eat of it. When he had eaten they asked him what 
he had come for. "Yes," he said, "I was always thinking whether 
Skeletons live somewhere. I spoke to my father about it and told him 
that I wanted to go and find out whether they were staying some- 
where, and my father was willing and he dressed me up in this way, 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 1 1 7 

and the Badger Old Man gave me some medicine that knows about 
this so that I could go and find out." "So that is what you have 
come for; so that is why you have come here. Now you look at us. 
Yes, we are thus." Thus they spoke to him, and then added: "This 
is the way we are living here. It is not light here ; it is not as light as 
where you live. We are living poorly here. You must go back again, 
you cannot stay with us here yet ; your flesh is still strong and ' salty. ' 
You eat food yet; we only eat the odor of the food. Now you must 
work there for us. Make nakwakwosis for us at the Soydl ceremony. 
These we tie around our foreheads and they represent dropping rain. 
We then shall work for you here, too. We shall send you rain and 
crops. You must wrap up the women when they die, in the 6wa, and 
tie the big knotted belt around them, because these owas are not 
tightly woven and when the Skeletons move along on them through 
the sky as clouds, the thin rain drops through these owas and the big 
raindrops fall from the fringes of the big belt. Sometimes you cannot 
see the clouds very distinctly because they are hidden behind these 
nakwakwosis just as our faces are hidden behind them." 

Looking around, the young man saw some of the Skeletons walking 
around with big burdens on their backs, consisting of mealing stones, 
which they carried over their forehead by a thin string that had cut 
deeply into the skin. Other§ carried bundles of cactus on their backs, 
and, as they had no clothes on, the thorns of the cactus would hurt 
them. They were submitted to these punishments for a certain 
length of time, when they were relieved of them and then lived with 
the other people there. At another place in the Skeleton house he 
saw the chiefs who had been good here in this world and had made a 
good road for other people. They had taken their tiponis* with them 
and set them up there, and when the people here in the villages have 
their ceremonies and smoke during the ceremonies, this smoke goes 
down into the other world to the tiponis or mothers and from there 
rises up in the form of clouds. 

After the young man had seen everything at this place he re- 
turned. When he arrived at the steep bluflF he again mounted his 
kilt and a slight breeze at once lifted him up. The chief that was 
living here at the top of the bluff who had assisted the young man in 
getting down was a Kwaniita. He had a big horn for a head-dress. 
This chief told him that he should return now. "You have now seen 
how they live here; it is not good, it is not light here; no one should 
desire to come here. Your father and mother are mourning for you 

' The tiponi is the palladium of the priest, and usually consists of an ear of com to which are 
wrapped feathers of different birds, pieces of turquoise and shells, etc., and into which are some- 
times placed different objects held sacred by the priest. 

ii8 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

now, so you return home." On his way back nothing happened to 
him and he did not meet anybody. When he had just about arrived 
at his house his body, that was still lying under the covering in the 
room where he had fallen asleep, began to move, and as he entered 
his body he came to life again. They removed the covering, the 
Badger Old Man wiped his body, washed off the paint from his 
face, discharmed him, and then he sat up. They fed him and then 
asked him what he had found out. 

"Yes," he said, "because I wanted to find out this, you dressed 
me up and laid me down here. Then you fed me something and put 
some medicine on my heart. After I had died I traveled westward, 
and when I was traveling I came upon a woman. She lived in an 
inclosure of brush and she was slowly moving westward and had not 
yet reached her destination by a long distance. She asked me where 
I was going and I told her that I was going to the Skeleton house and 
asked her where that was. She said that I was not very far away any 
more. Then I proceeded and passed through a great deal of cactus 
that was growing very closely so that I could hardly get through and 
had to step carefully. Then there was a place where it was clear. 
After that I came through a great many 6c6 (another species of 
cactus) plants, where I again had to work my way through carefully. 
When I came out of this I traveled on and came to a very steep bluff. 

' ' When I arrived there somebody was sitting there. He had a large 
horn head-dress with one horn. He had the chief's decoration in the 
face, a white line under the right eye running around the outside of 
the eye. It was a Kwaniita. 'You help me down here,' I told him. 
' What with?' he asked. Then I laid down my kilt. The chief placed 
me on this kilt, then he lifted it up and raised me above the precipice, 
when I slowly descended as if I were flying. From here I went on 
and came to a place where there was a great deal of smoke coming out 
of the" ground. Here I met a Skeleton woman. She told me not to go 
there, but that I should go straight ahead on the path, as that place' 
is where the wicked people were thrown in and burned. Then I 
traveled on and finally came to the Skeleton house. Here some chil- 
dren saw me and said, 'Aha, a Skeleton has come.' I looked around 
and could not see any one; then I remembered that they meant 
myself. I then entered the Skeleton house where many rows of 
houses like in the village are. 

' ' The children had already told them that a Skeleton had come. So 
the people came down from their houses and gathered outside. They 
asked me who I was, and when I told them, they said I was from the 
Bear clan, and showed me the place where the Bear people lived. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 119 

When I tried to go up the ladder the rungs broke because they were 
made of sunflower stalks. So I told the people and they came down 
and fed me. I was the only one that was actually eating, and I saw 
that they threw away the food to the rear of the houses. I asked 
them why they did so, and they told me that they were eating the 
soul or the odor of the food only. They then asked me why I had 
come and I told them. They said :' Your flesh is still " salty . " You 
will not stay with us here. Thus we are living here. We are not 
living like you Hopi live. It is light there, but here it is not light. 
We are living poorly here. Some of us have only very few nakw^k- 
wosis left on our foreheads. They are worn out so we cannot see very 
well through them any more. You must make many nakwakwosis 
and bdhos for us in the village and we shall also work for you here. 
You make prayer-offerings for us and we shall provide rain and crops 
and food for you. Thus we shall assist each other. So you go back 
now and you tell them in the village that we are living here and that 
we are living here in the dark, and tell them that no one should wish 
to come here. For some it is not yet at all time to come, but if their 
hearts are not good and they are angry they will come here sooner, so 
tell them that no one should desire to travel this way. Now you re- 
turn right straight, and do not tarry anywhere.' And so I came 
straight back. 

" It is really true that the Skeletons are living somewhere, and I also 
saw that those who are bad here and wicked are punished there. They 
have to carry heavy burdens. Some carry mealing stones, and others 
cactus, the thorns of which prick them. Especially are those pun- 
ished there in the other world that are bad to the maidens and women 
here. I have seen it all myself now, and I shall after this remember 
that and think that we are living in the light here. They are not 
living in the light there. So I shall not want to be thinking about 
that place, and no one should desire to go there, because here we are 
living better; we are living in the light here. I have seen it myself, 
and we should not think about that world so much." "Very well," 
they all said that were sitting around ; "very well; so that is the way." 
Hondn Wuhtaka said to the young man: "Now you must not think 
about that any more. You must go home now and live there strong. 
Do not think about these things any more." 

I20 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Alfksai! A long time ago the people were living in Mishongnovi, 
where now are the old ruins of the ancient village of Mishongnovi. In 
the village lived a very poor youth by the name of Koch6ilap Tiyo 
(Fire-Keeping-Up- Youth), though just why he was called that way 
the tale does not say. He would usually sit in a corner of the 
kiva. When the people were spinning they would throw away the 
little pieces of impure wool that they picked from their piles of wool, 
and of these the youth mentioned had finally made himself a bed, on 
which he would sleep. 

One time when it was winter and very cold, there was snow on the 
ground. The young men of the village were on the hunt, while the 
older men were in the kiva. They asked the youth why he had not 
gone along on the hunt. "Yes," he said, "I have no moccasins." 
"Well, you ought to be with them on the hunt," they said. "But I 
have no moccasins here," he replied' again. The old men said, "You 
go into the houses and perhaps you will find a sheep pelt hanging 
before an opening. Bring that here." So he went and found one 
and brought it into the kiva. They soaked it in water and made him 
a pair of moccasins. They then sent the youth to find an old piece 
of blanket (n6m6), of which they made him some leggings or socks. 
After he had wrapped up his feet and had put on his moccasins they 
gave him an old patched blanket, which he also put on and tied a 
string around the blanket for a belt. They then gave him a bow and 
arrows and some throwing sticks. Hereupon they explained to him 
all about the difference between the rabbit tracks and those of other 
animals, as he had never been on the hunt before. 

So he left the village and commenced to hunt. By and by he 
could hear the shoutings of the other hunters and he went in their 
direction. Soon he saw tracks in the snow and began to think that 
perhaps this is a rabbit track. He saw where the rabbit had been 
sitting and so he finally concluded that he had discovered the tracks 
of the rabbit and followed them for a long distance. Some of the 
hunters who had found something began to return home, but he fol- 
lowed the tracks. Finally he came upon a jack-rabbit who was very 
tired. Him he killed and he was so happy over his first game that 
he stroked the rabbit for quite a while. He then tied a string to its 
legs, and taking it on his back he thought of returning. It was now 
getting dark and it commenced to rain. He started back, and after 

' Told by Sikdhpiki (Shupaulavi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 121 

having traveled for some distance it was very dark and he came to a 
bluff where there was a place called Kaw^ylova.' Here he saw a 
light, and coming nearer he found a kiva and looking in he noticed 
a pretty woman in the kiva. He was by this time wet and very 
cold. She invited him to come in, so he went in. 

He sat down at the fireplace and warmed himself. She then 
gave him some pfkami and oongdwa to eat, but he discovered 
that the first was prepared of the brain of corpses and the other of 
flies, so although he was very hungry he did not eat an)rthing. While 
he pretended to eat something he dropped the food in front of him- 
self before he put it into his mouth. His rabbit he had left outside. 
He went and got it and handed it to the woman, who was Skeleton 
Woman. She was very happy over it and thanked him for it. She 
then said to him: "I am going to dance, and when I am through 
dancing we shall go to sleep together. You keep up the fire for me 
while I am dancing." Hereupon she went into another chamber of 
the kiva. While the young man was sitting at the fireplace he looked 
up and saw that the opening of the kiva was closed with many threads 
that were stretched across the opening in every direction. "How 
shall I get out of this?" he thought to himself,' but just then he 
happened to think that he had a very small knife with him. This 
he drew out and began to sharpen it. Then the woman came out 
again and danced, singing the following song: 

Mamanhoymuiyuu, mamanhoymuiyuu. 

The maidens, the maidens. .. • ' 

Mucunkuy amu5ru ) a i, • 

Hokwae, hokwae. > 
but she was no longer the handsome woman, she now was a skeleton 
with exposed teeth and thin, bony legs. 

When she turned around, while dancing, the youth jumped up, 
ran up the ladder, cut the strings with which the opening was closed, 
and ran away, the woman shouting after him, "Oh, my husband!" 
After running a distance the youth again came to a bluff called Citu- 
hoilawhka. Here he again saw a light and approaching it he found 
another kiva. Looking in he saw a lively dance in progress. "Come 
in," some one said to him, so he entered. "Hide me quickly," he 
said to the dancers, "somebody is pursuing me," for the Skeleton 
Woman had followed him. " All right, " they said, "come in quickly, 
dress up and dance with us. " These were the crickets (nandkan- 
chorzhtu).' They took some soaked clay, rubbed it over his body, 

' Horse-vulva, from the ijeculiar shape of the rock which somewhat resembled that organ. 
^StiiR: Naka'nchoro. 

122 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

and prepared him as one of the dancers. So he was dancing along 
and they were singing the following song as they danced : 

Hanatoili hanatoili, 

Hanatoili hanatoili (Meaning obsolete.) 

Yamushkiki, yamushkiki, 


All at once Skeleton Woman arrived at the entrance, and looking 
in, shouted: "How, how, is my husband not here?" but they danced 
on, pretending not to hear her. "He certainly must be here," she 
said. "I am going to come in." So she entered and examined the 
dancers and going through the crowd, hunted for the youth. While 
she was hunting one of the dancers whispered to the youth to run 
out now. This he did, running towards the village. The Skeleton 
Woman again followed him but failed to overtake him. He was 
very much frightened when he arrived at the village. For a long 
time he said very little, but was sitting quietly at his place in the 


Aliksai! In old Mishongnovi they were living. At Mastoplcave 
Mdsauwuu lived with his grandmother, Mas Wuhti. In the village 
lived a beautiful maiden who persistently refused all offers of mar- 
riage. So Mdsauwuu one time went to pay her a visit. He came as 
a very handsome young man. She was grinding corn when he 
entered her house. She invited him to sit down, and asked who 
he was. He told her who he was. He had a great many strands 
of beads around his neck and long turquoise ear-pendants in his ears 
and was dressed up nicely. They were sitting on the opposite sides 
of the fireplace and conversed with each other all the evening. She 
told him that she would be willing to marry him. 

The next morning she sent a large tray full of muhpiki (piki made 
of the meal of young roasted corn-ears) to Masauwuu's grandmother, 
for which the latter was very glad. She then told Masauwuu that 
from the gift which the mana had sent she inferred that the mana 
was willing to marry him. "Yes," he said, "and she asked whether 
I was rich, and I told her yes: now what shall we pay her back for 
the presents that she has sent us?" So his grandmother gave him 
a large quantity of rabbit meat, which he wrapped up and carried 
over to the house of the maiden. She thanked him for it and again 

' Told by Kiihkmma (Shupwifilavi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 123 

gave him something to eat. The next morning he came to her house 
and took her over to his grandmother's house, where they lived for- 
ever afterwards. 


In Hdno the people were living. In the winter it snowed very 
much and there was much snow, and the Hano went hunting. North 
of the village they were hunting towards the Sun shrine, and they 
were hunting rabbits there in the snow. There were a great many 
rabbits. When they had killed a great many they went home, but 
still hunting. North of Walpi, at Puhiivavi there lived the Masauwuu. 
In order to hunt he lived there. He was also hunting in the night. 
During the day he was sleeping all day. There were a great many 
rabbits. When he was still sleeping the Hano arrived. The Mds- 
auwuu was living at Big Rock (Wuw6koa). When the Hano came a 
cotton-tail was running and they followed him. "Havd! havd!" 
they said, and pursued him. The rabbit jumped down just where 
the Masauwuu was sleeping. The Hdno also jumped down, making 
a great deal of noise. The Masauwuu had a great deal of game under 
the rock. 

Now the Masauwuu jumped up quickly and ran. He ran against 
a point of the rock, then he ran in a different direction and again 
ran against the rock. He had thus perforated his head. In that 
way he again ran against the rock from place to place. When his 
head was full of holes the blood was streaming down. A long time 
ago he used to have a white head, but on account of the Hano now 
he always has a bloody head. Now they distributed his game. 
From there they proceeded, tired. Had the Hano not been going 
around there the Masauwuu would still have a white head. 


Halfksai! A long time ago the Oraibi were living in Orafbi. 
North of the present peach orchards (about three-fourths of a mile 
north of Oraibi), lived the Yayaponchatu. These are not Hopi, but 
they are beings something like the skeletons. They have white faces 
and white bodies, disheveled hair, and wear kilts of black and white 
striped cloth. They understand the fire and more than once caused 
villages to be destroyed by fire. They were the cause of the destruc- 

' Told by Lofnivantiwa (SbupalUavi) . 
* Told by TangAkhoyoma (Oraibi). 

124 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

tion by fire of Pivanhonlcape, and also one time of Oraibi, when a 
great many people perished. 

The Orafbi at that time did the same as they are doing now 
when they want to barter. They would put the things they wanted 
to sell together on a pile in a kiva, and then send some one around 
to the different kivas to trade the things off for what they were in 
need of. One time the Y^yaponchatu heard that the Oraibi were 
again trading. They were out of native tobacco (piva), so they sent 
two of their number to the village to trade for some tobacco. West 
of the place where now Nakwd^yeshtiwa lives was then a kiva called 
Blue-bird Height (Ch6rzhovi).' 

To this kiva the two Yayaponchatus came first. They laid down 
on the roof of the kiva and let down the bunches of broom grass 
^wdhci), which they had brought with them to trade. "I came to 
trade" (Nu huy!) they said. "Have you come to trade something?" 
answered those in the kiva, "wheel" (with a rising inflection). 
"Very well," they said from the kiva, "what is it that you want?" 
"Tobacco we want" (Tangunache wlwinche), they answered. The 
men in the kiva looked up and said, "What is it? We do not under- 
stand you." Hereupon one of the Ydyaponchatu whispered, "piva, 
pfva, hut-hut-hut" (the latter words, however, were spoken with an 
inhalation). "O," they said, "tobacco he wants." So one of 
them, who had a supply, went and got some and gave it to one of 
the barterers. They were happy over it. 

The two now proceeded to the M6ts kiva, which was located a 
few yards west of the present Wikolapi kiva, where the same exchange 
of words was repeated that had taken place at the previous kiva. 
Here the second one traded his broom grass for a sack of tobacco, 
whereupon the two returned to their village, being happy over their 
purchase. Here in the village they smoked the tobacco that they 
had obtained from the Oraibi. 


Haliksai! A long time ago the K6honino came out at the place 
where the salt comes out. They ascended, traveled southward, and 
there built some houses in cliffs, where they lived. They were always 

' This kiva was last occupied by women and was dismantled probably about forty years ago. 
The flag-stones of the floor were used for the floor in the present Kwdn kiva, and the timbers were 
used for reconstructing the Cakwdlanvi kiva, those of the latter kiva being used in reconstructing 
the Coyote and the Singer kivas. It is said that the reason for this exchange was that the ends of 
the old, heavy timbers in the Cakwdlanvi kiva were somewhat rotten and so had to be used on 
narrower kivas, while the Cakwdlanvi kiva used the longer timbers of the Ch6rzhovi kiva in 
reconstructing their wider kiva. 

* Told by Tangdkhoyoma (Oraibi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 125 

hunting deei, antelope, mountain sheep, etc. One time one of the 
K6honino was also going to hunt. He soon discovered a flock of 
mountain sheep in one of the cliffs. He shot and hit one of the larger 
bucks, which however got away. He followed him all day, and 
finally the animal got tired and arrived at a place where he was 
about to jump down, when the hunter shot him again. He began to 
stagger and finally fell, but before he died he tumbled partly down 
the bluff, where he died. The hunter climbed down to the place 
where the animal was lying, but his foot slipped and he fell down, 
too. He fell deeper, rolling over the ledge on which the animal was 
lying. His fall was so severe that both of his eyes fell out and he 
remained lying there unconscious. 

When evening came the K6honino in the village waited for the 
young man to return, but when he did not return they finally ate 
their evening meal and kindled their fire, still waiting for the hunter 
to return, but he did not come. They kept up their fire all night 
and did not go to sleep. In the night the hunter revived, but as 
a skeleton (masauwuu). He arose and went towards the place where 
his people were living, but he pitied himself, saying, "Oh! I!" and 
then began to moan as follows: 

Havacova' Kahnina, 

At Blue, Blue Kohoninas, 

Iwayahana. Haara 

It will be good. Eyes 

Paama takoyma! Hinayahanaa^ 

All gone, Oh! Oh! 

Hanina' takoyma 

Oy oyoyoy ah . 

While he was thus moaning he proceeded towards the bluff where his 
people were living. They were still up and had lights burning. 
When he came close to the village they saw and heard him. One of 
them said, "Listen! A coyote goes crying" (Mo! kushash chavoko). 
Another one said, "No, a wolf goes crying" (Opa, hatakwi chavoko). 
"No" (Opa), a third one said, "A Skeleton is crying" (Maiyoma 
chavoko). They now looked and by that time the Skeleton had 
come within the radius of the light of their camp-fires. Then they 
saw that it was a Skeleton. " Oh! " (Ma!) they said, " it is a Skeleton " 
(Maviyoma). "Oh!we all shall flee" (Ma! payam kiwakvako).* 

' After Green Bluff (Cakwitupka), where they now live. 
2 The narrator was unable to give the meaninR. 
" The narrator was unable to give the meaning. 
* These phrases are in the K6honino language. 

126 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Hereupon they all picked up their things, the women throwing 
their children on their backs, the men their buckskins, meat, etc., 
and then they fled. The Skeleton took possession of the houses that 
the K6honino had left, and has been living there ever since. The 
K6honino went westward and finally arrived at a very steep bluff. 
This they ascended and settled down there in the valley near Green 
Bluff, where they have been living ever since, and this is why the 
Kohonino settled down at this place. 


A long time ago when there were a great many people living in 
Oraibi there lived a beautiful maiden in the village by the name of 
White Corn-Ear Maiden (Qotca-Awats-Mana). This maiden persist- 
ently refused all offers that were made to her by various young men 
to marry her. The inhabitants of the Wikolapi kiva at that time 
were sorcerers (Popwaktu), and being angry at that maiden they 
decided to destroy her. One day they agreed that in the night they 
would meet in the sorcerers' house at Skeleton Gulch (Masposove), 
so called, it is said, because at one time a great many people of the 
Badger clan were killed there by the Orafbi, and their corpses thrown 
into the gulch. At this meeting they decided that the next day they 
would make a wheel, such as are still used by the children for a cer- 
tain play, and also a number of feathered arrows, and that one of 
these arrows should be poisoned with rattlesnake poison. With this 
latter the maiden should be hurt, and after her death, which was 
expected as a matter of course, she was to be taken to the sorcerers' 
house, where they were assembled. So this was done, and the 
sorcerers wrapped into the wheel the breath of that maiden, but just 
in what manner that was obtained is not known. 

When the wheel and the arrows were completed, a number of 
young men played with them on the street in front of the maiden's 
house, and when one time she came down the ladder and passed the 
players to go on an errand, the man holding the poisoned arrow 
pretended to shoot at the wheel, but wounded her foot with it. 
When she returned after a short time her foot was badly swollen and 
she related to her parents what had happened to her. During the 
night she died. The sorcerers upon hearing that the maiden had 
died, again repaired to their place at the Skeleton Gulch and there 
changed themselves into coyotes, wolves, foxes, etc., whereupon they 
waited until the maiden had been buried and her friends who had 

' Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 127 

buried her had returned to the village. Then they approached the 
graveyard from different places, imitating at different times the 
sounds of those animals. 

The brother of the deceased maiden being very deeply grieved 
at the death of his sister, sat at the edge of the mesa watching the 
grave and thus saw what happened. When he beheld these animals 
approaching the grave his first impulse was to shoot at them, but 
when he got his bow and arrow ready he heard some of them speak, 
and at once knew -that they were not animals but Hopi sorcerers; 
so he desisted, and heard one of them say that those who had brought 
old wrappings with them should now tear them all to small pieces, so 
that the people in the village should think and believe that coyotes 
had eaten the corpse and that the pieces were remnants of the wrap- 
pings of the body. So this was done and then the body itself dis- 
interred. One of the sorcerers that had changed himself into a grey 
wolf swung the body upon his back and carried it away, being fol- 
lowed by all the others. 

The young man immediately followed them at some distance to 
their place of meeting, which they reached in a roundabout way. 
He saw the body lying north of the fireplace, and heard one of them 
say that they should hurry up; whereupon he immediately ran back 
to the village, thinking to whom he might appeal for help, who would be 
strong enough and have courage enough to rescue the body of his sis- 
ter. So he went to the war chief. Arriving at his house he announced 
his presence. The war chief's wife first heard him and replied to his 
call. She then awoke her husband, saying, "Some one is calling 
outside. " They invited him in, made a fire, and then he told them 
his story, asking the old war chief to assist him, and expressing his 
determination to go right back and try to rescue the body of his 
sister. The war chief at once promised assistance. He took down 
two war costumes, shields, weapons, etc., and gave one to the young 
man, putting the other one on himself. The young man was im- 
patient and urged that they depart, but the old war chief asked him 
to wait a little, took a bone whistle, went outside and whistled up- 
wards, whereupon immediately a great noise was heard and a small 
man entered the room. This was Cotukvnangwuu, the Star and 
Cloud deity, living in the sky. "Why do you want me so quickly?" 
he asked. "Yes," the old man said, "this young man wants you." 
And he then told him the facts and asked whether he would assist 
them. The deity at once promised assistance. "Wait a little," the 
old war chief said, "I am going to call some one else." So he whis- 
tled again and immediately the Hawk came flying down into the 

128 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

room. "Why do you want me so quickly?" he asked. "Yes," the 
old warrior said, "This young man needs you," and after telling him 
the story, asked whether he would assist them. The Hawk also 
promised to go with them. "Wait a little," the old warrior said for 
the third time, "I shall call some one else." Whereupon he spit 
into his left hand, whistled again, and then a great many skeleton 
flies (mdstotovi) came and drank his spittle, whereupon he closed 
the hand upon them. Then they all departed, going to the place of 
the assembled sorcerers, which resembled a Hopi kiva. They at 
once entered the kiva without being noticed, however, by the sorcer- 
ers. These were just busy resuscitating the maiden. They had 
taken off the wrappings from the body, had covered the body with 
a native cloth (mochapu), and were singing a song. 

The wheel containing the breath of the m^na, and with which 
they had been playing, the sorcerers had brought with them. One 
of the oldest of the sorcerers took out the breath that had been 
wrapped up in the wheel, put it back into the body again, whereupon 
the mana revived. Her first expression was, "Aha," whereupon she 
threw aside the cover and said, "It is hot here, I am very hot." 
"Undoubtedly you are," the old man said to her. She then looked 
around and when she saw that she was among the sorcerers she began 
to cry bitterly. All present had by this time reassumed their forms 
as Hopi again. An old woman then washed the face of the maiden, 
rubbed corn meal on it, combed her hair and tied it up in whorls and 
dressed her up nicely. In the meanwhile a bed had been prepared 
for her and she was told to retire and lie down on the bed.' She 
was" still crying bitterly. When she had seated herself on the couch 
the old man approached her, but just then the old warrior liberated 
one of the skeleton flies and immediately the humming of the fly 
orre.sted the attention of some of those present. They said: "Listen, 
somebody is in the kiva. " Some at once noticed the large fly, others 
said they could not see anything. The old man, who was then sitting 
by the side of the mana, looked up and also saw the fly. At this 
moment the Hawk rushed into the kiva, threw aside the old man, 
grabbed the mana, swung her on his back and carried her out of the 
kiva. "Hihih'ya," the old man exclaimed, as he recovered from his 
astonishment. "What is it?" others asked. "Why the maiden is 
gone," he said. At this juncture the brother of the maiden spoke 
up, saying: "Why nothing is the matter," and now those present in 
the kiva for the first time noticed the presence of their enemies. 

' She was also told that as she had persistently refused to marry one of the young men of the 
village, all the men present would cohabit with her, which was to be her punishment. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hon • — Voth. 129 

"So you have watched us," the old man said to the young man. 
"Yes," the latter said, "I saw you take out the body of my sister 
and followed you up to the time when you were singing over her 
body here in the kiva. " The old warrior then also spoke and asked 
them why they had done this; what they wanted with that maiden; 
t'ley might have known that they would make the heart of her 
brother sad, etc. The old man replied, "We have nothing to say, 
but let us measure each other and see who is the stronger, and let us 
see whether you are brave and whether you understand anything. 
You let us see what you are first." "No," the warrior said, "we 
did not bring this about, you wanted this that way and we challenge 
you to show what you are first." "All right," the old man said, 
and gave orders to extinguish the fire. Hereupon the warriors took 
their shields into their hands and immediately the sorcerers shot 
small dangerous arrows "at them, which could be heard flying against 
their shields at short intervals. The warriors responded with their 
war cry, Eha-ha-ha. In a short time the old man said, "Kindle the 
fire again, because they are certainly dead by this time. " When the 
fire was kindled the warriors were all still standing, and said, "We 
are not dead yet." They were then challenged to show their skill. 
The fire was again extinguished and the war chief then drew from a 
pocket a little sack containing live bees. These he liberated and 
they flew upon the sorcerers, their wives and children and stung 
them. Soon pitiful cries were heard from all sides and the old man 
begged that the warriors should desist. The war chief recalled the 
bees and sent them out of the kiva. 

"Do not kindle that fire," C6tukvnangwuu said, "we are not 
through yet." Hereupon he drew forth a ray of lightning, threw it 
among them and they were all torn to pieces, the kiva being filled 
with a bright light. When the lightning had done its work and it 
had become dark in the kiva the warrior waited until they felt the 
warm blood of their victims touching their feet. The old warrior 
then said to their destroyed enemies: "This is what has happened to 
you. You ought not to be living, because you are dangerous, you 
are bad. You took away and ill treated this young man's sister; 
but you are very skillful, you will undoubtedly restore yourselves 
again," and thereupon they left the kiva and returned to the vil- 

The old warrior and the young man replaced their war costume 
in the warrior's house. C6tukvnangwuu ascended to the sky again, 
where he found the maiden which the Hawk had taken there. In 
the house where they lived up there the skin of an Eagle Body (Kwa- 

130 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

tokuu) was hanging on the north wall, a skin of a Kwayo and a skin 
of the Hawk (Kisha) on the east wall. Here the mdna stayed for 
some time grinding the corn meal and preparing food for these great 
warriors. After some time she was told that they would now take her 
home again. So the Hawk again took her on his back and swiftly 
descended to the earth, where he deposited her near the village of 
Oraibi, from where she went home. Complying with instructions 
that she had received from the war chiefs before, she told her parents 
that she had died, that these chiefs from above had rescued her and 
that they had told her she should soon come back again, at least for 
a visit, and that she would soon go back again; but whenever she 
would die they should not wrap her up and tie her body. She stayed 
in her home for a while and all at once had disappeared, but in four 
days returned, saying that she had visited those war chiefs above. 
After a while she went again and stayed six days. This she repeated 
a third time, staying ten days the third time. Her mother, now get- 
ting used to it, did not worry much about it, but after a while she 
failed to awake one morning and they found that she had fallen 
asleep never to awake again. They treated her body the same as 
bodies of eagles are treated when they are buried. They tied 
nakwakwosis to her hands and legs, laid a great many nakwak- 
wosis on her breast and folded her garments over her and thus 
buried her without wrapping her up or tying her body. She was 
this time buried on the west side of the village. Her brother 
watched the grave for four days, but this time it was not disturbed. 
Important events had in the meanwhile occurred in the house of 
the sorcerers where the latter had been destroyed. C6tukvnangwuu 
had descended, entered the kiva, and restored his victims, but as a 
punishment he had not given back to the different individuals the 
parts and members that had been torn from their bodies, but had 
thoroughly mixed up the different parts of the different bodies. 
Before he left he told them: "You are bad, and this shall be your 
punishment. You shall be ridiculed by the people. " Thereupon he 
left them. In the morning when it began to become light the poor 
people observed in great consternation what had happened to them. 
Here an old man found that he had one of his own legs while the 
other leg was that of some woman; one arm was of the natural size 
while the other one was that of a little child; here the head of a 
woman had been healed to the body of a man, and so on. They were 
very much discouraged, and the old man suggested at once that they 
had better not be among the living very long, and he said that when 
they should come back to the kiva he was going to drop himself from 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 131 

the ladder and thus kill himself. When they came to the village 
they at once became the laughing stock of the people. 

The wife of one of the men of the village had also been among the 
sorcerers, and she had had one of her legs substituted by the old, 
wrinkled leg of an old man. She was ashamed and would not show 
this to her husband and so kept it carefully covered up. When her 
husband asked her what was the matter, she said that she had a 
sore leg. Other similar instances occurred. 

The old leader of the sorcerers soon went to the Wfkolapi kiva, and 
when he was about to descend the ladder his foot slipped and he fell 
down the ladder. The shaft of the spindle which he held in his hand 
pierced his throat and thus he died. After that nearly every day one 
of these poor victims met with some accident and after a compara- 
tively short time they were all dead. When the last one had died 
the maiden again descended from the sky to the village where she 
lived for quite a while. When she finally died she went to the sky 
where she lived with the war chiefs again. 


Haliksai! The people were living in Orafbi. At the place where 
now old Qom^hoiniva lives, lived a very pretty maiden, who refused 
all offers of marriage. At the place where Sikdmoniwa at present 
lives, lived a young man by the name of Piwftamni. He lived there 
with his grandmother. He had derived his name from the fact that 
he always patched his grandmother's wrappers and blankets. 

Many young men in the village asked for the hand of the pretty 
maiden when she would shell com in the evening, and they would 
come and woo her, but she refused all offers. Piwitamni's grand- 
mother once told him to visit the maiden too, and ask for her hand 
in marriage, but he said that she would certainly refuse him because 
he was poor and his blanket was very much patched. One time she 
gave him two little fawns and said to him: "When the maiden goes 
south of the village to a certain rock, you go and meet her there and 
take these two little fawns with you." So in the evening he did as 
she had told him to do and went up to the maiden where she was 
pulverizing some rock with a hard stone. "What are you doing?" 
he asked her. "I am doing this way," she said, whereupon she 
looked around and saw the two little fawns. ' ' What have you there ? ' ' 
she asked. "They are my two little animals," he answered. She 
was glad and said, "Give me these and I shall own them." So he 

• Told by Wikvaya (Oraibi). 

132 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

gave them to her. She took them to the village and showed them to 
her father and mother, as she still had parents. 

The young man also returned to his grandmother and she asked 
him: "Well, how has it turned out?" "Why she took them to her 
home." "All right," she said. By this time the sun had set and 
the grandmother said to the young man, "Now go to the maiden's 
house and you speak to her parents, and if they talk good to you 
you bring her to my house." So in the evening he went over to the 
maiden's house and the parents recognized him. They asked him 
whether these were his two little fawns and whether he had given 
them to their daughter. He said he had. "All right," they said, 
and seemed to be glad. Then they turned to their daughter and 
said, "You have found each other. You fill your tray with meal and 
go with him. " So she filled her tray with meal and went along with 
the young man. When they arrived at the young man's house the 
grandmother was very happy and greeted her. "Come in," she 
said, and assigned her a seat. She found that the maiden was a very 
pretty girl. She then gave her some little hufushiki (a certain Hopi 
food) and some meat from the breast of the chiro, with some brine. 
When the maiden had eaten, she asked: "Where shall I sleep?" So 
the grandmother showed her a small room with blankets in it which 
were also very much patched up, so that she had a very poor looking 

For four days she ground com there, as is the custom of the Hopi. 
When the young men of the village heard about it they were very 
sad. But while usually relatives and friends provide a bridal costume 
for the newly married maidens, there was no one to prepare this 
costume for this maiden, and hence there was no one for whom she 
could prepare meals except the poor grandmother. When she had 
been there for some time, the grandmother said to her grandchild. 
"It is now a long time, you go and cry out this evening that your 
relatives should come here to-night and eat." During that day they 
prepared some piRami for the feast that night. So in the evening he 
cried out, saying: "You my uncles, come here and partake of this 
food, and do not be slow about it." So in the evening they arrived 
and partook of the food. The young bride set before them the pflcami 
which she had prepared. The grandmother went into an inner room 
and got from there a great deal of n6okwiwi (a dish consisting of 
venison, shelled com, salt, and water), which the maiden had not 
noticed before. This she also set before her guests, of whom a great 
many had come in by this time. When they had eaten they said, 
"Thanks, that our bride has prepared this feast and that we have 

Ma^ch, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 133 

eaten it. You remain here and see we have prepared your costume. 
There it is wrapped up in this bundle. To-morrow you look at it. " 
So in the morning the grandmother opened the bundle, and there 
were the two bridal robes, the moccasins, and the big belt in the 
reed receptacle. 

The people had heard that Piwitamni's bride would go home 
and they all wanted to see her, and said that she would not have a 
bridal costume on because nobody had prepared one for her. So 
they all went on their houses and waited for her. All at once the old 
grandmother accompanied the young bride to the ladder which the 
bride descended, and behold! she was dressed up in an 6wa.' They 
were astonished, not having heard of any costume being prepared 
for her. The old grandmother sprinkled a road of com meal for the 
bride and then the latter, carrying her bundle with the second owa 
and the belt in front of her, went home to her parents. Her father 
and mother were very happy and they welcomed her. "Thanks, 
that you have come and somebody has prepared something for 
you," they said. 

Later on the bride took some corn-meal to her own parents, and 
her husband also brought some to her parents, and then they lived 
in their parents' house. But Piwftamni lived with his wife and was 
always very poor and had nothing. The parents of the wife were 
now wondering and waiting whether he would provide for his wife 
and make some clothing for her. But he did as he had done for his 
grandmother, that is, repaired and patched, but never made any new 
clothes for her and only made and worked a very small field. He 
proved to be lazy. While the others raised fine crops and water- 
melons and filled their houses with them, this young man raised hardly 
anything, and his poor wife had to live partly on watermelon rinds 
which were thrown away by other people, so from that fact she de- 
rived her name, and the others laughed at her husband. 

The young man also had a place in one of the kivas, but he usually 
had very little to eat. When the other people received their food 
from their homes, nobody brought him anything. He generally got 
very little because they were so poor. He never received any meat 
to eat and always ate by himself on the floor of the kiva. Only one 
old man had pity on him and sat by his side when he ate. The other 
people laughed at him. One time he went home and his old grand- 
mother asked him what the people were saying to him in the kiva. 
He said that some of the people who were rich always brought a 

' A white blanket made of cotton, two of which form a part of the bridal oatfit. See "The 
Oralbi Marriage Ceremony," by H. R. Voth, published by the Field Columbian Museum . 

134 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

great deal to eat to the kiva, especially a great deal of meat, and one 
had said to him that he would feed his wife with good food and then 
he would take her away from him. So the next day when it was noon 
again, the men from the kiva all went to get their mid -day meal 
again. The old man who was sitting with Piwitamni said to him : 
"You wait, go and get your food when they are all done." They 
again brought in a great many victuals, especially a great deal of 
meat. Finally Piwitamni asked them, "Is that all?" They said, 
"Yes." "All right," he said, "so I am going to get my food now," 
and left the kiva. 

When he had arrived at his grandmother's house she went into 
one of the rooms and got out a great many watermelons, which she 
placed in blankets. "Take these to the kiva first," she said. When 
he came to the kiva they looked up and said, "Somebody is carrying 
a big burden." So he came in and placed the watermelons on the 
floor at the place where he was usually sitting. All the others looked 
at those fine watermelons with envy and astonishment. He then 
went out again and proceeded to his grandmother's house. When 
he arrived there she asked him: "Have you come?" "Yes," he 
said. "Now what else do you want?" she asked. "My meat," he 
said. So she went into another room again and brought out a great 
deal of meat. It was antelope meat which she gave him, and he 
wrapped up a great quantity of it and carried it into the kiva. When 
they saw him come in they all looked up again and there he placed a 
great quantity of meat on the floor and then he commenced to eat. 
The old man who had always been with him was very happy and 
exclaimed, "Aha," so the two were eating again. When they were 
done eating the old man turned to the others at the other end of the 
kiva and said to them: "Now, if any one is coveting this, come here 
and get the watermelons and take them to his children and the meat 
that is left and take it to his wife." They were at first' hanging down 
their heads, but soon came and took what was left and enjoyed it. 
Only one man did not come. He said, "Wait until to-morrow, how 
will it be then? To-morrow we shall not bring any food into the 
kiva, we shall not eat, but let us then bring our wealth (robes, dresses, 
belts, buckskins, etc.), into the kiva, and whoever proves to be the 
richest and bring in the most shall live with your wife." So the 
young man went over to his grandmother's house again and she 
asked him what the men had said. He said that to-morrow they 
were all going to bring into the kiva their wealth. 

So the next day they were in the kiva all forenoon and at noon 
one of them suggested that now they go and get their possessions. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 135 

"All right," the old man said, who was sitting with Piwftamni. 
"You go first because you wanted to have it this way. " So they all 
went out and got their possessions and hung them up on the poles 
and pins in the kiva, filling them entirely. Others brought theirs 
in and the kiva was filled. They then said to Piwftamni: "Now then 
you go, too." "Yes," his comrade said, "you go and- hunt at least 
something too, and bring it in. " So he left the kiva and after he 
was gone his friend asked the others in the kiva to prepare many 
poles in the kiva for his friend to put his things on. 

When he came to his grandmother's house she went into a room 
and brought forth a great many sashes. "Take these over to the 
kiva first," she said. So when he came to the kiva they looked up 
again and saw that somebody brought a great bundle. He placed 
them on the floor and said to his friend: "Now you hang all these 
up, " and then left the kiva. Arriving at his grandmother's house she 
again went into a room and brought forth something and it was buck- 
skins in great quantities. He took them over to the kiva. The 
men there looked up as he arrived at the kiva entrance and saw that 
he had a great bundle. He placed these buckskins on the floor and 
his friend, the old man, suspended them over poles. He again 
returned to his grandmother's house and this time he brought 
back a large bundle of large buckskins which were also hung up 
in the kiva by the old man. A fourth time he went and this 
time brought a large bundle of women's belts. So it was shown that 
he was very rich. Most of what was in the kiva belonged to Piwit- 
amni. "Now then, what have you to say?" the old man said to 
the other men. So Piwftamni was ahead again. 

Hereupon the old man took all these things that Piwftamni had 
brought into the kiva over to his house and gave them to his wife. 
Hereafter he was wealthy and no one dared to take her away from 
him. But the other men wanted one more test. They said the next 
day they would go from house to house and the man in whose house 
the most corn was found should own Piwftamni 's wife. So the next 
day all the men from the kiva, including Piwftamni and his old 
friend, went around in the village from house to house and examined 
the piles of corn. In some houses they found a great deal of corn. 
But when they came to the house of Piwftamni they found the house 
was filled with com, watermelons, and squashes, so he had gotten 
ahead of them and no one ever dared to take away from him his wife. 

That rich woman, who was after that no longer called Watermelon- 
Rind Woman, may still be living somewhere. 

136 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 



Ishyaoi! In Oraibi the people were living. At the west end of 
the south row of houses lived a youth. A short distance north-east of 
the present Honani kiva lived a maiden. One day the youth went 
down to the west side of the mesa to watch his father's fields. As he 
passed the house of the maiden she asked where he was going. "I 
am going to watch my father's fields," he said: "May I not go 
along?" she asked. "Yes," he said, thinking that she was only joking, 
and passed on. The mana wrapped up some fresh piki rolls (muhpi) 
and followed the youth. "So you have come," he said to her by way 
of greeting when she had arrived. "Yes," she said, and opening her 
blanket showed him her pfki, which they ate together. "Let us play 
hide and seek now," she said, "and the one who is found four times 
shall be killed." "All right," he replied, "you hide first because you 
wanted it." "No, you hide first," she said, and so finally they 
agreed that the m^na would go and hide first. "But you must not 
look after me," she warned the youth, and spread her blanket (ush- 
imni) over him. 

She then ran through the growing corn and finally hid under some 
6yi (Corrispermum hyssopi folium Linn). As soon as she had hidden 
she called out "tow." The young man then commenced to hunt her 
but could not find her. Finally he said: "I cannot find you, come 
out." So she came out and they went back to the place where they 
had eaten, and the youth then went to hide himself, covering up the 
mana with her blanket. He hid under a bush of pawihchoki. Hav- 
ing hidden, he called out, "tow," whereupon the mana hunted for 
him and found him. Hereupon they again returned, the youth was 
covered up and the m^na again went among the growing corn to hide. 
Finding a large corn-stalk, she pulled out the tassel, crawled into the 
opening and put the tassel in again. She then signaled to the youth, 
and he came and looked for her. Following her tracks he found that 
she had been running through the corn-field. So he hunted through- 
out the corn-field and then at the edge among the herbs and grasses, 
but could not find her. Finally he noticed that her tracks seemed to 
come to an end near a large corn-stalk, but he could not find her any- 
where. Finally he called out, "I cannot find you, where are you?" 
" Here I am," she replied, and throwing out the corn-tassel she jumped 
out. So for the second time he had failed to find her. 

They again returned to the edge of the field, the mana now cov- 

■ Told by Wikvaya (Oraibi). 

March. 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 137 

ering herself up. The youth now, as he went through the field, was 
thinking, "Where shall I hide? It is time that she does not find me 
again." As he passed along the edge of the field he heard a voice. 
" Listen to me," some one said. "Come up here. I have pity on you. 
One time she has already found you, and she will certainly find you 
again." This was the Sun. Hereupon the latter threw down a rain- 
bow upon which the youth climbed to the Sun, who hid him behind 
his back saying, "Here she will not find you." So the mana followed 
his tracks all through the field, and went to the edge of the field to a 
small knoll, but could not find him. She followed them again through- 
out the field and returned to the same place. By this time she was 
puzzled where he could be. Her hair whorls were hanging down out 
of shape. She was thinking and thinking where he might be. Finally 
she pressed a few drops of milk out of her breast, examined the drops 
in her hand, and seeing the sun reflected in them, she discovered the 
boy behind him. She at once said : "Aha, there you are ; I have found 
you. Come down." 

The youth now again covered himself up and the m^na went to 
hide away the third time. But this time the youth lifted up a corner 
of the covering and watched her, in which direction she went. When 
he followed her tracks throughout the corn-field he could not find her. 
Her tracks led to a patch of watermelons and squashes, but as the 
runners covered the ground he could not find her there. He returned 
to the corn-field and hunted, but not finding her anywhere he again 
followed her tracks to the watermelon patch. Finally he gave up in 
despair and called out: "I cannot find you, come out." She then 
burst open a watermelon, saying: "Here I am, and you did not find 
me," and came out. 

The youth by this time became unhappy. They again returned 
and the maiden covering herself up, the youth went to hide away, 
but was very unhappy. Running through the corn-field and along 
its edge, he all at once heard a voice. "Where are you going? I 
have pity on you. You come in here," and looking down he saw a 
small hole by the side of a small corn-stalk. It was the house of Spider 
Woman. This he entered and she quickly spun some web across the 
opening. The mana again went to hunt for the youth. Running 
through the corn-field repeatedly, she finally traced his tracks to the 
edge of the corn-field, but could not find him anywhere. She then 
drew forth from her bosom a mirror, which was probably a quartz 
crystal. Through this she hunted first upward, hoping to find him 
somewhere above again, but failed to find him. She then turned it 
downward and all at once saw the opening of the Spider's hole re- 

138 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

fleeted in it. " Come out," she at once called out, "I have found you. 
You are in there." Spider Woman said: ''Well, you will have to go 
out, she has found you." He was very dejected by this time because 
there was only one chance for him left ; but he came out. 

For the fourth time the mana went to hide away. The youth 
again lifted up a corner of the covering and looked after her and saw 
that she was again running towards the watermelon patch. On one 
side of the corn-field was a ditch and as it had rained shortly before, 
there was some water in this ditch and a number of tadpoles were in 
this water. The mana crossed the watermelon patch, went into the 
ditch, entered the water and turned into a tadpole. The boy again 
went in search of the mana, following her tracks through the corn- 
field and through the watermelon patch down to the ditch, but failed 
to find her. He returned and hunted throughout the field, and being 
very tired, he returned to the water, stooped down and drank some. 
He was very sad by this time, but he hunted once more. Finally he 
again followed her tracks to the edge of the water, and knowing that 
she must be there somewhere, he called out: "I cannot find you, just 
come out," and immediately she emerged from the water and said: 
" I was here when you were drinking water and I looked right at you." 
He then remembered that a tadpole had looked up out of the water 
when he was drinking, but he, of course, never thought that that could 
be the maiden. 

So they returned again to the same place, and as they went back the 
youth was very much discouraged. "Only one chance left for me," 
he thought, "where shall I hide that she will not find me?" After 
the mana had covered herself he again went away. Passing the 
house of Spider Woman, the latter said to him: "Alas! (Okiwa!) 
where are you going? You go there a little to the east to your 
uncle, the Ahu (a species of worm that lives in rotten wood) ; he lives 
in the takachki (a temporary shade or shelter) and maybe he will hide 
you." So the youth went there and when he arrived there called out, 
"My uncle, put me in there." So the Ahu pulled out a loose knot 
from one of the corner poles, which was that of a pifion-tree. This 
post was hollow, and into this the Ahu put the youth, closing up the 
opening after he had entered. So the mana went and hunted for the 
youth, following his tracks through the corn-field, and found that he 
had been going up and down and back and forth, and finally she 
tracked them to the aforesaid shelter. Arriving at this place she 
hunted, but at first could not find him. She then put the tips of her 
right hand fingers, one after another, into her mouth, wet them 
slightly, then pressed the point of her forefinger into her right ear, and 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 139 

immediately she heard the youth in his hiding place and told him to 
come out, as she had found him. 

They then returned to their place again, but the mdna said: 
" Let us now return again to the shelter where I found you." So they 
returned and sat down close to the shelter on the north side. The 
mana hereupon dug a hole close to one of the comer posts and then 
said to the youth: "I- have beaten you, I have beaten you. You take 
off your shirt." He did so. It was a blue shirt such as the Hopi used 
to wear. "Now take off your beads," she said, and, not knowing 
what she intended to do, he did so. She hereupon grabbed him by 
the hair, jerked out a knife from behind her belt, bent him over the 
hole that she had made, and cut his throat, letting the blood run into 
the hole.' She then closed up this hole, dug another one somewhat to 
the north and dragged the body to it, burying it in this grave. 

Hereupon she took the shirt and the beads with her and went 
home. When the young man did not return to his home his parents 
became worried and inquired at the maiden's house. "We thought 
you both had gone to our field to watch," they said. "Do you not 
know where Kwavfihii is?" "Yes," she said, "we were there to- 
gether, but he drove me away, and I do not know where he is." So 
the parents were very sad. They had killed a sheep shortly before, 
but as they were so sorry they ate very little of the meat, and so the 
flies came in and ate of the meat. One time the woman was driving 
the flies off with a broom and one of them said : ' ' Why do you drive 
me away when I eat your meat ? I suck some of this meat and then 
I shall go and hunt your child." Hereupon the woman desisted and 
the flies then sucked of the meat. "Yes," the woman then sai(" to 
the fly, "our boy went to watch the fields and he never came back. 
If you can, you go and hunt him and find him for me." So the Fly 
flew away to the corn-field and found very many tracks. Following 
them all over the field, she finally tracked them to the shelter where 
the young man had been killed. Flying around here she soon dis- 
covered traces of the blood, and opening the hole she found blood 
in it. She sucked some of this blood and went a little farther north 
and there found the grave. She then sucked up all the blood from 
the first opening and injected it into the body and then waited. Soon 
the heart of the youth began to beat and after a little while he raised 
up, shaking his head slightly. "Have you woke up?" the Fly said. 
' 'Yes," he answered, "but I am very thirsty." "There is some water 
over there in the ditch," the Fly said, "go there and drink and then 

' I have found other evidences in the Hopi traditions that point to the probability that 
human sacrifices existed among the ancestors of the Hopi. 

I40 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

we shall return to your house." So he went there and quenched his 
thirst and then they returned to the house of his parents. These were 
now very happy when they saw the child. The Fly then said to the 
parents: "The shirt and beads of your boy are at the maiden's house. 
Let him go over there and then see what she says, whether she will 
be glad or not, and then let him ask for his shirt and beads, and when 
she gives him the shirt let him shake it at her, and then when he gets 
the beads he must shake them, too." 

The mother then said to her son: "All right, you go over to the 
mana's house." But the Fly continued: "She will probably spread 
food before you, she will ofifer you piki rolls, but do not eat them." 
So he went over there. When the mana saw him she exclaimed: 
"Ih (with a rising inflection), Have you come?" "Yes," he said, "I 
have come." "Sit down," she said to him, and at once went into 
another room and got some food, which she placed before him. "I 
am not hungry ; I have come for my shirt and my beads. I think you 
brought them with you when you came." "Yes, I have them here, 
and of course I shall give them to you." She hereupon went into a 
room and when she opened the door the young man looked in and 
saw that she was very wealthy. She had a great many things there 
that she had taken from the youths whom she had killed. When she 
brought out his things he took them and shook them at her and said : 
"Yes, these are mine, these are the ones." Hereupon he left the 
house, but the Fly had in the meanwhile told his parents that they 
should go over to the mana's house also and meet their son there, so 
they met in front of the house and waited there. While they were 
standing there they heard a noise in the house, some clapping and 
shaking. When the young man had shaken his shirt and the beads 
at the m^na, an evil charm had entered her and she was changed into 
"Tihkuy Wuhti" ' (child protruding woman). She entered an inner 
room and came out dressed in a white 6wa. Her hair was now tied 
up like that of a married woman, but her face and clothes were all 
bloody. While she had put on this costume the noise and rattle in 
the room where the costumes of the slain youths were had continued, 
and these costumes, which it seems consisted mostly of buckskins, 
rabbit skins, etc., had assumed the shape of deer, antelope and rabbits, 
and these now dashed out of the room and left the house. The mana 
tried to keep them and was angry, but could not stop them. She 
grabbed the last one, however, and wiping her hand over her genitalia 

' This personage occurs in various Hopi tales. Some say that in a migrating party a woman 
was about to be confined. But as she was in labor a long time, she asked to be left behind. Her 
request was granted, the child being only partly bom, from which fact she received her name. 
Comp "The Oraibi Snake Ceremony," by H. R Voth, page 3<s. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 141 

she rubbed this hand over the face of the antelope, twisted his nose, 
rubbed his horns, etc., and then let him run. She then turned to the 
people who had assembled outside of the house and said : ' ' After this 
you shall have great difficulty in hunting these animals. If you had 
let them alone here they would have remained close by, and you would 
have had no difficulty in slaying them." She thereupon also left the 
house and disappeared with the game. Ever after she lived along 
the Little Colorado River, where also for a long time the deer and 
antelope abounded. And this is the reason why it is so difficult to 
approach and kill this game. The Tfhkuy Wuhti having rubbed her 
own odor over the nose and face of that antelope, these antelopes now 
smell the odor of people from a far distance, and so it is very difficult 
to approach them. The Tihkuy Wuhti is said to still live at the Little 
Colorado River, and the Hopi claim to have seen her, still wrapped up 
in the white robe, and all covered with blood. She controls the game, 
and hunters make prayer-oflferings to her of turquoise and nakwdk- 
wosis stained in red ochre like that used in the Snake ceremony. 
These prayer-offerings, however, are always deposited in the night. 

38. THE Maiden who stole the youth's costume.' 

Haliksai ! A long time ago the people were living in Shupaulavi. 
In the north-east corner of the village lived a maiden, and in another 
part of the village lived a grandmother with her grandson. One time 
this grandson wanted to practice running. His grandmother dressed 
him up in a kilt, beads, bunch of parrot feathers, and tied a little bell 
to his back, etc. She told him, that when he had made his circuit 
and returned to the village he should never pass by the house of that 
maiden, because she was dangerous, but he should come up another 
trail. ' So he ran towards Mish6ngnovi and descended the mesa south- 
east of Mish6ngnovi, then made a large circuit in the valley. 

He was thinking why his grandmother had forbidden him to pass 
by that maiden's house. Early the next morning he again ran, again 
descending south-east of Mishongnovi. Passing down the trail east- 
ward, he turned in the valley, ran north, turned to the mesa south of 
PAchkovi, ascended the mesa, and came to the village from the north. 
When he ascended to the village the maiden was standing on her kiva. 
"Aha, some one is running there," she said. "Run! run! You are 
beautifully dressed up," she continued, "let me dress up in your cos- 
tume and dance for you." 

Hereupon the youth ascended to the village and stopped in front 

> Told by Sikdhpiici (Shupaulavi) . 

142 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

of the mana's kiva. "You are nicely costumed," she again said. 
" Let me dress up in your costume and dance for you, and when I am 
through I shall return your costume to you again." So he was willing, 
laid off his costume and handed it to her. She dressed up in it, 
putting on the kilt, beads, ear-pendants, bell, feathers, etc., and then 
danced for him on top of her kiva, singing the following song: 

Anina yuyuina! anina yuyuina! Aha, costumed! aha, costumed! 

Anina yuyuina! anina yuyuina! Aha, costumed! aha, costumed! 

Anina yuyuina! anina yuyuina! Aha, costumed! aha, costumed! 

Kurzh yangkag Bakataa, Now this Bakataa, 

Nui, nui, nui. To me, me, me (comes). 

As she was singing the last words she jumped into the kiva through 
the opening, closing it up quickly, and called out to the young man: 
"You can go, I shall not give you back your costume." The youth 
was very sad and went home. When his grandmother saw him she 
was angry. "There," .she said, "I told you not to go there, but you 
did not believe me, and you went there anyway. That maiden is 
wicked. She always takes away the things from the young men in 
that way, but you would not believe me, and you went there. But 
let us eat now and then you go on the hunt. That maiden is always 
hungry for meat, and if you bring some game we shall go over with 
that and offer it to her and see what she has to say. She is hungry 
after meat." 

So when they were through eating he dressed up and went 
hunting. The youth had a dog that could run very fast. This dog 
accompanied him. They were hunting east of the village in the 
valley. Soon they detected a rabbit, followed him, tracked him into 
a hole and dug him out, killed him, and returned to the village. When 
he came to his grandmother's house she was very happy. "Thanks, 
thanks," she said, one time after another. "With this we shall go 
over now and find out what she thinks about it." Hereupon they ate. 
When they were through the grandmother told him to take this 
rabbit, go over to the maiden, and invite her to dance for him again, 
offering her the rabbit if she did so. "She will certainly come out 
then," the grandmother said, "but do not be afraid now; cover that 
opening with the trapdoor quickly, so that she cannot get back again." 

So he proceeded to the kiva of the maiden. When she saw him 
she saw the game that he had in his hand, and said, "Oh, where 
did you get that?" "Yes," he said, "I killed that just now." "Give 
it to me," she replied. "As soon as you will dance for me again I 
shall give it to you," he said. "Now, you listen to me," he said, "as 

March, 1905. Thk Traditions of the Hopi — Votk. 143 

soon as you get through dancing I shall give it to you." So she came 
out and performed her dance at the edge of the kiva opening, appar- 
ently ready to slip in again when she would be through. She sang 
the same song that she had been singing before. As she sang the last 
word the youth threw the game towards her, but quite a distance from 
the kiva, as he had been instructed by his grandmother. The mana 
rushed for the game, and while she did so the youth closed the opening. 
The mana was very quick, but when she saw that she had been de- 
feated she laid oflf the entire costume, one piece after the other, saying, 
"Here is your costume." The youth picked it up and went to his 
grandmother's house, who was very happy. "Thanks," she said, 
"that you were not too late, and that you were successful." Here- 
after he had his costume again. "Thanks, thanks," the grandmother 
said, one time after another. "Do not go that way again, that mana 
is dangerous. She always takes away the things from the youths of 
the village. I told you so, but you would not believe me. Now since 
she has given your costume back to us, do not go again." 



Haliksai! In Kawaihkaa, a Pueblo village in New Mexico, the 
people were living. North of the plaza, at the house where there was 
a long ladder, lived two maidens. They were sisters, and persistently 
refused to marry any of the young men in the village. Finally the 
Night (Tokila) concluded to try to marry the two maidens, and came 
to the house. He came there in the evening and asked them to marry 
him. They said they would lay the matter before their parents, and 
if they were willing they would marry him. The parents were will- 
ing, and so the two sisters waited for their suitor. The next evening 
he came to fetch his two brides. 

Leaving the village they went through a narrow passage. Outside 
of the village they found a large tray (pota), which the Night had 
left there. "This we shall enter," he said. So they all took a place 
on the tray, whereupon they were lifted up and carried through the 
air to Kawaihka NuwatoKaovi, where they entered a deep canyon or 
gulch. Here the Night lived. When they came into the house they 
saw in an inner room a great many human bones. They were the 
remains of many women whom the Night had stolen in the village, 
and with whom he had lived a while and then, as soon as they became 
pregnant, had thrown them into the room to perish. A number of 

' Told by L<jmdn6mtiwa (Oraibi). 

144 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

women and maidens were still living, and they pitied these two new 
arrivals, and said: "Alas! that you two have come with him." So 
the two were very unhappy. 

Close by was a lake from which the two sisters used to get water. 
They stayed with the Night a while, but soon became very unhappy 
when they saw that they were pregnant. One time the younger sister 
went to get some water and then somebody spoke to her. It was the 
Frog. "You poor one," he said, "you must go home this night. 
Here is a large trail. In the evening you must take your water jars 
on your head and come after water. You leave them here, and then 
you follow this road, which leads to your home. This you must tell 
your sister also." Hereupon the younger sister returned and said to 
her older sister: "There at the water some one has told me something." 
"What did he say to you?" she asked. "He told me that we should 
go home this night. ' ' 

So in the evening, after they had eaten, they took their water jars 
and went after water. When they arrived at the lake the Frog said : 
"Have you come?" "Yes," they replied. "Very well, you just 
follow this track, and you trot, and you v/ill arrive at your home." 
After they had traveled a distance they came upon Spider Woman, 
who was sitting close to the trail in a stooping position as an old hag. 
"Have you come?" she said. "Yes," they replied. "Very well, I 
have heard that you are going home, and so I waited for you here." 
She then told them that she would go along, and that they should not 
fear. So they traveled on that night and did not sleep any. The 
next day, when they had traveled until about noon, Spider Woman 
looked back and saw some clouds approaching. "They are coming," 
she said : "and will certainly overtake us." 

The three did not tarry, but when they had come nearly to the 
village the sky was full of clouds; they had overtaken them. When 
they had arrived close to the village they .were struck by lightning and 
killed. But as they were killed, each one was delivered of a child, 
the elder sister of a little boy, the younger one of a little girl. The 
children remained alive and at once began to nurse. During the night 
their mothers would become alive, but during the day they were always 
dead. In that way the children were brought up. Finally they began 
to walk around. Spider Woman had left the two fugitives as soon as 
they were struck by lightning. 

When the children had grown up somewhat, they asked their 
mothers who their father was. "We certainly have a father, and you 
tell us who he is, and we will go to him ; then he will take care of us 
and provide for us." The mothers then told them, "Yes, you have 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 145 

a father, but from him we have fled, and he will not care for you. East 
of here is a village, Kawaihkaa, and there is where we used to live. 
There our father and our mother live. You go there and north of the 
plaza where the big ladder is you inquire and see what they will say 
to you. There is where we used to live. But they too are bad. 
They will undoubtedly ask you to contend with them, and if any one 
is beaten they usually kill him. On top of the ladder something is 
hanging, and if any one does not guess that, he is killed; but if they 
contend with you and beat you, you must guess that. There is a 
little turtle tied up in it." 

Hereupon they slept until morning, then the two children started. 
Their mothers said to them: "If they contend with you and your 
grandfather pities you and gives you something, you bring us some- 
thing too, so that we can dress up, because our clothes are worn out. 
If they do not say anything to you, we shall go there too." When 
they arrived at the village they crossed the plaza, saw the ladder, and 
went up. Their grandparents lived in a kiva there. They entered 
and sat down. The grandparents had always been sad and sorry and 
at first did not say anything. Finally the grandfather saw them and 
asked, "Who are you?" "Why, it is we," they said. "But who are 
you? Where do you come from?" "From west of here," they re- 
plied. "From Akdkovi (a village west of Kawafhkaa)?" the grand- 
father asked. "No," they said, "not from there, but we stayed right 
west of here." "But who are you?" they asked again. 

"A long time ago you had two daughters and somebody fetched 
them, and we are their children. We have grown up now and have 
come here." Hereupon they set food before them and fed them. 
The grandmother was crying. When they had eaten, sure enough, 
they were asked to play a game with them. "If they are our grand- 
children," they said, "they will know something." So the grand- 
father laid out a flat stone on which was drawn a t6kwnanaw6hpi.' 
The grandfather sat on one side, the boy at the other end, and then 
they began to play. The boy won the game. "Very well," the 
grandfather said, "there at the top of the ladder something is wrapped 
up. You giiess what that is. If you guess that you kill me, and if 
you do not guess it I shall kill you." Hereupon they all went out and 
looked at the bundle that was hanging at the top of the ladder. " Now, 
what is in there?" the grandfather said. "Who knows?" the child 
said. "You guess once," the brother said to his sister. "How do I 
know what can be in there?" she said; "you guess." "Now, do not 
hesitate," the grandfather said, "but speak out and say what you 

' A game tesembling our checkers. 

146 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

think." "Why, what can be in there?" the Uttle brother finally said; 
"it is perhaps a little turtle." "Now, you are surely our grand- 
children," the grandfather exclaimed. 

"Well now, you kill me," the grandfather said. "No, we do not 
want to kill you," the children replied, "but you pay us something.". 
"Very well," the grandfather said, "what do you want?" "I want 
a shirt, a bow, and quiver with arrows, and some wrist protectors, and 
a pair of moccasins," the boy said. The little girl asked for a dress, 
a blanket, moccasins, and a belt. And thus the grandparents paid 
them these things. They then also asked for some clothes for their 
mothers, whereupon the grandfather gave them four sheep-wool 
dresses, two pairs of moccasins, and two belts. The children then 
said , that their mothers had said , if they were willing and would not 
say anything, then the mothers would also come. "Certainly you 
must come," the grandparents said; "you shall not remain there." 
So the children took these things with them and returned to their 

When they arrived there the latter were very happy. The little 
boy was already shooting his arrow. They all dressed up now and ate 
their evening meal. Hereupon they proceeded to the village, but all 
abreast. In this same manner they ascended the ladder, and when 
they had arrived at the opening the elder woman called down, "Our 
father, our mother," but received no answer. The younger sister 
then called down the same words, but received no answer. "They 
do not care for us," they said. The children had told their grand- 
parents that their mothers would come if the grandparents would not 
say anything to them. They then descended the ladder and stopped 
at the elevated portion in the kiva. Again the two called, "Our 
father, our mother," and again no answer. "They do not care for 
us," the two women said. They then descended into the deeper por- 
tion of the kiva and again one after the other called, "Our father, our 
mother," whereupon the grandmother responded. "How!" she said, 
and immediately her two children and two grandchildren fell dead. 
Had they heeded the injunction a little better, and had been quiet 
just once more, the fourth time they would all have lived together 
happily, but this way now they had no children. 


Haliksai! In Oraibi they were living. At the place where now 
Hongsi and Ndkwsu live, lived a maiden who refused all offers of 
marriage. The young men of the village would frequently go there 

' Told by Lomdnomtiwa (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — V'oth. 147 

and try to win her affections, but without success. At Ach^mali 
(now a shrine a few hundred yards north of the village) lived a youth 
by the name of Hiyonatitiwa, with his grandmother. They were very 
poor. The young man always went around with a patched blanket, 
and his grandmother also did so. One time he said to the latter: 
"My grandmother!" "Ha!" she said. "I am going to go south to 
that maiden there and see whether she will not marry me." " O my!" 
the grandmother said, "you are so poor, she will certainly not want 
you, and you are thinking of it. But at least go there and try it," 
she said to him. 

So one time he came to the village. On the Snake and Flute and 
other kivas and on some of the houses the young men were still sitting, 
as it was twilight. As they saw the youth come they said: "Aha, 
somebody is coming here." So he stood and waited. They went to 
their supper and then returned, taking their previous places again. 
But the young man, not wanting to wait any longer, boldly passed 
between them to the house of the maiden. There was ari open window 
in the upper story of the house, and to this the youth went up. The 
young people who saw him smiled. The maiden was grinding com, 
but occasionally stopped. The young people watched the proceed- 
ings, and as they heard that the maiden occasionally stopped grinding, 
they concluded and said that the young man must be welcome, and 
she must be talking with him sometimes, because she stops grinding 
corn occasionally. 

The young man talked to the maiden and asked her to marry him. 
She said that if her father and mother were willing, she would marry 
him. "Very well," he said, he would return the next evening, and 
if they were willing he would fetch her. Hereupon he returned home. 
The young men of the village were very unhappy. The youth said 
to his grandmother that to-morrow he would fetch the maiden. She 
refused to believe it. "Certainly I am going to fetch her," he said. 
And so the day passed and evening came. When it was dark he again 
proceeded to the house of the maiden. The young men of the village 
were again sitting on the roofs of the kivas and houses watching him. 
He went up to the house, and after a little while brought with him the 
mana, taking her to his house. The young men said to him as they 
passed along : " So you are fetching her. What do you want with her? 
But, of course, you are going to dress her up in patched blankets." 

So he brought her to the house of his grandmother and went in. 
She took charge of the maiden and the latter remained there. The 
next three days she ground corn, and on the morning of the fourth 
day the grandmother washed their heads, but there was nobody there 

148 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

to participate. There was nobody there to make a bridal costume, 
for which the maiden was now sorry. Hereupon the bride remained 
there and prepared the food for them, but no one prepared a bridal 
costume for her. When she had remained there about the time that 
brides usually remain at their husband's house before they go home to 
their mother's house, the old grandmother said : "Now, you have been 
here about that long, we shall see whether we can find something for 

That day the young man went hunting and brought home a great 
deal of meat. They prepared some n6okwiwi, some pikami, etc. Of 
this they ate in the evening. Early the next morning the grand- 
mother again washed the head of the bride, and hereupon she went 
into a room oh the north side and was hunting around there, knocking 
things about, but found nothing. Going into another room on the 
west side she did the same, but had nothing when she came out. She 
repeated this in a room on the south side, but when she came out of a 
room on the east side she brought with her a complete bridal costume 
— two white robes, a pair of moccasins, a white, knotted, fringed belt 
and a reed receptacle. She dressed up the bride, sprinkled a road of 
corn-meal for her, and sent her home to her parents. The people 
were again sitting on their housetops and kiva roofs, and, behold I 
there the young bride came home, dressed as brides usually are 
dressed. When she came to her mother's house her mother was very 

Her husband went on a hunt the next day and brought back with 
him a mountain sheep. This he handed to his wife's parents, who 
were very happy over it. The inhabitants of the Snake and Nashabe 
kivas were very angry at this young man and were planning how they 
could kill him. They decided to make a raid on the Navaho. But 
the father of the young wife was also one of the inhabitants of the 
Snake kiva, and so he found out how matters stood. He told his 
son-in-law about it, and the latter informed his grandmother. She 
said that the next morning he should send his wife's little sister to 
the Snake kiva to call his father-in-law for breakfast. Hereupon the 
young man returned. 

In the morning the maiden went to the Snake kiva, called her 
father for the morning meal, and added that in four days there would 
be war, whereupon she ran back. The people in the kiva were sur- 
prised, but laughed. The next day she repeated this, saying that in 
three days there would be war, and so on. In the evening of the second 
day the father and his son-in-law went over to the old woman at 
Achdmali, and said: "It is drawing nearer." "Yes," she said, "when 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 149 

they will have a race to-morrow you must not race with them, but you 
both come here first and start from here." Whereupon the two re- 
turned home. The next morning the little maiden repeated the same 
words. The men now began to feel uneasy, saying that that maiden 
certainly did not say that for nothing. Something must be about to 

On the morning of the third day she repeated the same words, 
saying: "To-morrow there will be war." That day the men made 
bows and arrows all day. On the morning of the fourth day the 
maiden again said : " Let us go and eat, but to-day there will be war," 
whereupon she ran home. It had been noised abroad that some 
Navaho were approaching the village and were attacking some men 
in the fields. The men who were not killed ran towards the village 
and shouted. The men of the village at once got ready and descended 
the village to meet the Navaho raiders. Hiyonatitiwa and his father- 
in-law each got two quivers full of arrows and a bow, and then ran 
over to Achamali to the old woman's house. "Have you come?" she 
said. "Yes," they replied. Hereupon she went to the room on the 
north and called in: "Come out here, your grandchildren have come 
here." At once somebody came. It was the Puma. She then 
called into the room on the west side: "Your grandchildren have 
come, come out here," and a Bear came out. She repeated this, 
calling into the room on the south side, and a Wildcat came out. 
Repeating this same act on the east side, a Wolf came out of the room. 

While this was going on at Achdmali, the Hopi had met the 
Navaho, and the latter were constantly asking where Hiy6natitiwa 
was. "He is in the village yet," the Hopi replied. "Go and get 
him, he is slow," the Navaho said. By this time the young man and 
his father-in-law, accompanied by the four animals, descended the 
mesa. The animals at once rushed upon the Navaho, who were 
nearly all killed, and also the Hopi that had planned this raid in order 
to get Hiyanatitiwa out of the way, and then steal his wife. When 
those who remained alive returned to the village there was a great 
deal of mourning there. "Somebody has certainly brought this 
about that some of our people have now been killed also," they said. 
And this way it was prevented that some one should take away the 
young man's wife, and he forever afterwards lived with her. 

150 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, V^ol. VIII. 


Haliksai! In Shongopavi they were living, and a youth there was 
very handsome, and all the maidens were coveting him. And one 
maiden was young yet, had small hair whorls; she was dirty, and a 
bad looking maiden. The maidens owned the chiro birds, and one 
of the maidens ground coarse meal (hakwushkwi) for them and put 
it into a tray, and when she had put it in she lifted it up, and while 
she was singing she threw it away. She sang: "Pota, p6ta, pota, 
Yoa ini, yoa ini," and then scattered it to the birds. Now the chiros 
darted towards it and ate of it, and when they had eaten they dis- 
persed again, whistling, and were flying around somewhere in the 
field. When it was evening they again assembled at the mana's 
house. In the morning she again made hakwushkwi for them and 
fed them, and after that the mana always fed them. 

Now that youth also made a tray. When he was done with it 
the maidens assembled. He handed that tray to them, and when he 
had handed it to them he said: "Now then, who opens this shall get 
me." Now one when she had loosened it could not untie it. She 
handed it to another one, who could not untie it, and thus one after 
the other tried to loosen and untie it, and not one could open it. 
Now then when it came to that bad looking maiden she also tried it. 
Now the old grandmother (Spider Woman) informed her, "When you 
will sing this you will open it." Thus she informed her. So the 
maiden, while she was secretly singing, opened it. When she had 
opened it, singing secretly, she opened it as her song ended. When 
she had opened it all she owned the youth. Then those pretty 
maidens were very sad and were angry. 

Now the youth took her to his house, where the mother of the 
youth bathed her entirely, whereupon she became a pretty maiden. 
She now remained there as a bride. Then they made a bridal costume 
for her whereupon she went home. When she went home the youth 
followed her. Now she slept there in their house twice, and when 
she slept there the second time she did not get up. At last when they 
were eating they would still not get up, so the mother of the maiden 
went up to them and looked at them and they were still sleeping, but 
that maiden had turned into something; she had turned into a dog. 
Now the mother said to them, "Get up, please." The dog got up at 
once and rushed out right away and jumped down as a dog, and at 
once ran away somewhere, and is still going around somewhere. 

' Told by Moho (Oraibi woman). 

M.\RCH, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi- — Voth. 151 


A long time ago there was an earthquake at Oralbi. It was a very 
nice day; people had eaten their breakfast as usual, and were happy. 
Then towards noon the earth and the houses began to move and to 
tremble, and very soon there was a great noise like thunder, but 
nothing could be seen and the people did not know where it came 
from. They ran to their houses and everywhere to see what was the 
matter. Sometime in the afternoon the earth trembled very much, 
and a large piece of ground sank down at Skeleton gulch (Masvovee), 
so called because at one time a great many slain people were thrown 
there. This is situated about half a mile northeast of Oraibi; the 
piece that sank down reached nearly to the village of Orafbi. There 
was also a very large crack right on the public square or plaza of the 

By this time the people got frightened very much, and all left the 
village, running toward the north. In the village there lived in one 
of the houses a blind man, and in another house a cripple who could 
not walk. When these noticed that some serious disturbance was 
taking place, they got very much frightened, and the blind man 
called over to the cripple asking for information. The latter answered 
that the earth had been trembling and the village had been in motion, 
and that all the people had left the village. The cripple then asked 
the blind man to come over to his house. The blind man asked the 
cripple to come over to his house, but after a while the cripple pre- 
vailed, and the blind man, taking a stick and feeling his way before 
himself, tried to reach the house of the cripple, the latter directing 
him which way to go. When he had arrived at the house the cripple 
said : " Let us also flee. You carry me on your back, and I shall show 
you the way." This they did, the cripple turning the head of the 
blind man in the direction in which he wanted him to turn and to go. 
Thus they left the village, also in a northerly direction, following the 

A short distance north of the village a large elk met them, coming 
from the north. " O my! what is that?." the cripple said, on the back 
of the blind man. "What is it ?" the latter asked. "Something very 
large. It is nearly black, and yet it is not quite black." The blind 
man, who had been a great hunter in his youth, when he still had his 
eyesight, at once suspected what it might be, and asked for details, 
and soon concluded that it must be an elk. Before leaving the village 

' Told by 06y4waima (Oraibi). 

152 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

the blind man had suggested that they take a bow and arrows along, 
so that, in case they needed some food, they could kill some game. 
When they had come opposite the elk the cripple suggested that the 
blind man shoot the elk, as his own hands were also somewhat crippled, 
and he was unable to handle a bow. He put an arrow on the bow, 
and the blind man got the bow ready, the cripple doing the aiming 
for him. The elk was now standing west of them, and at the proper 
time the cripple told the blind man to shoot. He shot and killed 
the elk. 

They were now very anxious to roast some of the meat, but had 
nothing to skin the animal or cut the meat with; so they went there 
and with one of their arrows they dug out the eyes of the elk. The 
blind man then, being directed by the lame man, gathered some 
sticks of wood and they built a fire, starting the fire by rubbing wood 
and fire sticks together. They placed the two eyes on the fire and 
waited. When the eyes got very hot they burst with a great report. 
"Hihiya!" the men exclaimed, and both jumped up, the lame man 
finding that he could walk, and the blind man finding his eyes opened. 
"Ishuti, " the blind man said. "What is it (hinti)?" "My eyes are 
open." "Yes, and I can walk," the other man replied. By this time 
it had become evening, "Now let us remain awake all night," the 
man who had been blind said, "because if we go to sleep my eyes 
might stick together again." "Yes, if I lie down I might find that I 
cannot walk again in the morning," the other one replied. So the 
first one handed the other a small twig of 6cvi (Ephedra), saying to 
him, "If you see that I go to sleep, you prick my eyes so that I awake." 
The other one handed the blind man, as we shall call him for brevity's 
sake, also some prickly weed, saying: "If you see me sit down you 
prick my body so that I remain standing." Thus they remained 
awake all night watching each other. 

Early in the morning they concluded that they would follow the 
tracks of the inhabitants of the village who had fled. They finally 
found them in a timber quite a distance to the north. "What has 
happened to you?" they said. "Why, you were blind and lame, and 
now you can see and walk." "Yes," they said, "something has hap- 
pened to us-; and now let us go back again to the village. There is 
nothing the matter there any more." So the people all returned to 
the village, these two taking the lead, and that is the reason why 
Oraibi is again inhabited. If these two had not brought the people 
back they would never have returned. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Vorii. 153 


Haliksai! In Orafbi they were living. East of the Kwan kiva 
a youth lived, by the name of Big Head (Wuydkqoto). Away south 
are the Hopi Buttes, and on the westernmost butte lived Goat Horn 
(Chiwakala). These two were friends, but as they lived so far apart 
they did not visit each other often; but one time Gk)at Horn visited 
his friend in Oraibi. After they had eaten and talked together, to- 
wards evening Goat Horn wanted to return home. "My friend," 
he said to Big Head. "What is it?" the latter replied. "You must 
come and visit me sometime, too," Goat Horn said ; whereupon he went 
home. After a while Big Head visited his friend, and stayed all night 
there. In the morning Goat Horn killed a goat for his friend, cut it 
in two, and gave him one-half, which Big Head took with him to 
the village; and that is the reason why Hopi, when they kill a goat, 
cut it up. 

44. kavushkavuwnOm and shovi'viounOm.2 

Haliksai! In Oraibi they were living. At Bayavushtuhco lived 
a woman by the name of Kavushkavuwnom, and at Odnmuru lived a 
woman by the name of Shoviviounom. These two women were great 
friends. They usually got water at Spider Spring (K6hkangva). One 
time Kavushkavuwnom was getting water again, and as she was re- 
turning her friend Shovfviounom met her, also getting water. The 
latter asked her in a half -singing manner: "What now [in order] to 
cook, you get water?" (Hihta vula kwiw^nikae kiiyito?) Whereupon 
Kavushkavuwnom replied: "A dish of young squashes" (Ngam6o- 
chona). Shoviviounom hereupon said: "So you are going to feast?" 
(Aha, hdlihi kurzh pas um ch6nni?) "Yes," the other one replied, 
"you must come this evening and visit me," whereupon they sepa- 
rated, the one going home with her water, and the other one going 
after water. 

When Shoviviounom returned with her water she went to grinding 
corn and prepared some huriishuki. Of this she put some into a tray 
and proceeded to the house of her friend, Kavushkavuwnom, who had 
invited her to come over. The latter had in the meanwhile prepared 
her dish of young squashes. This she put into a bowl and the two 
then sat down and ate the squashes and the hunishuki. While they 
were eating they conversed together, and when they were through and 
Shoviviounom had visited for a little while, she returned to her home. 

' Told by Lominomtiwa (Oraibi). 
* To'.d by Tangdkhoyotna (Oraibi) . 

. 154 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

The next morning Shovfviounom went after water first. She 
looked around several times for her friend, who, however, was not yet 
coming. She went down to the spring, filled her jug with water, but 
still her friend was not coming. So she returned to the village, and 
as she was ascending the incline to the village Kavushkavuwnom 
descended from the village, also going after water. When they met, 
Kavtishkavuwnom asked her friend: "What now [in order] to cook, 
you get water?" (Hihta vula kwiw^nikae kiiyito?) Whereupon 
Shovfviounom replied: "Tav6chona." "So you are going to feast?" 
(Aha, hdlihi kurzh pas um chdnni?) Kavushkavuwnom said. 
"Yes," Shovfviounom replied, "you must come and visit me in the 

When they had both returned they prepared their meals, Kavush- 
kavuwn6m preparing some hurushuki, and Shovuviounom preparing 
a dish of rabbit meat. In the evening Kavushkavuwnom proceeded 
to the "house of her friend. The latter put her dish of rabbit meat into 
a bowl, and Kavushkavuwnom added her hurushuki. The two then 
ate, enjoying their feast. When they were through, they conversed 
together until the sun went down, whereupon Kavtishkavuwnom re- 
turned to her house and both retired for the night. 


Haliksai! At Htikovi they were living, and at Pivanhonlcapi they 
were also living. At both places there were a great many children, 
and they always went down to Mumushva (a. spring named after a 
certain herb and grass that grows in the spring) , where they were set- 
ting bird traps. They were often at enmity with one another on 
account of the birds. One morning they again went to trap birds. 
They again became very angry at one another on account of the 
trapping, and the Htikovi children said to the children of Pivanhon- 
kapi that they should not trap birds there. But they said if they 
would give them something they could trap birds there. So the 
children from Pivanhonkapi ran back to the village and got such 
things as kuttiki, piki, and different other articles of food, and gave 
them to the children of Htikovi, so that the latter carried home a great 
deal of food 'vs^hich they had purchased for the permission given to the 
PivanhonRapi children to catch birds there, and after that the children 
from both villages were always catching birds there, and maybe they 
are catching birds there still. 

' Told by Kw4yeshva (Oraibi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 155 

46. THE JUG BOY.' 

In the village of Hano the people were living. The Hano know 
how to make the earthen jugs, and one time a handsome young 
woman also made an earthen jug. She kneaded the clay and when 
her hands were tired she trampled it with her feet, so that the wet clay 
spurted all around.* By and by this woman bore a child, but it was 
an earthen jug, inside of which was a little boy, who cried when he 
was born. The women who were present were happy. "Ishunf!" 
they said, "you have borne a child," whereupon they washed the jug 
child, and in that way the child grew up. But the mother nursed 
it, holding her breast over the opening of the jug when the child 

By and by the child grew up and began to talk like the Hdno, and 
from that time on the child refused to take the mother's breast; it 
asked for some food, and from there on it ate food which the mother 
put into the jug. Thus the child grew to be a young man. One time 
it rained and then it snowed, and the young men then went hunting. 
In the evening they came home carrying the rabbits. That jug youth 
envied them. He had a grandfather, and said to the grandfather, 
"My grandfather." "Hay!" the latter replied. " I want to go hunt- 
ing, too." "Very well," he replied, and then the grandfather made a 
bow for him and arrows, and tied feathers to the arrows, and when 
he had made them he tied them to the jug handles. He also tied 
some food to the jug and a burden band with it. These things he 

Then the grandfather lifted the jug up, carried it down from the 
village and left it there. He said to him, "Now go on; there in the 
field they are hunting, hence when you proceed and find rabbit tracks 
somewhere you follow them. This kind of tracks they have," where- 
upon he drew them for him. Now then he (the jug youth) moved 
forward in a wabbling manner and descended somewhere along the 
path. When he had descended he went somewhere northward from 
the village. Then he moved up and down that way, and sure enough 
somewhere found some tracks. He followed them and there, sure 
enough, a rabbit was running. Now that jug youth moved very fast, 
so that the mouth of the jug whistled. He circled around the rabbit 
once, then the rabbit jumped into the wash. The jug youth also 
came and jumped down. When he landed on the ground he burst 
into two and a Hopi came bouncing out of it. 

' Told by TangAkhoyoma (Oraibi) . 

' A part of it entered her genitalia and she became pregnant from it. 

156 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

After that he at once untied the bow and arrows and burden band. 
He now took the burden band, the bow and arrows, and followed the 
rabbit. The rabbit became tired and sat down. When the youth 
found him he shot it. He then followed another one and killed it. 
Thus he killed four. He now tied them up and carried them on his 
back and then went home from there. When it was evening he came 
to his mother carrying the rabbits, and she was truly happy. "Oh 
my! Thanks that you have killed them, thanks, thanks," she said. 
The grandfather now also said: "Thanks, thanks, why you have fixed 
yourself up somewhere, and hence you are now a Hopi and have 
carried these here to me. Thanks! Why now subsisting on your 
account I shall live here." When he had thus spoken to him, after 
that that one lived as a Hopi, and after that he always provided 
something for his mother, and then subsisting on his account (by his 
assistance) they lived there. 


A Crow was living on the high mesa southeast of Oraibi where the 
sun shrines are located. He would be walking up and down on the 
edge of the mesa watching the people as they were planting their corn 
in the valley. "Thank you," he would say, "that you are planting 
for me." Occasionally he would fly over and around the village of 
Orafbi watching the people. He also would watch well who planted 
his corn first, and when the corn began to have ears he would say : 
"This field was planted first, so I am going to eat there," which he 
did. The Hopi were very unhappy over it. This high Crow also 
impersonated sickness. Wherever any body in the village was bad 
he would, in some way or other, secretly and unobserved, influence 
and charm him and he would get sick; some of them would even 
die. Just how he did it the Hopi do not know. It was done in an 
invisible way, just the same, the Hopi say, as he would eat their corn 
after they had left their fields, and did not see him do it. The Crow, 
or Sickness, would also despoil people in other ways, some into 
whom he had breathed his bad influence would, for instance, begin 
to steal. They would be very sorry over it afterwards, and say: 
"What is it that makes me so bad, I did not use to do it before." 
Good people, whose heart, however, was not very strong, would thus 
be turned into bad people by the harmful charm of the Crow. They 
say that in that condition they would ' ' kananapunangwa y^she," that 
means, be sitting or living with a disobedient heart. But as the 

' Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hon — Voth. 157 

Crow is constantly trying to influence the Hopi to do bad things, to 
infuse sickness into their bodies, there is some one else that is trying 
to counteract the doings of the Crow, but who this unseen being is 
the Hopi do not know. They do not know where he lives ; they have 
no regular name for him ; they speak of him as The-One-that-Does- 
Grood-for-them-All, and wants to make them good, or as the One- 
with-the-Good-Heart, and so on. The ideas about this being seem to 
be vague. It is not quite clear whether the Hopi consider it to be 
a personality or simply a power, or influence, but they believe that 
whatever this may be, it is not so strong as the Crow, although the 
two forces constantly wrangle over the individual Hopi, the one try- 
ing to exert a bad influence over him and the other one to counteract 
this bad influence. The Hopi say that sometimes, when they are 
under the influence of the Crow, this other power will in some myster- 
ious way make itself felt, so that they sometimes feel a sudden shock; 
so that, as they sometimes put it, they even sometimes hit their foot 
against an object that may be close by. By this, they say, they 
realize that that "Good Thing," or Being, is trying to exert its 
influence over them and to save them from some bad influence of 
the Crow. 


A long time ago a beautiful maiden lived in the northern part of 
the village of Oraibi. The young men of the village vied with one 
another to gain her favor, but she treated with contempt all attempts 
in that direction. Thie young men would gather flowers, some of 
them even going long distances to find rare flowers, and offer them to 
her, but she would persistently refuse to accept any of them. So 
they finally gave up the attempts in disgust. 

The Yellow Cloud chief of the north heard about it and also 
decided to try to win her. He prepared a beautiful bridal outfit, 
consisting of two robes, a pair of moccasins, a knotted belt, and a 
reed mat, the latter to be used as a receptacle for a part of the outfit. 
In fact, it was the same outfit that is made for brides at the present 
time, but yellow being the color of the north with the Hopi, this whole 
outfit was of that color. The chief brought it to the village and pre- 
sented it to the maiden, but she refused to accept it, so he, too, re- 
turned to his home in disgust. , The Blue Cloud chief of the west hearing 
about this, made up his mind that he would try to win the favor of 
that maiden, so he prepared a blue bridal outfit and offered it to 
the maiden, but it was promptly refused. Hereupon the Red Cloud 

' Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi) . 

158 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

chief of the south prepared the same outfit in red color, but also 
without success. The White Cloud chief of the east tried his luck 
with a white bridal costume, but with no better results. The Black 
Cloud chief from above failed in the same manner, and finally the 
Gray Cloud chief from below tried his luck, only to meet with com- 
plete failure, as his five companions had.' 

After all these attempts and failures, Pavayoylcashi, a rain deitv 
in the far south, heard about this story. He painted and dressed up 
beautifully like the Flute players, Powamuy dancers, and certain 
Katcinas at the present day, painted a black line over his cheeks and 
nose, took a bow and arrows, placed the latter in a panther skin 
quiver and proceeded to Oraibi. He found the maiden already 
mentioned, in the valley south of Oraibi watching her father's field. 
He addressed her, saying, that she should speak to her parents and 
ask them whether they would give her to him and , in case they should 
give their consent, he would come and get her in four days. She 
was favorably impressed with him and promised to do so. In the 
evening, when she arrived in her home, she told her parents about 
it, saying that somebody had come there, had asked her in marriage 
provided they, the parents, would give their- consent. The parents 
offered no objections. 

The Coyote Old Man at that time lived west of the village at a 
place called Coyote Gap. He had been thinking of that maiden, 
but knowing that she had refused all oflfers, had never had the cour- 
age to ask for her. Hearing now that she had accepted Pavaj^oy- 
Kashi, he at once determined to win her. So he traveled south to 
a country where it is warm and where there are parrots and macaws. 
He captured one of the macaws, returned, and at once proceeded to 
the house of the maiden, saying: "I have brought something pretty 
for you." She asked, "What is it?" He produced the parrot and 
asked her whether she wanted it. She was at once struck with the 
beauty of the bird, and, not thinking of any evil intentions that the 
Coyote might have, accepted the present. The parrot was alive. 
The Coyote, well pleased with his success, returned to his house. 
During the night he proceeded to the house of Pavayoylcashi, stole 
his costume and ornaments and all that he usually took with him, 
and returned. The next morning he dressed and painted up just 
like Pavayoylcashi and proceeded to the house of the maiden. This 
being the day on which Pavayoylcashi had said that he would come 

1 With the Hopi yellow is the ceremonial color of the north; green or blue, of the; 
red, of the south; white, of the east; black, of the above; gray, meaning in this case a mixture of 
all kinds of color's, of the below. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 159 

for her, she mistook Coyote Old Man for her lover and went with 
him. They proceeded to the house of the Coyote Old Man where 
she remained. She soon discovered her mistake and was very un- 
happy over it. 

When PavayoyRashi awoke in the morning, he missed his cos- 
tume. After hunting for it and being unable to find anything, he 
discovered tracks leading to and from his house. He followed these 
and tracked them to the house of the maiden, from there back to 
the house of the Coyote, where to his great sorrow he found her. 
He did not say anything, however, but returned to his home, being, 
of course, very angry. In the meanwhile the young men of the 
village heard that the beautiful maiden, whom to win they had 
made so many unsuccessful attempts, had been ensnared by the 
Coyote Old Man. They were very much exasperated over it, went 
down the mesa, surrounded the Coyote's house and determined to 
kill the Coyote. When they arrived there he was still sleeping. 
The maiden, sitting by his side, was very much dejected. When 
the Coyote heard the noise he awoke, jumped up, ran up the ladder 
and succeeded in escaping between and through the pursuers with- 
out being hurt by the sticks that were hurled at him. Ascending a 
ridge or mesa some distance west of the village, he turned around and 
in a defiant way expressed his satisfaction at the victory he had 
gained over them , by successfully getting their most beautiful maiden 
away from them, and the village. While he spoke he grasped his 
genitalia and showed them to his pursuers. Hereupon he descended 
the mesa upon the other side and disappeared. 

Pavayoylcashi bided his time and one time brought a strong 
wind, some very heavy rain and thunder clouds, in which he was 
hidden, to the village. He took revenge on his enemy, the Coyote, 
by striking him dead with a ray of lightning. The maiden returned 
to her home, but realizing that she had cast herself away, she con- 
tinued to lead a life of lewdness. 

49. chorzhvukioOlO and the eagles.' 

A long time ago there lived a family right north of where now the 
Ndshabe kiva is situated. The family consisted of a father, mother, 
two daughters, and a son. The latter would always go and hunt 
eagles as soon as warm weather set in in spring, and later on take 
care of them, so that he would never find any time to assist his father 
in his field work. The two maidens would get angry at their brother 

' Told by Qdydwaima (Oraibi). 

i6o Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

because he would not assist their father to make a living, and they 
would tell him that he should go and work in the field. He would 
say, however, that he had to take care of his eagles, of which he 
usually caught and kept a great many. 

One spring he only captured two young eagles. He was very 
much depressed, saying: "Why has this happened to me; I usually 
capture a good many eagles, and now I only found two." Yet he 
took them home and cared for them. One morning after he had 
gone out to hunt food for his eagles, the mother and two maidens 
concluded to go to the field also. The girls got angry at the eagles 
and beat them. Thereupon they locked up the house, hiding the 
wooden key of the wooden lock somewhere near the fireplace. The 
mother had gone to the field early in the morning with her husband. 
When the girls arrived in the field the father said to them : " So you 
have come." "Yes," they said, "we have come." "Very well," 
the father said, whereupon the maidens assisted their parents in 
weeding and hoeing their field. 

When the young man came home some time during the day, he 
was very thirsty and tried to get into the house. "Well, now," he 
said, "some one locked this door. " "Yes," the Eagles said, "your 
sisters locked it, and the key is buried near the fireplace under some 
ashes;" whereupon the young man found the key and opened the 
door. The Eagles told him that his sisters had beaten them, and told 
him that he should dress up and that they wanted to go to where the 
"family was. So the young man painted his legs yellow, with silcah- 
piki, tied some bells or rattles round his legs, and some eagle's feathers 
in his hair, put on a kilt, sash, and belt, and decorated his body in 
different colors. Over his cheeks and nose he made a black line. 
He placed a number of strands of beads around his neck and ear 
pendants around his ears. One of the Eagles said, "I am going to 
carry you on my back." So he mounted the Eagle, holding him- 
self with both hands to the wings of the Eagle, and the other Eagle 
taking the lead, they began to ascend. The people in the village 
observed them and recognized the young man, and said, "Oh! 
Why is that Eagle carrying Ch6rzhvulc{q6lo ! " ' 

As they started, the Eagle that carried him said to him, he should 
sing the following song : 

Haoo Inguu! Haoo Inaa! Hao, my mother! Hao, my father! 
Itah uuyiyuu kamuktiqoo. Our corn grown high. 
Shilakwuyata. Corn husks. 

' The name signifies: Bunch of long blue -bird wing feathers. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 161 

Tutubena tutubena. (Are) figured, (are) figured.'. 

Ayay Tutubena. Aha (are) figured. 

Tutubena, tutubena. Are figured, (are) figured. 

Yaaa. Yaaa. 

While he was singing this they kept soaring upwards above the 
village, and after flying around in a circle four times they proceeded 
southward towards the field in which his people were. When they 
had come near the field the young man sang the same song again. 
The sisters heard him, and said, "Listen, our brother is coming from 
somewhere, because we hear him sing." They looked along the 
path but could see nothing. When the Eagles were close by the 
sisters discovered them and recognized their brother. "Oh!" 
they said, "why are you carrying our brother?" but they received 
no answer. Hereupon the Eagles descended somewhat, and the 
parents, whom the maidens had told about it, asked them to come 
down and leave their son with them, but instead of doing that, the 
Eagles began to rise, again circling around four times, the young rtian 
singing the song four times. By this time they had soared up very 
high, and finally were out of sight. The parents and sisters cried 
very much, especially the latter. The family immediately went 
home, mourning as they went along. 

The Eagles kept flying higher and higher to their home. Arriving 
at an opening away up in the sky, they passed through into the 
world where the Eagles dwell, and from where they come down in 
response to the prayers of the Hopi and hatch their young for the 
Hopi here in this world. The two Eagles proceeded somewhat east- 
ward from the opening, onto a very high bluff around which, in 
the valley, were many houses that were all perfectly white and in 
which the Eagles lived. The two Eagles deposited the young man 
on the top of that bluff, and told him, "Here you will have to stay, 
because your sisters were bad to us and beat us," whereupon they 
left him. He was very despondent over the matter and thought 
that he would jump down from the bluff. He said, "If I remain 
here I will die with hunger anyway, so I may just as well jump down 
and die quickly." But soon a little Wren appeared on the blufif, 
jumping up and down the edge. He spoke to the little Wren, asking 
whether there was no possibility of him getting down, but he re- 
ceived no answer. Soon the little bird flew away, but came back 

' This refers to the fact that the Hopi, especially the children, often fold up a strip of com 
husk and with their teeth mark different figures in it, which are then shown in different places of 
the husk when the latter is opened and held against the light. This was probably a song which 
the boy had been singing with his sisters and by which he wanted to make himself known, in 
which he was successful. 

i62 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

again, actingin the same manner. All at once a black Spider, that 
had been informed about the matter by the Wren came up the bluff. 
The Spider came close to the man, saying to him; "Well, now, you 
poor one, here you are all alone. " After thus having pitied him, the 
Spider continued: "Well, just stay here," and left him. But soon 
she returned, bringing with her two small, fine, downy turkey 
feathers, and handed them to the young man, saying: "You sleep on 
one of them and cover yourself with the other, so that you do not get 
cold during the night." She then began pitying him, saying that it 
was too bad that his animals (meaning the Eagles) had treated him 
so badly after he had taken such good care of them. Hereupon she 
again left him and he spent the night on the bluff. Early in the 
morning the Wren came again. "So you have come again," the 
young man said, but the Wren did not answer. It went, however, 
along the edge of the bluff again to the place where the Spider had 
come up and when the young man looked there, too, he saw a narrow 
crack in the bluff, reaching away down to the ground. The Wren 
at once began to pull out one feather after another from its wings, 
putting them at short intervals into the wall of the crack, while it 
was holding itself also on the sides of the crack. When the feathers 
from the wings were all gone it pulled out the feathers from its tail, 
thrusting them also into the side of the crack. When the tail feath- 
ers were all gone it had not yet reached the bottom by far. So it 
began to pull out the small feathers from all over the body and con- 
tinued to build its little ladder with these feathers, but the bottom 
was still not reached, so that finally it had to pull out even the small 
down all over its body, with which it finished the ladder. It now 
ascended the bluff again on its improvised ladder, and when it came 
to the top the young man hardly recognized it. It was entirely 
naked, having kept only its bill. It now invited the young man to 
follow it, and climbed down this ladder, assuring him that he would 
get down safely, and there was no reason for him to be afraid. So 
they descended and when they had safely reached the ground the 
Wren told him to wait there for it, whereupon it commenced to ascend 
again, holding itself to the sides of the crack. As it slowly mounted 
it pulled off with its bill the feathers from the wall of the crack and 
replaced them where they had been taken out from its body. When 
it had reached the top it had all its feathers again and then flew 
down. Here it told the young man to go towards the place from 
where it had come, showing him the direction, and then left him. 

The man proceeded as directed, and when he finally stopped at 
a place he heard a voice saying: "Step back a little, you almost are 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 163 

on my house." It was Spider Woman. She invited him into her 
house, but he said: "The opening is So small, how shall I get in?" 
She removed the small sticks and pieces of grass that were built up 
around the opening, thus enlarging che opening so that he'could enter. 
"Now," she said to him, "you must be very hungry. It is too bad 
that those Eagles which you treated so well should have been so 
bad to you. You had better stay here and live with me now. " 
Hereupon she gave him a tiny piece of meat, a very small quantity 
of huriishuki (a kind of doughy mush), and half a nut, and invited him 
to eat. "Oh!" bethought, "how shall I get satisfied with this small 
quantity. I shall surely remain hungry," but when he took the 
huriishuki, and placed it in his mouth, she said to him: "Oh, you 
must not take it all, you must just take a small quantity, and you 
must only suck the meat. " He did so and when he began to eat it, 
it increased in his mouth, filling his mouth entirely. The same was 
true of the nut, and the meat, the latter being white meat of some 
kind of a fowl, as the old woman explained to him upon his request. 
After he had eaten, Spider Woman made a ball for him of pitch and 
hair, the same as the Hopi use to-day in their races in early spring. 
In the morning he took that ball, left the house and ran southward, 
kicking the ball before him as the Hopi do at the present day. Arriv- 
ing at a small lake he saw at its banks some little birds, and having 
learned that Spider Woman relished that kind of meat very much, 
he killed one of the birds and took it along. On his way back he 
again kicked the ball before him, and at the last kick it dropped down 
into the Spider Woman's house, by which she knew that he had 
returned. "Thanks, that you have come back." She expressed 
her satisfaction at him having brought some more meat, and said : 
"Now, you must put this away and we tnust not eat very much of 
it at a time, so that it may last us several months. " The young man 
laughed at her, saying, "Yes, I will be nibbling at it for a long time. " 
She told him that the meat which she had had before, she had found, 
the bird evidently having been killed by some other bird, and she 
had lived upon that bird for a long time. 

The next day he went out again, bringing home this time two 
birds that he had killed. She thanked him very much again, say- 
ing, that now they could eat all they wanted. She then warned him 
that he should never go towards the west, as there were some bad 
people living there that would hurt him. The third day he again 
went to the lake, taking with him this time a throwing stick. When 
he arrived there he killed a large number of birds and brought them 
back with him. On this trip he again kept kicking the ball before 

164 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

him. When he brought all these birds into Spider Woman's house 
and placed them on the floor, she was very happy, and thanked him 
for it many times. "Now," she said, "we can eat meat and need 
no longer simply suck it," as they did before. "I am going to live 
well now, on account of you, (by your help)," she added. On the 
fourth day he again made the trip in the same manner, to the afore- 
said lake, but this time he thought he would turn around to the 
right, westward, and see at least who it was that was living there 
and that was reported to be bad. He thought if any danger threat- 
ened him he could easily run away. So he traveled westward, kick- 
ing before him his ball. All at once the ball disappeared and he 
found that it had dropped into a kiva. He approached the kiva and 
waited outside. All at once some one called from within, saying, 
that he had been seen and that he should come in, as nobody would 
hurt hihi. So he went in and found that his ball was lying north of 
the fireplace. He was again, with the utmost kindness, invited to 
sit down, with which he complied. He thought that those who 
lived here could by no means be called dangerous or bad. The man 
living in the kiva had long eyelids that were hanging down on his 
breast and that had to be laid back over his head when he wanted 
to see. His name was Hasohkata, and soon he said: "Now, let us 
play totdlospi. " The young man consented, but Hasohkata beat 
him twice. "What will you pay me now?" he asked the young 
man. "I do not know," the latter said, "I have nothing. You 
may take my ball, however." "I do not want that," Hasohkata 
said, "but you may lie down outside at the entrance of my kiva and 
it will not be so cold then, " for it had by this time become fall and 
the weather was getting cold. The young man consented, but Has- 
ohkata said to him: "I am afraid you will run away then, so I am 
going to tie your hands and feet," which he did. In a little while 
the young man began to feel very cold while he was lying outside of 
the kiva. Spider Woman, in the meanwhile, became uneasy about 
her young friend, saying, "It is now about half noon and he is not 
yet here, he undoubtedly did not follow my advice and went west- 
ward and fell into the hands of the bad people. She at once went to 
look him up and found him lying at the kiva's opening, his hands 
tied on his back and his feet also tied together. "Aha!" she said, 
"here you are lying just as I thought. You must be hungry; now, 
that is the reason why I came. Now, you stay here until I return 
and get something for you. " So she returned to her house and got 
two fuzzy, short turkey feathers. With these she returned and 
placed one beneath him and with the other one she covered him up. 

^[.\Rc H, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 165 

Hereupon she returned to her house and commenced to meditate on 
the matter. "Why did he take away my friend," she thought, 
"and how shall I get him back again. That man there in the kiva 
is a bad man and he will not want to give back to me my grand- 
child. I am going out to call somebody in here." So she went out 
and called out to her people, saying: "All assemble here, but do not 
tarry, be quick about it." Those that responded at once were 
specially animals of prey, such as the bear, wildcat, panther, mole, 
etc. Her house was completely filled. "Why do you want us in 
such a hurry? " they asked. "Yes, " she said, "that there Hasohkata 
has hung my grandchild up to smoke (referring to the fact that 
objects that are smoked are sometimes suspended in the hatch-way 
over the fireplace). So now, I want you to go and take my grand- 
child away from Hasohkata." "All right," they said, "but how 
shall we do it?" "You must also gamble with him," she said. 
They then agreed upon certain games that they were going to play, 
and sticks that they should make, etc., and then left, being led by 
the old woman. Hasohkata in the meanwhile kept laughing at the 
young man lying outside of his kiva entrance. "Now, you are cold 
by this time, are you?" he kept saying to him, and while he was 
still talking in that manner the rescuers arrived at the kiva. Before 
they started, however, from Spider Woman's house, she had pre- 
pared a set of backshivu (a cup game). This shd had brought with 
her. While they had proceeded to Hasohkata's house the Mole had 
proceeded to the same place underground and was waiting under the 
house of Hasohkata. When the others arrived at the kiva they 
were invited to come in by Hasohkata. He spoke very kindly to 
them. North of the fireplace was still the drawing of the totolospi 
gam^e that he had played with- the young man. In reply to his 
urgent request to come in. Spider Woman said: "We have come to 
gamble with you. You are smoking my grandchild here and we 
have come to beat you at playing, and are going to take him away. " 
"All right," he said, "come right in," whereupon they entered, 
entirely filling the kiva. "All right," they said, "who will com- 
mence?" "You play first," Hdsohkata said, "because you pro- 
posed it." Spider Woman was happy over it, and put up her four 
gaming cups on the north side of the fireplace. The Mole, still be- 
ing under the floor, saw it and placed the little ball under one of the 
cups, pushing it up very hard, however, that it could not drop out in 
case that cup was chosen and thrown down by the player. Now, 
they said to Hasohkata, "Guess under which it is, and we will see 
whether you will win. " He pondered a long time, then threw down 

1 66 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

one of the cups, but the ball was not under it. Hereupon he threw 
down another one, but the ball was not under that one. "Now, that 
is enough," Spider Woman said, "you have not found it." So she 
put up her four cups again, the Mole again fastened the ball in one 
of the cups quickly, closing up the opening in the floor, and then 
Hasohkata was again challenged to guess. He again threw down 
two cups without winning one game. "My!" he said, "Who are 
you ? Why are you trying to keep away your things from me ? You 
have beaten me, so take the young man along." Spider Woman then 
herself threw down one of her cups and said, "Here under this one 
is the ball." This made the old man somewhat angry and he 
refused to let his captive go, but he challenged them to another trial. 
Outside of his kiva grew very strong kwmgwi, which is a brush, the 
sticks of which are very hard. He told them that if they would 
break down or pull out a certain amount of that stuff he would con- 
sider himself beaten. The Mole hearing this, quickly made its way 
underground to the brush and soon gnawed off all the biggest 
roots of a great deal of brush. The others did not know anything 
about this and so when they came out of the kiva the old woman 
said to the others: "Now, let us try to pull this out and see whether 
we can do it. " They commenced, and in a short time had pulled out 
so much, even with parts of the roots, that Hasohkata considered 
himself beaten even before they had pulled out all that the Mole had 
loosened. "All right," he said, "you take with you all that I have 
and you will be rich, you have beaten me." They returned to the 
kiva, untied the young man and all again entered the kiva of Hasoh- 
kata. "Now," Hasohkata said to them, "take with you all of my 
things here, because you have beaten me twice." There were a 
great many objects throughout his kiva, such as clothing, bows, 
quivers, arrows, and other things that he had taken away from 
visitors with whom he had gambled and whom he had killed, throw- 
ing their corpses into a big hole that was full of bones. 

After they had taken everything, they said to him: "But what 
shall we do to you ? " He replied : "You have taken all my things, let 
me alone." To this they did not agree. "We are going to kill 
you," they said. "So the Bear grabbed him, tore open his breast, 
and tore out the heart of Hasohkata, which he took with him. The 
Wolves, Coyotes, Wildcats, etc., hereupon fell upon the corpse, tear- 
ing it to pieces and devoured it. These animals still do the same 
to-day, killing people whenever they have an opportunity to do so, 
whether these people are good or bad, and that is the reason why 
the Hopi hunt and kill those animals if they can do so. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 167 

After they had left the kiva, Spider Woman told them all that 
they could now go to their respective homes. She took her grand- 
child with her and also returned to her home with him. Here she 
told him that he should fear nothing after this because nobody would 
now hurt him, that having been the only one that was bad and dan- 
gerous. The Wren had in the meanwhile been down to this earth 
and had seen the parents of the young man and found out that they 
were longing for their lost son, and when it returned it told Spider 
Woman about it. So about four or five days after they had returned 
from Hasohkata's kiva, she told him that he might go home now, as 
his father and mother were homesick after him. She did not, how- 
ever, tell him how she had found it out, and she promised him that 
the next day she would go with him. So the next day they went to 
the opening through which the Eagles had brought the young man. 
They looked down and could see nothing. Everything looked as if 
we are now looking upward. So Spider Woman placed around the 
opening sticks and brush of all kinds just the same as around a 
spider hole. Over this she then spun a great deal of web and before 
cutting the thread she told the young man to mount her back. Here- 
upon they began to descend, the thread of spider web unraveling at 
the opening as they descended farther and farther downward. She 
advised the young man to keep his eyes closed, which he did. They 
struck the earth somewhere close to the field of the young man's 
parents. Here he left Spider Woman and started to his parents' 
home himself. When he arrived at his home one of the neighbors 
said to his parents :" Some one has come; your child has come," but 
they would not believe it. "He will never come, he is gone," the 
mother said. When he entered the house he said: "I have come." 
"Who are you?" the father said. "I am Chorzhvukfqolo. " "No, 
you are not the one." "Yes, I am," he said; but at last the father 
recognized him and said, "Yes, you have come." The mother then, 
too, recognized him and she was very happy. The sisters who had 
been waiting and longing for their brother, were also very happy that 
he had returned. So they were all united again and maybe they are 
still living there. 


A long time ago some Navaho lived east of Orafbi. They had 
stolen, as occasionally happened, a little Hopi boy. They were very 
hard on him, making him work constantly and giving him very little 

' Told by 06y4\vaima (Oraibi) . 

i68 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

to eat, so that he became very much emaciated. Somewhere north 
of this Navaho camp there was a high bluff on which a large Hawk 
lived. This Hawk was often flying around and frequently saw this 
little boy and pitied him. One time the Navaho had a great gath- 
ering at one place not far from this camp where the little boy was, 
leaving the little orphan behind. When the Hawk found this out he 
flew to the camp, flying around above the little boy. The latter was 
afraid and begged the Hawk not to hurt him. The Hawk at once 
sat down beside the boy and said to him : " I am not going to hurt 
you, but I pity you and we shall go to my house. You come and sit 
on my back and I shall carry you there. " The child at once mounted 
on the back of the Hawk, holding himself to the wings, and the Hawk 
then flew away with him. 

When passing the place where the Navaho were gathered, the 
latter noticed that the Hawk was carrying away the boy and were 
very much astonished at it. They had never thought of such a thing. 
After the Hawk had deposited the little son on the bluff he said to him, 
"I am going to borrow some clothes for you. You are naked, and 
you want to be clothed." Immediately he swooped down upon the 
Navaho camp, singled out a little son of a wealthy Navaho, grabbed 
him and flew back to the bluff. While he was flying he tore off 
all the clothes from the child and then dropped the body to the 
earth. The assembled Navaho were very much frightened and 

At that time the Navaho still wore long buckskin leggings with 
yellow buttons on the sides, also buckskin shirts, and such a costume 
the Hawk brought to the little boy. The Hawk soon after flew down 
again, grabbed another little Navaho boy and carried him upward, 
the head of the child hanging down, pulled off his moccasins, dropped 
the body, and brought the moccasins to the little child. The Navaho 
were very much frightened and dispersed in all directions. This con- 
fusion the Hawk made use of and came down several times, taking 
away from several of the Navaho articles of clothing and ornaments, 
bringing them back to the little child. The Hawk then said to 
the little boy : ' ' But you are not used to this raw food that I am 
eating." "No," the little boy said, "I never ate that before." So 
the Hawk got him some firewood and even fire, and some rabbit 
meat, and the boy roasted some meat and ate it. He stayed 
there four days in the house of the Hawk. At the end of the four 
days the Hawk said to him: "In the morning I am going to take 
you to your home in Oraibi. " So the boy mounted his back again 
and the Hawk flew first down to the Navaho camp where he circled 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 169 

around a number of times, showing himself to the Navaho, who were 
very much astonished, and then flew on to the village of Orafbi 
returning the child to his home, where he lived forever afterwards. 


A long time ago the Orafbi had nothing to eat as it did not rain 
for about four or five years. The first year the com became large 
enough so that some com -ears just began to ripen, then the frost 
came and killed it. The next year the ears were just forming when 
the frost again killed the com. The third y^ar the ears did not even 
begin to form when the stalks were killed by frost. The fourth year 
it remained very small. The people by this time had eaten all the 
com they had saved from previous years and some began to move 
away. Some of them, however, still planted some the fifth year, but 
the drought was so great that the com withered soon after it had 
come out of the ground. 

They all left then, trying to find something to eat with other 
people. Only a little boy and his sister were left in the village. One 
time the little brother made a little bird for his sister from the pith 
of the sunflower stalk and gave it to her to play with. While he 
went away to hunt something else for her she played with the little 
bird, throwing it upwards several times, and all at once it became a 
living Humming-bird and flew away. When the boy returned he 
asked her what she had done with her little bird. She told him that 
it had flown away, at r/hich he was very much surprised. The chil- 
dren had hardly anything to eat. The next morning the little bird 
came back, flew into the house where the children stayed and entered 
an opening in one of the walls. "My little bird has come back!" 
the little girl said. "Where is it?" the boy asked. "Why, it went 
into that opening there." The boy put his hand into tihe opening 
and found that it seemed to be very large. The bird he could not 
find, but he found a little com -ear which the bird had apparently 
placed there. At this the children were very glad. They broke it 
in two, roasted it, and ate it. Soon the bird came out of the opening 
and flew away again. The next day it returned with a larger corn- 
ear which the children ate, and so it returned for four days, always 
bringing a larger corn-ear for the children. On the fifth day it came 
back but did not bring any com with it. When the boy reached 
into the opening he drew forth the little bird, but in the form in 
which he had made it. He held it in his hand and said: "You are 

' Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi). 

i'7o Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

something living. You go and hunt our parents, they have left us 
here and you will perhaps Kind them, and you bring us something to 
eat. You go south here and look for our father and mother. " 

Hereupon the boy asked his sister how she had caused the bird to 
fly. She took the little bird by the wings and said : "This is the way I 
did it," throwing it upward, whereupon the bird was alive again and 
flew away. Sitting upon a rock south of the village the little bird 
looked southward and all at once detected at Ttiwanashabe,' a cactus 
plant with a single red blossom. The bird at once flew towards this 
plant and removing it found an opening under it. Entering this open- 
ing it found itself in a kiva where some grass and herbs were growing. 
At the north end of this kiva was another opening. Passing through 
this one, the little bird found itself in a second kiva. Here it found 
some corn with some pollen on it, and ate some of it. At the north 
end of this kiva there was also an opening leading into a third kiva.^ 
Entering this kiva the bird found grass, herbs, and corn of all kinds, 
and here also lived Mdyingwa, the God of Growth and Germination. 

There were also all kinds of birds in this last kiva, but it was the 
Humming-birds that first noticed the little intruder and told M6y- 
ingwa about it. " Somebody has come in, " they said. "Who is it? " 
he asked, "and where is he? Let him come here. " So the little bird 
flew on Mtiyingwa's arm and waited. "Why are you going about 
here ? " Mdyingwa asked. "Yes, " the bird said, "what are you doing 
here? Why have you listened to the wishes of the bad people who 
wanted you to retire here to this place and not concern yourself 
about the people up there? Why have you complied with their 
wishes? Your fields up there look very bad. It has not rained 
there and nothing is growing. The people have all left except two 
poor little children who are the only ones left in Orafbi. You come 
out here and look after things up there." "All right," Mdyingwa 
answered, "I am thinking about the matter." 

Hereupon the bird asked for something to eat and also for some- 
thing to bring to those children, saying that they had not had any- 
thing that day, and that they were hungry. Mdyingwa told the bird 
to take just what it wanted and bring it to the children. So the 
bird broke off a nice roasting corn -ear to take along. Arriving at 
the house it flew into the same opening again, disposing of the corn- 
ear there. The boy reached into the opening and drew forth the 
corn-ear. The children were very happy over it and talked to the 

1 A place about three miles south of Oralbi. 

' Those who speak of three kivas under 'the earth consider the kivas in the village as the first 
kiva, making only four. According to others there are four kivas besides those in the village 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 171 

bird, which was still in the opening, and said: "Thank you that you 
have pitied us, thank you that you have brought us something to 
eat again. On your account we live here now. Through you we 
can satisfy our hunger. We are very happy over it. You must not 
leave us now." The bird answered: "Yes, I have pity on you and 
for that reason I have come again. I shall now live close by here, at 
T6wanashabe. " 

The children then asked the bird to hunt for their parents, and 
so the bird flew away to hunt for them. Flying over the fields west 
of Orafbi it proceeded towards the north, and at a place called T6ho 
(from a black shale or paint gotten from there by the Hopi to this 
day), it found the father and the mother of these children. They 
were living upon some cactus that was growing there, but were very 
much emaciated. When the Humming-bird flew by them the man 
said : " Something is passing by here, " but looking around they could 
not see anything, so the bird came back and was then detected by the 
man and his wife. The man at once went towards the bird, saying: 
"Who are you, flying about here?" The bird stopped in its flight, 
though keeping its wings in motion and " listened to what the man 
had to say. He asked the little bird to pity them and procure them 
some food. There was no living being in that part of the country at 
that time, and so from the fact that this bird was flying about there 
the people concluded that it must know some place where it found 
something to eat. The bird did not answer anything, but flew 
away. Arriving at the opening in the children's house, the boy 
asked: "Did you find our parents?" "Yes," the Humming-bird 
answered, "away up north I found them." "Both of them?" the 
children asked. "Yes, both of them," the bird replied; "but alas, 
they have very little to eat. They are hungry and they are very 
much emaciated. " 

The children then begged the bird to bring them something to 
eat, whereupon it flew away. Mtiyingwa had in the meanwhile con- 
cluded to go up into the world and look after things there. He first 
ascended to the first kiva above him, where he stayed four days. Dur- 
ing this time it rained a little about Oraibi. After four days he 
ascended into the next kiva above him when it rained again on the 
earth. He then ascended into the third kiva, whereupon it rained 
considerably in and around Oraibi, and when he after four more days 
emerged from the last kiva he found that the grasses and herbs were 
growing nicely. 

The parents of the children had seen from the distance the clouds 
and rain about Oraibi, and concluded to return to the village, not 

172 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

knowing that their children were still living. Others of the inhabi- 
tants of Oraibi who had not yet perished, also heard that it was now 
raining at their village and so they also returned. When these chil- 
dren grew up they, and after them their descendants, became the 
village chiefs and owners of the village of Oraibi. 

(The informant says that this tale is not complete. He says 
that he knows it is longer, but he has forgotten some of the details 
about it.) 



Haliksai! At Kutukwiahschomo (so called after a certain kind of 
grass, Kuttikwuhci, that grew on that hill), used to live a Kalatoto. 
In the village of Orafbi lived many people. Kalatoto would often 
visit the village and try to find something to eat among the refuse 
near the village. The children of the village, finding the Kald,tot6. 
would tease and worry him, snapping their finger nails against his 
head, so that sometimes he would almost die. He would then retire 
to his house again. This happened very often and the Kalatoto was 
thinking how he could get some hair at least on the head, like the 
Hopi children had, who otherwise were just as nude as the Kalatoto. 
He had no hair nor any protection of any kind over his entire body. 
He finally concluded that he would go to the timber and get some 
pitch, which he did. Taking some of this pitch to his house he went 
to the village to hunt some hair that had been thrown on the piles 
of refuse by the Hopi, and finding some, he took it to his house and 
was very happy. 

The next morning he put some of the pitch on his head and 
pasted some hair on it, so that he now had hair like the Hopi chil- 
dren. He was now very happy and made a visit to the village again. 
The children soon discovered him again and said: "Here is some- 
body," and one of the children soon recognized the Kalatoto, saying, 
"It seems to be the Kalatoto, but he has now hair." "It smells 
very much like pitch here," some of the children said, "he has put 
pitch on his head," and they at once took little sticks and putting 
one end of them on his head the pitch adhered to the sticks. As the 
Hopi children are very fond of pitch they began to chew the pitch, 
scraping all off of his head. 

' Not fully identified. The Hopi say it looks somewhat like a locust but has short wings and 
is of a light brown color with darker stripes across its back. It is larger than a cricket, to which 
also it bears a resemblanoe in certain respects. 

« Told by Kwdyesh a (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 173 

He was very sorry and returned to his home, gathering up, how- 
ever, the hairs which the children had pulled out of the pitch and 
thrown away, and he took them along. He meditated about the 
matter all night, and in the morning went into the timber north of 
the village again. Finding some cactus, he took with him some of 
the juice to his house. In the morning he put some of this on his 
head and again pasted the hair to the juice, which adhered firmly 
after the juice had nearly dried. 

So he went again to the village. The children seeing him 
said: "Here he has come again," and once more tried with little 
sticks to remove his head covering, but they soon found that this 
time it was not pitch. So he remained there a while, the children 
again worrying him. Towards evening he went home, and by that 
time the juice had dried so thoroughly that it began to crack and 
fall off with the hair. He was now again very unhappy. 

At that time it was piki providing day (piktotoRa) in the village, 
preparatory for a Katcina dance. The Kalatoto was very unhappy, 
as he had hoped to attend the dance with the hair on his head. The 
next morning he again repaired to the woods to get some more pitch, 
which he found quickly. Bringing it to the house, he again felt 
happy, thinking that now he would have hair to attend the dance 
the next day. He was very happy and in the evening put some of 
the pitch on his head again, pasting new hair to it. He then retired 
and slept well that night. In the morning he heard the Katcinas 
dance and wanted to go to the village, but the pitch had gotten 
warm during the night and the hair and pitch adhered closely to the 
floor on which he had been sleeping. He made repeated efforts to 
rise, but could not. So he heard the Katcinas dance and sing all day, 
but could not get up. As he finally became very hungry and no 
one brought him anything to eat, he perished there. 


Alfksai! They were living in Shupaulavi, and one time a child 
was crying bitterly. Its mother did not pity it and beat it. "You 
are crying," she said; "I am going to throw you out doors. I am 
going to throw you out to the Owl. " Hereupon she dragged the child 
out of the house. A large Owl had been close by and had heard 
the moaning of the child. He came to the child and when he saw 
the latter still crying he put him on his back and carried him off. 
He lived in a little cave at the side of the bluff on which the village 

> Told by Siicdhpiki (Sh ipaiilavi) 

174 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

of Bayupki was situated. To this cave he took the child. The Owl 
had little children in the cave that were living there nicely. 

When the mother of the child no longer heard the crying, she 
came out of the house and looked for her child, but it was gone. 
"Where has "that child gone now?" she said. "It seems somebody 
came and got it," whereupon she went through the houses and 
inquired everywhere, but no one had it. In the morning she again 
went through the houses hunting her child, but could not find it. 
"Where may that child be?" she said. So she was without children. 

Sometime after some men went after wood north of the village, 
some of them passing the cave where the Owl lived. They heard 
some one in a moaning voice sing the following song: 

Chavayo chavayo, 

Chavayo piva, chavayo piva, 

A hmhm, a hmhm. 

Looking up they saw a child in the cave, which had already feathers, 
and the white spots of the Owl began to appear all over the body. 
The eyes of the child also began to become yellow. "Oh!" the 
men said, "whose child may that be?" One of the men then sug- 
gested that it might be the child that had disappeared, so when they 
returned to the village they said: "There in the cave of an owl, at 
Bayupki, is a child. It already has feathers and spots all over, and 
its eyes are already yellow. It is turning into an owl. Whose child 
may that be?" "It must be the child of that woman," the people 
said right away, so they told them about it. "Now, bestir yourself, 
bestir yourself, because that child is turning into an owl." So they 
hurried up and the mother and father and the men who had found 
the child then proceeded to the place. 

When they arrived there the men who had found the child climbed 
up to the cave. In the back part of the latter was the Owl and his 
children. The little owl child was sitting alone. The men took it, 
brought it down and handed it to its father. The mother also took 
hold of it. The Owl did not come out, but said: "You take the 
child with you, but when you get to your village you put the child 
into a room, and keep it locked up there for four days. On the fourth 
day when the sun rises you open the door and let the child come out. 
It will then be a Hopi again. If you do not do that and open the 
door before that, the child will remain an Owl and come back again. " 

So they took the child to the village, put it into a room, placed 
some food in it and locked the door. The father watched in front 
of the door, keeping watch there during the four days. He heard his 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 175 

child move about in the room. After the first day the mother was 
anxious to open the door, but the father forbid her, saying that they 
were not to do that, because the Owl had forbidden it. So she 
waited and on the third day she was very anxious for her child and 
could hardly await the third day. During the night also, and it 
seemed to her as if the morning was very slow coming. Finally 
when it became light she went to the door, which, like the old Hopi 
doors, that were not made very well, had cracks. "It is light al- 
ready," she said, "let us open the door." Hereupon she shaded her 
eyes and looked through one of the cracks. She saw her child walk- 
ing up and down, but also noticed that it began to change into an 
owl again. " Let us open the door, " she urged, "it is already light. " 
Her husband protested, saying, that the sun had not yet risen, but 
she opened the door, and out rushed an Owl which immediately rose 
up and flew towards Bayupki to the place where" it had come from. 
"Well, now," the man said, "there you looked in before the sun had 
risen, and yet the Owl had told us not to do so. You have done this, 
now you have done it and we have no children now. We were just 
getting our child back again, and now you looked in and it has turned 
into an Owl, and it will now remain an Owl." 


Aliksai! A long time ago the people lived in Mishdngnovi. 
There was to be a dance in the village of Shong6pavi and a man from 
Walpi was going to attend this dance. He came by way of Mish6n- 
gnovi, which was then situated half-way down the mesa, where there 
are still the ruins of the old village. East of the village there was a 
large rock, and at this rock some children were playing. They were 
hunting some lizards, the kind that are called hikwa (pi. hakwdhpu). 
"What are you doing there?" the Walpi man asked. "We are hunt- 
ing these h^kwas. " "What are they?" he said. "Why these here 
in the cracks and on the rocks," the children said. So some of the 
little boys got their bows and arrows ready and, aiming at some 
of the lizards, sang the following song: 

Hakwa, puta ponongaqo 

Lizard that, in the body. 

Wihu qoiotalcang. 

Fat full of. 

Aaay alihi alihi, 

Nahanak nahanak hanak! 
As they sang the last word they shot their arrows at the lizards. 

• Told by Sikihpiki (Shupatilavi) 

176 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

From here the Wdlpi man proceeded westward towards Shong6- 
pavi. All at once he heard something, and standing still he listened 
and heard somebody say: 

" Halaye, halaye. " 
He looked around for some time, but could not see anything. All at 
once he saw some little gray lizards. They were sitting upright and 
ejecting these peculiar sounds. The man looked down for awhile, 
and saw how the lizards were running around and playing with one 
another. Then, as he had lost so much time at the first place and also 
at this place, he gave up the visit to Shong6pavi and returned. When 
he arrived at his home he related that he had not been to the dance, 
but that he had watched some children hunting, and that they had 
been singing the following song: 

Machakwata pon6ngaq6, 

Homed Lizard in body when 

Wihu qoiotakang 

Fat full of. 

Aaay alihi, alihi, 

Nahanak, nahanak hanak. 
This song was forever afterwards spoken of as one of the Mish- 
6ngnovi songs. 


Haliksai! In Oraibi they were living. At the place where now 
Pongnamana lives, lived a Rooster. Somewhat south of Lanangva, 
among the peach-trees, lived the Mocking-bird (Yahpa). In the vil- 
lage at Bakvatovi, a place in the extreme north-west part of the 
village, lived a beautiful maiden with her father and mother. This 
mana persistently refused all offers of marriage. The young men of 
the village would bring presents to her, but no one succeeded in win- 
ning her affections. The chief of the north, Bamiiyaomdngwi, heard 
about it and so he came to the village trying to win the maiden. He 
brought with him a bundle of presents, which he was carrying over 
his shoulders. When he came to the house he left his bundle of 
presents outside. 

The mana was grinding corn-meal. Without stopping the grind- 
ing she looked up to the visitor and saw a very handsome youth 
before her. "Why do you not talk to me?" he said. "Yes," she 
said, "who are you, going around here?" "Yes," he replied, "I 
came after you and I have left my bundle outside. Go and get it 

' Told by Kiwanhongva (Oraibi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 177 

and look at it." She stopped her grinding, went out and found a 
yellow reed receptacle (shong6hkaki), which she took into the house. 
Opening it she found in it two yellow bridal robes (6wa), a pair of 
yellow moccasins, and a yellow big belt (wokokwawa). But she did 
not want it. Wrapping it all up again, she handed it to the youth, 
and said: "I do not want it. You go down." "Very well," he 
replied, picked up his. bundle and left. 

When the Rooster heard about this in the evening he went over 
to the house of the maiden, and found her drying some coarsely 
ground meal which she was stirring in a pot over the fire. He went 
into the house, and the maiden saw before her a very handsome 
vouth, dressed in a red shirt which was figured with short black 
lines all over. He wore turquoise ear pendants and on top of his 
head a bunch of red feathers. He acted very kindly and gently. He 
seated himself by the side of the fireplace and busied himself with 
picking up and setting down and examining the different objects 
around the fireplace. The mdna was pleased with him and began 
to converse and chat with him. She told him he should remain with 
her over night and then return in four days, and then she would go 
over into his house. "Very well," he replied. The following days 
the mana kept on grinding com. 

On the third day the Mocking-bird, who had heard about the 
Rooster having been at the maiden's house, also went over and asked 
her to marry him. He also appeared as a handsome youth, and the 
mana was pleased with him. She promised that she would marry 
him, and spoke to her mother about it, telling her that this youth had 
come after her. "Very well," the mother said, "do not mistrust 
him." The Rooster, who had been told to come the next day, had 
seen the Mocking-bird go upon the mesa, and so, without waiting for 
the appointed time, also went to the house on the third day, and while 
the mdna was still talking to the Mocking-bird he was at the door and 
knocked. Hereupon he entered and found the Mocking-bird there. 
"What are you doing here?" he asked the latter. "I came to fetch 
this maiden," the Mocking-bird replied. "Not so," the Rooster said, 
"I shall fetch her to-morrow. You are not worth as much as I. I 
own all these people here ; they are mine. When I crow in the morning 
they all get up." "I am worth as much as you are," the Mocking- 
bird replied. "When I twitter or sing in the morning it gets light." 
"Very well," the Rooster Replied, "let us contend with each other 
and see who knows most. In three days we shall have a contest. 
Until then no one shall get the maiden." 

Hereupon they both left the house and went to their homes. The 

178 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Rooster was thinking to whom he should apply for assistance and 
courage. Early the next morning, after he had had his morning meal, 
he left the village, descended the mesa, and ran along the trail north- 
west (the trail that at present leads to Mtienkapi). Arriving at Bow 
Mound (Aoatchomo), about thirty-five miles northwest of Oraibi, he 
was tired and seated himself on a stone that was near by a baho 
shrine, where he -rested. As he moved somewhat on the stone, an 
opening appeared in the shrine and somebody said to him, "Come 
in." So he entered and there found a great many maidens, one of 
whom prepared a seat for him and told him to be seated. Hereupon 
she entered another chamber and brought a tray with some shelled 
com, which she set before the Rooster, inviting him to eat. He picked 
and ate it like chickens eat, and when he was satisfied the maiden 
said, "You were tired. Now you will reach your destination." 
Hereupon he went out and continued his journey. He now had been 
somewhat revived and ran fast. 

Finally he arrived at Mtienkapi, passed it, and ran on until he 
came to a steep bluff. There was a ladder standing at the bluff, 
which he descended. He then proceeded westward and finally came 
to a large rock where there was an opening. Here he crowed repeat- 
edly, when a door was opened and a voice called out that he should 
come in. He entered and found a great many men, women, youths, 
and maidens, who were all Roosters and Hens. They seemed to 
be happy that he had come. "Thanks," they said, "that you have 
come." They offered him a seat and again fed him some shelled com. 
When he had satisfied his huiTger, they asked him what he had come 
for. "Yes," he said, "there in Oraibi we are contending over a 
maiden, and we are going to contend about our knowledge of light, 
and now I have come here to see what you can do for me." "Very 
well," they said, "very well, we shall at least try. The Mocking-bird 
is also very something. He understands a great deal and he has the 
assistance of the Kwatokwuu, but we shall at least try." 

When it was evening they assembled and sang all night. When 
they had sung four long songs the Roosters all crowed. Hereupon 
they sang four more long songs and then crowed again. After singing 
three more songs they crowed a third time. The yellow dawn had 
by this time appeared, and after singing two more songs, the sun was 
rising. "We have accomplished it right," the chief said, "so you go 
home now without fear, and think that you will accomplish your 
end." So the Rooster returned, running very fast. When he ar- 
rived at the Bow. Mound he was again tired, so that he had not been 
running very fast for some time. He again entered and was fed there 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 179 

as before. "I am very tired," he said to the maidens, "I shall not 
get home." They laughed at him, saying: "Of course you will get 
home. We shall dress you up and then you will get home all-right." 
So they took some dry corn-husks, tied them together, and then 
fastened a number of them to his tail. He then left, and as he was 
running these com-husks rattled ; he became scared and ran very fast. 
Arriving at his house he entered and removed the com-husks. He 
now felt strong. 

So he rested all night, and the next day he was wialking through 
the village. In the evening he went over to the Mocking-bird and 
notified him that he should come over that night and watch him, 
whereupon he returned. The Mocking-bird notified the Kwatokwuu, 
saying that the time had now come, and that he should go with him 
and assist him. "Very well," the latter said. So in the evening the 
Mocking-bird went over to the Rooster's house and the Kwatokwuu 
entered the Mocking-bird's house, where he stayed during the night. 
The Rooster was singing all night, the Mocking-bird watching him. 
When the Rooster was nearly done and the dawn was about to appear, 
the Mocking-bird slipped away and notified the Kwatokwuu. The 
latter at once left the house and spread his large wings across the 
eastern sky, completely covering up the dawn. The Rooster crowed 
after singing the first four songs, the second four songs, the third four 
songs, and finally after singing the last two songs, but it would not 
become light; the sun did not hear him and would not rise. So he 

The Mocking-bird left his house, flew away, and after awhile the 
sun rose. The Rooster had been defeated. 

During the day the Rooster again went around in the village, and 
in the evening the Mocking-bird invited him to come over to his house 
and watch him also. So in the evening the Mocking-bird was singing 
all night. After he had sung four songs he whistled, which he re- 
peated after having sung another four songs, and after he had sung 
an additional three songs he again whistled, and the dawn began to 
appear. He then sang his last two songs, whereupon the sun rose. 
"You see, I know much," the Mocking-bird said in a triumphant 
way. "Yes," the Rooster admitted, "yes, you understand a great 
deal. You know about making it light. You shall have the maiden, 
and I shall be behind you." 

So the maiden married the Mocking-bird. By and by she bore two 
children, one a boy and one a girl. The boy was the child of the 
Rooster, and the little girl the child of the Mocking-bird. So the 
women of the village are ever since that time said to be the children 

i8o Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

of the Mocking-bird, and that is the reason why they talk and jabber 
so much, because the Mocking-bird is a great talker. The men of the 
village have ever since been considered to be the children of the 
Rooster, and that is the reason why they are so gentle and docile. If 
all the people had been the children of the Rooster they would all be 
gentle and kind and not talk so much. 


Halfksai! A long time ago they were living in Oraibi. There was 
a kiva in the northern part of the village called the Chorzhovi (Blue- 
bird Height). In this kiva one time the Snow Katcmas were prac- 
ticing for a dance. North of the village at Katcfnavala lived the 
Toad Woman (Machak Wuhti). She had a son. The latter fre- 
quently went to the village in the evening to listen to the Katcinas 
when they were practicing their singing. When he would be lying on 
the kiva roof looking down, the other young men would pile up on 
him and thus worry him. So finally he did not do that any more 
but sat. aside and simply listened to the singing of the Katcinas. He 
usually wore a robe of wildcat skin, as was customary among the 
young men at that time. 

On the eighth day (Tot61<a), the women of the village were pre- 
paring food for the dance on the next day. The Toad Woman also 
prepared some plkami and other food. Her son was anxious to see 
the dance the next day. During the night he did not sleep, but re- 
mained awake in the village with the others. Early in the morning 
the Toad Woman washed his head with suds. When he had dried 
his hair, his mother got some pikami and they were eating. The sun 
then rose. He put on his wildcat robe again, and also put on a cap 
of skin, and then went to the village, as the Katcinas went to the 
village for the first time. 

When he entered the village he put a little paint into a bowl and 
painted his face. When the children saw him they laughed at him, 
partly on account of his funny cap. On the plaza the Katcinas were 
dancing, distributing food among the people at the same time, but 
nobody gave this youth any food. Soon an old man said to the 
children who were on the plaza they should take the Toad Boy to some 
ant hill, because he liked ants very much. There were ants living in 
different parts of the village. So the children took him to a place and 
dug out ants so that they were running about in great numbers. The 
Toad at once commenced to eat them and the children laughed at 

' Told by KwAyeshva (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 181 

him. When the Toad had eaten a great many of the ants, he went 
back to the plaza again and stayed with the Katcinas and attended 
the dance all day, enjoying himself. 

Towards evening he went home. When he left the village the 
children followed him, some of them having red piki that the Katcinas 
had given them. "Give me some of that red piki, too," he said, 
" because I envy you." So they gave him a very little, which he took 
home and gave to his mother. She was happy over the red piki, and 
they ate it. And they are still living there. 


Halfksai! In Oraibi they were living. In the summer there were 
many locusts in the valleys around the village, and the boys and girls 
used to hunt them. When they would hear one singing somewhere 
they would approach him and if he did not fly away they would capture 
him and put him in a sack. In that way they often brought home 
to the village a great many locusts. These the women roasted in 
pots, pouring salt water on them and thus preparing them as a food, 
which was relished very much by the Hopi. When they were roasted 
in the salt water they became very white, and the Hopi ate them with 
piki and hurushuki, etc. 

The young men often used to hunt jack-rabbits and cotton-tail 
rabbits, which were also relished by the Hopi very much; but as there 
were so many locusts and the Hopi liked them very much also, they 
preferred to hunt them. There were especially many locusts at a 
place called Porcupine Height (Munaovi), and here the young people 
hunted them, bringing back with them a great many. 

One time an old woman, whose little niece had been among the 
hunters and had brought back a great many locusts, was also roasting 
them in a pot after having broken them in two. While she was stir- 
ring them one of the locusts became alive, and in a moaning manner 
sang the following little song, slowly crawling up along the stirring 
stick as he was singing: 

Chi, ri, ri, ri, ri, chi, ri, ri, ri, ri, 

Pai, as ima cowihtuhuhuhu, 

Why it used to be these here jack-rabbits, 

Pai, as ima, tavohtuhuhu, 

Why, it used to be these here cotton-tail rabbits, 

Pai kurzh pas itam nuhtungwup noqkakwangwtuhuhu 

Why now certainly we also are relished much as meat. 

Chi, ri, ri, ri, ri, C 

' Told by Tangdkhoyoma (Oraibi)- 

i82 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

When he had reached the top of the stirring stick, the woman said : 
"Yes, we used to hke these jack-rabbits and cotton-tail rabbits very 
much as meat, but your meat tastes so well too that now we like your 
meat very much too, and hunt you." When she said this the locust 
flew away with a hissing sound. 


A long time ago the Turtles lived in a river called Blue River 
(Sakwdbayu), somewhere south-east of Winslow (Hom61ovi). The 
Coyote was always hunting for something to eat. One time he was 
also hunting for food near the place where the Turtles lived. The 
latter would sometimes come out of the water and hunt cactus (y6ng6) 
which they relished very much, and from which they have their name, 
Y6ng6sona (pi. YoyAngosontu). 

One of the Turtles had a little baby Turtle. One time when they 
were all going to hunt food again, the Turtle said: "I am not going 
to take my child with me, because it is sleeping so nicely. I am going 
to bring a cactus back with me and give it to my child." After they 
had left, the little Turtle awoke, and when it found nobody there it 
asked, "Where is my mother?" and began to cry, and at once came 
out of the water. Looking for the tracks, it found that they led to 
the bank and then way off somewhere. It followed the tracks for 
some distance, but could not find any one, and so cried very bitterly. 
The Coyote, hearing the cries of the little Turtle, at once hunted it 
up and when he found it he said: "What are you singing? You are 
singing something very nice. Sing again." "I am not singing," the 
little Turtle said, "but I am crying." "What are you crying for?" 
the Coyote asked. "My mother has gone away and did not take me 
along," the Turtle replied, and continued to cry as follows: 
Tingaoco, tingaoco, 

Waoo, waoo, h-h-h-h (these h's spoken in quick succession 
while inhaling, to imitate the sobbing of a child that is sometimes 
heard in connection with or rather after a cry). 

The Coyote again urged the Turtle to sing, as he called the crying, 
saying: "If you do not sing I am going to devour you." The little 
Turtle was very much afraid, but refused to comply with the request 
of the Coyote. The Coyote repeated his threat, saying, "I shall cer- 
tainly devour you if you do not sing." The little Turtle, thinking of 
the subterfuge, said : " All right, it will not hurt me; I will then simply 
live in your body." The Coyote said to himself, "Maybe the Turtle 

• Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 183 

will continue to live in my body and move about there." And so he 
repeated his request, but this time changing his threat. "If you do 
not sing," he said, "I am going to throw you in that water there." 
"Don't do that, because if you do I shall drown." The Coyote did 
not know that the little Turtle lived in the water, and that he was 
being imposed upon. "All right," he said, "I shall not throw you 
in the water, but I shall devour you," and thereupon he took hold 
of the Turtle and ran towards the water. Arriving at the bank he 
slung the little Turtle away into the midst of the water. 

"Aha! My house (Ali, Ikmingwu)," said the Turtle, and then dived 
into the water, but immediately came out again, saying, "Aha! My 
house. Thanks that you have brought me here (Ali, Ikiningwu! 
kwakwd, um nui pak wiki)," and, swimming around on the water, 
laughed at the Coyote. 

The Coyote was very angry and said: "Oh! that I did not devour 
you ; but I am going to hunt your mother now, and if I find her some- 
where, I shall certainly devour her," and thereupon ran away. Fol- 
lowing the tracks of the Turtles, he met them on their way back to 
the water. They had been away quite a distance, had eaten there to 
their hearts' content, and were now returning. When the Coyote 
met them he said to the first one, "I am going to devour you," and 
tried to seize it. The Turtle immediately drew its head, feet and tail 
into the shell, and thus the Coyote, although he was working around 
it, throwing it over, pushing it backward and forward a long time, 
could not hurt it. He got very angry and jumped towards another 
one with the same result; so he tried others, but when he found that 
he could not hurt them, nor break their shell, • he left them in 
disgust. When the Turtles arrived home, the Turtle mother gave a 
cactus to her child, saying: "This I brought for you," and the child 
ate it in great delight. "When did you awake?" the mother asked. 
"About half-way noon I woke up, and when I found that you were 
all gone I cried." "Yes," the mother said, "you were sleeping so 
nicely, and so I did not take you along." The little Turtle then re- 
lated all about the Coyote, saying that the latter had threatened to 
devour it, but when he had been told that he could just do so, and 
that the little Turtle would then live in his body, he desisted. The 
Turtle mother laughed at it. The child then continued to relate how 
the Coyote had asked it to sing, and when refused he threatened to 
throw it into the water, and that he had done so, although the child 
had said that it would certainly drown; and the child 'continued, 
"When he threw me into the water I laughed at him and told him, 
'Here I am living'; and so I got back without even getting tired." 

i84 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

The mother laughed at it and was very happy, saying: "Thanks that 
he brought you here, and that you got home even without becoming 
tired." And the Turtles are living there in that water still. 


Listen ! The people were here living (Aliksai ! Yao yep y^shiwa) . 
The Water Serpent (Balolookong) was living in Lanva, the Flute 
Spring, and a short distance towards the south at Ishmovala the Coyote 
was living. They were strong friends and often visited each other. 
They were still young, but the Water Serpent was already very 
long so that when he visited the Coyote and coiled up in his kiva 
he filled the entire kiva, leaving only a very small place for the Coyote, 
near the fireplace, where he had to sit in a crouched position. " I am 
going to be still larger," the Water Serpent said to him onetime, "so 
you must enlarge your kiva." He then invited the Coyote to visit 
him once too, which the Coyote promised to do. 

He meditated howhe,too,couldfillthekivaof the Water Serpent and 
said to the Snake : " I am going to become large and my tail will become 
long some day, too." While he said this the Snake was already 
slowly leaving the kiva, but he was so long that when the head was 
out already, a large part of the body was still in the kiva. After he 
had left, the Coyote said to himself: " Now, let me go and hunt some- 
thing, too." In the evening he left the kiva and went to a place 
where a .great deal of cedar grew. Here he pulled off a large bundle 
of cedar bark and carried it home. " How shall I make a tail now?" 
he said to himself. Soon he began to rub the cedar bark so as to 
make it pliable, and laying it out on the floor in a long line, wrapped 
it up with yucca leaves, which he had also brought with him. " But 
how shall I make this tail so that the Snake will not know it?" he 
again asked himself, but soon formed a plan. He pulled out a lot 
of his hair and pasted it to the cedar bark so that it looked like a tail. 
This false tail he then fastened to his own tail. 

In the morning when he had had his breakfast he went over to his 
friend, the Water Serpent. The latter had a larger kiva, so that there 
was some vacant space in it. When the Ccryote had entered he kept 
going around the kiva dragging his long tail after him. Then he 
kept circling around until the kiva also was well filled, and he sat 
down by the head of the Water Serpent and they talked with one an- 
other. The Water Serpent smiled, thinking to himself: "Well, that 
tail did not used to be this way, how can that be?" After they had 

' Told by Qoyawaima (Oraibi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 185 

talked together nearly all forenoon, the Coyote said he was going 
home to eat his dinner, and, uncoiling his long tail, he went up the 
ladder, saying to the Snake : " Now, whenever you feel that way, come 
and visit me too again sometime," which the Snake promised to do. 
As the Coyote went over to his kiva dragging his long tail after him, 
he looked around and smilingly said to himself, "Aha, he did not find 
out, because he did not say anything about my tail." When he 
came into his kiva he went around coiling up his tail, and then untied 
it from his natural tail. 

By and by the Snake went over to visit his friend, the Coyote, 
again. The latter, who had been looking for this visit, had been very 
much concerned about it, fearing that his friend might all at once 
come when he had his tail detached from his natural tail, and so was 
always on the lookout. Hence he saw his friend coming, and had 
time enough to put his tail in order again, and when the Snake arrived 
at the kiva he was sitting at the fireplace, ready to receive his friend. 
The latter began to enter, but as he had been growing considerably 
since his last visit, and a part of the kiva was filled with the Coyote's 
tail, he did not find room enough for his whole body. "I have been 
growing since I have been here last, and cannot get into this kiva 
now." "All right, let me go out," the Coyote said, "and I can talk 
to you from the outside while you are in the kiva. You might get 
cold out there." So the Coyote went out, circled around a number 
of times outside the kiva, coiling up his tail, and then took a seat near 
the kiva opening, conversing with his friend, the Water Serpent. By 
and by he got cold and began to wish that his friend would go home, 
but the latter remained. The Coyote finally got very cold and began 
to be secretly angry at his friend because he tarried so long. At last the 
latter said: "Now I must go home and eat my dinner." The Snake 
had not yet entirely left the kiva when the Coyote, who was very cold, 
rushed in and warmed himself. He was out of humor about the 
matter, and made up his mind to try to get even with his friend. " I 
am going to pay him back," he said to himself. So, after he had eaten 
his dinner, he thought a great deal about the matter, and in the 
evening went to the timber again. He brought another armful of 
dry cedar bark and some yucca, and made another long addition to 
his tail in the same manner as before, only this time he made it con- 
siderably thicker. When it was done it filled his kiva entirely. He 
had so well covered it with hair and wool from his body that he 
thought nobody would know that it was not natural. 

As the Snake had invited the Coyote at his last visit to visit him 
too, sometime again, the Coyote planned to go over to his friend, but 

i86 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

thought he would wait until there was a cold day. As in about four 
days it became very cold, he concluded to pay his friend a visit. 
Coming over to the kiva of the Snake, the two exchanged the usual 
greeting, the Coyote saying, "How! (is) the friend at home?" (How! 
kwatch kdtu?) "Yes, I (am) at home. Come in." (Ow^! Pai nu 
kdtu. Paki!) Whereupon the Coyote entered the kiva, and kept 
circling around and around, filling the entire kiva with his tail. 
"Well!" the Snake said, "you are going to fill this whole kiva, so let 
me go outside and talk to you from there." Leaving the kiva, the 
Water Serpent kept going around outside for some time, coiling up in 
such a manner that finally the head was close to the entrance so that 
he could talk with his friend. It was very cold and the Coyote smil- 
ingly thought to himself while he was feeling very comfortable in the 
warm kiva, " Now you can freeze out there, too." The Snake became 
very cold and wished that his friend might leave, but he tarried. The 
Snake was shivering and became angry and wished very much that 
the Coyote might take his leave. Finally the latter said that he must 
now go home and eat his dinner, and while the Coyote was going up 
the ladder dragging his tail after him, the Water Serpent went in. 
Arriving at the fireplace the latter said, " I am going to get even with 
you. I am going to pay you back;" and grabbing a stick at the fire- 
place, he shoved the part of the Coyote's tail that was still in the kiva 
on the fire, so that it caught fire, saying: "You get out of this; you 
(referring to the Coyote) are always taking other people's things 
and are always doing something bad ; you had better get away from 

The Coyote had by this time gotten away quite a distance, and, 
looking around, he admired his long tail. When he had nearly 
reached his kiva he looked around again and then noticed some smoke 
and fire behind him, but as there was high grass around there at that 
time, he thought it was the grass burning. "Oh," he said, "the 
Hopi have set the grass on fire. They are after me and want to drive 
me away. Maybe they will kill me. I am not going to my house, 
but I am going to run away." So he began to run westward. Look- 
ing back he again noticed the grass burning at various places and 
thought he was pursued. He finally reached the timber and when 
he saw that burning after a while, he concluded that he would run to 
Little Colorado River (Bayupa) and jump in there. Then he thought 
the people would not find him. He did not yet know at this time 
that his tail was burning. Arriving at the river, which was very high, 
he jumped in and tried to swim across, but before he got across he 
became very tired. The river was drifting him along, and he finally 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 187 

sank down and drowned. The Bdlolookong now lived in peace at 
the spring forever afterwards. 


Alfksai! The Oraibis were Hving in their village. There were 
many of them. The Balolookong was living at Flute Spring (Lan- 
angva), west of the village. Somewhat south of this spring, at 
Ishmovala, the Coyote was living. They were great friends and often 
visited each other. One time Bdlolookong came out of his kiva in the 
spring and went over to his friend's kiva, which he entered, filling it 
up entirely so that the Coyote had to go out and remain there while 
they were conversing. After they had conversed a while, Bdloloo- 
kong returned to his kiva. 

The Coyote was angry that he had to remain outside and was 
meditating how he could take revenge on his friend, and finally formed 
a plan. He went to the woods and brought with him a large armful 
of cedar bark and also some yucca leaves. He wrapped the bark 
with leaves, always adding wool to it so that it finally formed a large 
artificial tail. This he tied to his own tail and then went over to pay 
his friend a visit. Entering the kiva of the latter, he also kept going 
around until his tail filled the entire kiva, and Balolookong had to go 
out and also remain outside while they conversed with each other. 

When they were through talking, the Coyote left, and had not yet 
quite left the kiva when Balolookong rushed into the kiva and shoved 
the artificial tail of the Coyote on the fireplace and set it on fire. When 
the Coyote had drawn it out of the kiva entirely, the grass through 
which he was running was set on fire. He thought that the people of 
the village were trying to drive him away by setting the grass on fire, 
and so he ran westward, setting everything on fire that he came in 
contact with. Finally he reached the Little Colorado River. By 
this time the fire on his tail had reached his natural tail and he jumped 
into the river and tried to swim across, but perished. 


Aliksai! In Mish6ngnovi, where there are now the ruins of old 
Mish6ngnovi, they were living. East of there the L6l6okong also 

' Told by Puhunomtiwa (Oraibi) . 
2 Told ^y Sikihpiki (Shupatilavi). 

' B4l6l6okongwuu (the abbreviated terrn B4!6l6okong being usually used) is a 'mythical ser- 
pent, supposed to control the water and to live in the ocean, springs, etc. Lolookongwuu (abr. 
Leiookong) is really the Bull Snake, but this term is often used for Bdl016okong, as is seen in this 

1 88 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

lived, and south from there, at Jack-Rabbit House (Covfihkivee), lived 
the Coyote. He was a friend of the L6l6okong. "I am going to 
visit my friend," the L6l6okong said one day, so in the evening he 
went over to his friend's kiva. The L661okong was very long. When 
he arrived at the Coyote's house the latter said, "Come in." "All 
right," he replied. "Come in," his friend repeated, so he went in and 
kept coiling up until he filled the entire kiva. So they were sitting 
and conversing there. "Now let us eat something," the Coyote said. 
"Very well," his visitor replied. So the Coyote brought forth some 
juniper berries, which they ate. "Thanks, that I have eaten," the 
L6l6okong said. 

By this time it had become quite late. "I am going home now," 
the L6l6okong said. "All right," his host replied, " it is getting late." 
And after having invited the Coyote to visit him also, the Lol6okong 
left. After his visitor had left the Coyote was thinking: "What shall 
I do to my friend, as I want to repay him?" The next day he went 
into the timber and got a big armful of dry cedar bark. This he tied 
into a long rope, as it were, with yucca leaves, and rolled it up in his 
kiva. He then fastened it to his tail and went out. After having 
run around for some time, he went to his friend's house. "Have you 
come?" the latter said. "Yes, I have come." "All right, come in, 
come in," the L6l6okong said. So he went in and kept circling 
around and around and around, filling the whol6 kiva with his long 
tail. On the walls of the kiva of the L6l6okong were hanging many 
snake costumes, and the Coyote kept looking and looking at them. 
" Now let us eat," the host finally said, -and getting from a shelf a very 
small bowl with some corn-pollen, set it before his visitor. "This I 
am eating; eat of it too," he said to the Coyote. So they talked to- 
gether until evening. "It is evening," finally the Coyote said. "I 
am going home now." "Very well," the L6l6okong replied, "we are 
through talking, and it is evening." 

The Coyote hereupon left the kiva, dragging his long tail after 
him. When the latter was nearly unwound, the L6l6okong put a 
little piece of ember on the tail, which set it on fire, and when this was 
dragged out of the kiva, it set the grass on fire. The Coyote looked 
around and was wondering who was setting everything on fire after 
him. When the tail was nearly consumed he had arrived at his kiva, 
and then he began to think that maybe his friend had done that to 
him. "Well now," he said, "he is my friend, and that friend has 
treated me this way." And then he became very angry at the 
L616okong. He then entered his kiva and continued to live there. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 189 


Aliksai! A long time ago the people were living in Wdlpi. North 
of the village lived the Coyote. In the spring called Sun Spring (Ta- 
waba) lived the Frog. They were friends with each other. So one time 
the Coyote went over to visit his friend, the Frog. He ascended the 
mesa and passed by the village. The dogs of the village, noticing him, 
made a raid on him. He ran and jumped down the mesa, but was 
not killed. Arriving at his friend, the Frog, he first drank a great 
deal of water. "Thanks that I have had this drink," he said to the 
Frog. " I was very thirsty." " Now, let us sit down," the Frog said. 
"You sit down there at the edge of the water and dance for me," the 
Coyote said to the Frog. So the Frog jumped down into the deep 
water from where he was sitting and passed down to the bottom, but 
immediately came up again having his mouth wide open. He was 
pregnant. "Draw me out," he said to the Coyote, so the Coyote 
grasped him by the arms and forcibly . threw him onto the ground 
close to the water. Hereupon the Frog burst and it was found that 
he was full of little tadpoles which were swarming around him. But 
the Frog himself died. "Oh!" the Coyote said, "why did you jump 
into that water there. I shall run home now." 

So he started off, went up the mesa and by Sitc6movi. When the 
children of Sitc6movi saw him they said: "There a Coyote is running." 
The people living in Hano now also noticed him. "There is a Coyote ! 
There is a Coyote! There is a Coyote!" they said, whereupon they 
followed him, trying to capture him. By this time a heavy rain and 
hail storm came up. The Coyote ran for his hole, but found that it 
had been filled up with water so that he could not get in. Heavy 
hail stones were by this time falling upon him and he was running 
around trying to find some shelter, but the hail stones were so heavy 
that he was finally killed by them. 


A long time ago the Coyote lived at Ishmovala, west of the village ; 
a Bat at Tovitoala, north-west of the village; and a Humming-bird at 
T6hchipchookpu, also north-west of the village. They were all three 
close friends. The Bat and the bird often visited the Coyote, spend- 
ing their time there in joking, laughing, and eating. The Coyote, 
being a great hunter, always had plenty of rabbit meat and other 

1 Told by K6hkiuma (Shupaulavi) . 

2 Told by OOy^waima (Oraibi). 

190 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

game, which he would cook and place before them, and which they 
enjoyed very much. One time the Bat thought that he would invite 
his two friends to his house, but he was worried as to what he would 
give them to eat, so his thoughts were directed to the village of Oraibi. 
He said to himself: " I am going to the village after dark and perhaps 
some one of the rich people may have forgotten to take their meat 
in that they are drying, and I am going to get some of it." So in the 
evening he proceeded to the village and was flying around, but found 
no meat; so he went home discouraged. "Now what shall I do?" he 
thought. "I am going to try it again, and perhaps I shall find an 
open window through which I can get into some house and find some 
food inside." This he did, and finding at one place some tallow, he 
broke off a piece and carried it home. Returning to the same house 
he got some more. Hereupon he procured some meat in the same 
manner, making also several trips after meat. He then in the same 
manner procured some piki, of which he fetched a goodly supply to 
his house. "Now, my friends will want some salt with this food," 
he thought, and so he went in search of some salt, which he found and 
carried to his house. After he had thus laid in a supply of food for 
his anticipated visitors, he commenced to think what he should say 
to them when they would inquire as to the source where he obtained 
the food. He began thinking of some one that was his friend and 
whose name he could mention, and thought of the Badger, who lived 
east of Oraibi, at Badger-Ditch (Hondnciica). Hereupon he retired, 
but did not sleep much that night, as he was very busy thinking over 
the anticipated visit of his two friends. In the morning he proceeded 
to the house of the Coyote, and from there to that of the Humming- 
bird, inviting them to visit him that day. They promptly accepted 
the invitation and paid their friend a visit. At noon the Bat said, 
"Now let us eat." Whereupon he prepai:ed a meal of the things he 
had procured. First he fried some of the meat, which he then placed 
in a bowl in which he had melted some of the tallow. They then ate, 
enjoying the food very much. While they were eating they were 
wondering where their friend procured the food, and in the course of 
their conversation, which was very animated, they asked him about it. 
He promptly stated that his friend, the Badger, had given it to him. 
They doubted it, but said nothing, but when they went home, soon 
after the meal, they talked about the matter and agreed that their 
friend had probably deceived them. Before they parted, the Coyote 
invited the bird to visit him in the evening. This the bird did, 
and their conversation soon again turned upon the subject of the food 
which they had so much enjoyed at their friend's house. They again 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 191 

were wondering where he procured it, but soon agreed that he must 
have stolen it in Oraibi, and that he had deceived them. In order 
to get even with their friend, they concluded that they would "song- 
tie" him, that is, they would make a song about their friend. They 
at once started to compose a song, but did not finish it to their satis- 
faction. So, after the Humming-bird had left, the Coyote kept think- 
ing over the song, and during the night, while he could not sleep, 
finished it. The next morning he at once went to the house of the 
bird , to whom he sang this song, to the satisfaction of both of them : 
Sawya, Sawya! 

Bat, Bat! 
Tucivakiota, tucivakiota. 

In the hollow, In the hollow ! 
Anawit kwitaat 

Along its excrements 
Tucanmuruta, tucanmuruta 

A ridge (of) dirt, a ridge (of) dirt! 
Kikanqo, kikanqo 

To the village, to the village. 

The following is supposed to be the complaint of the party whose 
food the bat carried off : 

lyumukvi, akwihkwistkae 

From my inner chamber, because fat he got 
Kalatoto matototimaia. 

The Kalatoto are running about. 

They practiced the song until they both knew it. Hereupon the 
Coyote returned to his house, the Humming-bird saying he would in- 
vite the Bat to come over in the everting, which he did. When the 
Bat arrived, the bird went over to the Coyote's house, telling him 
that their friend was waiting for them. The Coyote at once also pro- 
ceeded to the house of the bird, where the latter soon proposed to 
have a song. The Bat consented, saying that they wanted to be 
happy together. So they stood up in a line and the bird commenced 
to sing the song which the Coyote had made. The Coyote at once 
chimed in and the Bat also commenced to sing with them the best he 
could, but soon found out that a joke was being played on him, and 
that he was being song-tied by his two friends. As soon as he had 
found this out he stopped singing and became angry. "You have 
song-tied me," he said to the others. "The Coyote has made the 
song; you both have made it. Now this ends our friendship." 
Whereupon they dispersed and never became friends again. 

192 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Ishyaoi! The Coyote was living at Ishmovala, west of Oraibi, and 
a Humming-bird was living at TohchipcliooRpu. They both had 
children and were good friends. One time the Coyote went to visit 
his friend, and as he also wanted to find some food for his children, 
he went north of the village to the place where the refuse of the village 
was thrown, and looked for some pieces of skin, old moccasins, rem- 
nants of hides, etc. The bird seeing it, went to a place close by and 
quickly buried itself so that the bill only was 'protruding. When the 
Coyote -came to the place where the bird had buried itself, he saw 
something protruding from the pile of debris and said: "Thanks, I 
have found a needle. I shall take that home to my mother and she 
will sew a dress for herself. " So he took hold of the bill of the 
Humming-bird and began to pull at it. "Ishana!" the bird said, 
"that is my bill," and the Coyote saw that he had been fooled by 
his friend. The latter laughed at him. 

They then went to the house of the bird, the latter entering the 
nest, which was built in the side of the bluff. As the Coyote could 
not get there, he sat on top of the bluff, and they conversed with 
each other. When it was nearly evening the Coyote said : " I must 
go home, it is evening. To-morrow you must visit me too." "All 
right," the Humming-bird said: "to-morrow I will come." 

So they slept that night, and in the morning, after they had eaten, 
the bird went over to the house of the Coyote; first, however, hunting 
sopie worms in fields near by. After having eaten a number of them 
it went over to the Coyote's house, and saw something protruding 
from the ground close to the house. "Thanks, I have found a gourd 
jug. I am going to take this home and when my mother pops corn 
she will put it in here and I will eat it out of this." Hereupon she 
commenced pulling at the supposed jug. "Ishana!" the Coyote said, 
"that is my snout." Hereupon they went to the Coyote's house. 
That having a large entrance, the bird, of course, could go in too. 
The Coyote fed his friend juniper berries (lap6ci), the Coyote also 
eating some. After they had talked a while the Humming-bird re- 
turned to her home, and the two are probably still living there. 

' Told by Kwayeshva (Oraibi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 193 


HaHksai! A long time ago, when they were living in Orafbi, the 
Coyote Woman lived at Ishmovala. She had four children. She 
always went hunting mice and other little animals, which she brought 
to her children and fed them to the latter. She went to the spring, 
Flute Spring (L^nva) and Dawn Spring (TaMova), after water for 
her children, but as she had no water vessel she brought the water 
in her mouth. When she had given one of the children to drink she 
would run again and get some more for the other children until they 
were all satisfied. In that way she was feeding and watering her 

One time she again went after water to the Dawn Spring, filling 
her mouth very full. When she returned she saw a Wren sitting on 
a rock, and when she came near the bird, the latter was jumping up 
and down from one rock to another singing as follows : 

Calapongki, cholo, cholo, 

Calapongki, cholo, cholo, 

Riuw, riuw. 

When the Coyote saw it she had to laugh, and spilled the water from 
her mouth. "Now then, why are you dancing there that way that 
I had to laugh and spill my water; I shall have to get some more," 
whereupon she ran back to the spring to get some more water. When 
she came back with her mouth full she thought that this time she 
was not going to laugh, but when she arrived at the place where the 
TlSchvo was dancing and saw the latter dance and heard him singing 
in the same manner, she again had to laugh, saying : " Podh," by which 
she again spilled the water. But this time she was angry and said : 
"Why are you dancing and singing here that way that I have to spill 
this water? My children are thirsty and they will die. Now, I am 
going back to get some more water, and if you are doing that still 
when I return and I spill the water again, I shall devour you." Here- 
upon she returned to the spring to fill her mouth again. 

While the Coyote was gone the Wren slipped out of its skin and 
dressed up a stone with the skin so that it looked like a Wren. 
This artificial bird he put up where he had been sitting and he himself 
slipped under a rock, waiting for the Coyote. [When the latter came 
along the Wren began singing the same song from under the rock. 
The Coyote began to laugh, saying: "Po^h!" and spilled the water. 
She was now very angry. "Now then," she said, "you are still sing- 

• Told by TangAkhoyoma (Oraibi). 

194 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

ing that way here and I am going to devour you," whereupon she 
grabbed the stone dressed in the bird's skin and crushed it. She 
broke all her teeth so that the blood was streaming from her mouth. 
She ran back to the Dawn Spring in order to wash her face, but as 
she stooped over the water she saw some one with a bloody face staring 
at her. She at once left the spring without having drunk any water, 
and ran to Spider Spring, where she was scared away in the same 
manner. From here she ran to Dripping Spring (Shivukva), where 
she met with the same disappointment. Hereupon she ran to Hotval 
Spring (H6tvalva). Here again she was scared away by the face 
staring at her, and without daring to drink she rushed away westward 
to the Grand Canyon. Arriving at the rim of the Canyon she jumped 
into the canyon and perished. 


A long time ago many Aahtu were playing in the cedar timber 
north of Orafbi. One time they were near a very pretty cedar-tree 
and here they sang the following song : 

Hatava, yayhona yayhona, 1 The meaning of the words is not 
Hatava yayhona, i known, except "tfiva" (throw). 

Hatava yayhona, [^ "Hatava" may be an obsolete 

Tuva yayhona! ! word for "eyes." 

When they were through with the song they all took out their 
eyes, throwing them on the tree, where they remained suspended like 
little balls. They then sang the same song again, whereupon the 
eyes returned to their sockets. This they did many times. All at 
once a Coyote appeared upon the scene and asked: "What are you 
doing here?" "Yes," they said, "we are having a little dance here, 
and then we play throwing our eyes on the tree and getting them 
back again. Sometimes when the eyes are not very clear and one 
throws them away in this manner they become clear again." "All 
right," the Coyote said, "I shall join you because one of my eyes is 
not very clear. Some time ago I was chasing a rabbit and ran with 
my head against a tree and a piece of wood entered my eye, and ever 
since that eye is very dim, so I shall play with you and maybe my 
eye will get clear." 

So they sang their little song again, the Coyote joining them, and 
as they sang the last word they all threw their eyes on the tree, the 
Coyote too. They then sang again, and all the eyes, except those of 

' Plural from Ahu. a blue-bird of about the size of a txirtle-dove. probably the blue jay. 
» Told by QoyAwaima (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 195 

the Coyote, returned. The little Birds all laughed at him saying, 
"Your eyes will never return; you are bad (undihu), you are taking 
other people's things away sometimes, and that is the reason why your 
eye got hurt with that stick ; your eyes will never come back ; you are 
dangerous; and you are going to die somewhere." The Coyote was 
very angry and left them. As he could not find anything to eat now, 
he soon died. The place where he died was called Coyote-Death- 
Place (ishmo'mokpu) ever since. 


Alfksai! The Shongopavi were living in their village, and south 
of the village there was a hill called Kwd,kchomo. There was a great 
deal of this grass called kw^kwi there. A Turtle-dove one time was 
rubbing out the seed from the tassels of this grass, and while doing 
so cut her hand with the sharp edge of one of the blades of grass. It 
bled profusely, and the Turtle-dove was moaning as follows: 
Hooho, hoo, hooho, hoo, hooho, hoo, 

While she was moaning a Coyote came along and heard somebody 
singing, as he believed. So he approached the place. When he ar- 
rived at the place he saw the Turtle-dove sitting and leaning forward 
in deep distress. "Are you singing?" he asked the Dove. "Are you 
thus singing?" "No," she said, "I am not singing; I am crying. I 
have cut myself." "No, you are singing," the Coyote replied. "Now 
you sing to me." "No," the Dove insisted, "I was crying," thus 
refusing to confirm the Coyote's statements. "Now, if you are not 
willing to sing to me, I shall devour you," the Coyote said. The Dove 
then yielded and sang the above song again. The Coyote then imi- 
tating the song of the Dove, left her and ran away. 

As he was running he stumbled over a rock and fell down. As he 
fell he lost the song, so that he was only able to say, "Ho-ho-ho." 
So the Coyote made up his mind to go back again to the Turtle-dove, 
and, arriving at the place where she was sitting, he began to urge her 
to sing. "But I am not singing," she said, "I am crying." But he 
would not listen, so she again sang her song to him. He again ran 
back, singing the Turtle-dove's song as he was running. Again he 
stumbled over a rock and lost the song. He again tried to sing, but 
could only say, "Ho-ho-ho." So he again returned to the place 
where the Turtle-dove had been, but the latter had gone immediately 
after the Coyote had left her, leaving at the place where she had been 

• Told by LotnAv&ntiwa (Shupalilavi). 

196 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

sitting a stone which very much resembled her form, and was also 
placed in about the position in which the Dove had been sitting. 
"I have fallen down again and have forgotten my song, so I came 
back again," the Coyote said, but he received no reply. "If you do 
not sing I am going to devour you," and again receiving no reply, 
he grabbed what he believed to be the Dove, but found that it was a 
stone. He broke all his teeth, and much blood was streaming from his 
mouth. He at once ran back and taking his way towards Shupaulavi, 
came to the spring Toriva, which he approached in order to drink. 
As he put his mouth to the water he saw a bloody face staring at him 
from the depth of the water. Not knowing what it was, he did not 
dare to drink, and ran away. Making his way northward, he ran 
to another spring by the name of Nankava, which is situated north 
of Shupaulavi. Here he again saw his reflection in the water, and did 
not dare to drink. He then ran to a third spring by the name of 
Ishkachokpu. Seeing the same reflection in the water again, he was 
angry and gnarled, or rather belched, at it, from which the spring 
has derived its name, the Coyote Belching Water. He again was 
afraid to drink, but was very tired and thirsty by this time. "I am 
going to run to Oraibi," he said to himself; "there is a place where 
there is some water, and I believe there is nobody living in that place." 
So he ran to a place south-east of Oraibi, called Kuritvahchikpu. 
When he arrived at this place he again put his snout to the water, and 
was just about to drink when he discovered a skeleton staring at him 
from the water. This time he was very angry and tore up the rocks 
around the spring, from which that place has derived its name. He 
by this time was so thirsty and exhailsted that he fell down and died 


Halfksai! A long time ago the people lived in Oraibi. West of 
the village, at Ishmovala, lived the Coyote and his wife. They had 
six children and the Coyote used to go and hunt rabbits for his 
children. One day he went hunting again and found a little cotton- 
tail rabbit, which he chased. The rabbit ran into the hole, which the 
.Coyote could not enter. "How shall I get this rabbit out now?" 
he thought to himself; then somebody came along; it was the Badger. 
"You get this out for me here," the Coyote said, "I want this rabbit 
for my children to eat." So the Coyote sat down and waited while 
the Badger scratched a hole until he reached the rabbit, whereupon 
he pulled the latter out. The Coyote was very happy. "Thus," he 

\ Told by Wikvaya (Oraibi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 197 

said, "on your account my children will have something to eat." 
Then the Coyote took the rabbit in his mouth and ran home with it, 
being very happy. When he arrived in his home the little Coyotes 
wrangled over the rabbit, tore it to pieces and devoured it, some of 
them getting something, others not, so they remained hungry. 

The next morning both the Coyote and his wife went out in search 
of food again, the latter ascending up to the village, and ran past the 
village on the west side, then by the north side, turning northward 
over the mesas. Not finding anything, she finally entered the woods 
north of the village. All at once she heard something in the trees, 
and, looking up, she saw some Blue Jays in the tree. The Blue Jays 
were dancing in the tree and she coveted them. They said to the 
Coyote: "We are having a dance here, you come and be with us and 
assist us." "I would like to," the Coyote said, "but how shall I get 
up there?" "Why, we shall lend you some of our wings, tails, and 
feathers," the Blue Jays said. "All right," she said. So they took 
off some of their wings, tails, and feathers and put them on her legs. 
They then told her that she must dance and sing just the same as 
they did, and then they again began to sing. 

The Coyote now having wings ascended and danced with them. 
When they had finished the song they all flew away, the Coyote with 
them, and alighted on some other tree. This they repeated in all 
three times. They then flew up high into the air, the Coyote with 
them, and when they were very high up they all surrounded the 
Coyote, each one saying: "This is my tail, this is my wing, these are 
my feathers," and then tore out all the feathers that they had loaned 
the Coyote. When they had torn out all the feathers the Coyote 
began to fall downward to the earth. When she reached it she was 

Her children still had nothing to eat. When the Coyote father 
saw that his wife was not coming home he concluded that he would 
go and hunt her. Following her tracks, he ascended to the village, 
passed the village on the west side, and when he reached the north 
side of the village the dogs of the village noticed him and pursued 
him. He at once left the footprints of his wife and ran back to his 
children. So after that the little Coyotes had no mother. The 
Coyote then afterwards hunted food alone for his children, and that 
is the reason why so many Coyotes have to look out for their food 

198 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Alfksai! North of Shupaiilavi is the Katcfna House (Katcmki). 
West of this is a bluff, and on top of this bluff used to live an Eagle. 
One time the Coyote came along. ' ' What are you wandering around 
for?" the Eagle asked. "Yes," the Coyote said. The Eagle was 
standing on one foot, having the other foot hidden in his feathers. 
The Coyote was wondering, and asked: "Why are you standing on 
one foot?" "Yes," the Eagle said, "I cut one leg off, and so I am 
standing on one foot." "Is that so?" the Coyote said, and was 
thinking. "I am envious at you," he said to the Eagle; "I shall try 
to stand on one leg too ; but how did you cut your leg off, how is that 
done?" "Why," the Eagle replied, "you just lay your leg across a 
stone and strike on it with a sharp stone and then it will be cut off. 
It does not hurt, and you need not be afraid." 

So the Coyote hunted for a sharp stone and there was another 
sharp stone with a sharp edge. He laid his right hind leg across the 
latter, raised the small sharp stone and cut off his leg. Hereupon the 
Eagle lowered his second leg, stretched out his wings, and laughed at 
the Coyote and said: "I have two legs, see here." "Oh!" the 
Coyote said, "I, poor one, that I thoughtlessly cut off my leg." 
And while the Eagle flew away the Coyote was crying, and, limping 
away, probably perished somewhere. 


In Mish6ngnovi the people were living. North of the village at 
the bluff Kwand Vuvi lived the Red Eagle, and east of the village at 
Where-Coyotes '-Heads-are-put-in (Ishq6ttangat)\ lived the Coyote. 
He had children. During the day it was very hot and he went to 
hunt something for them, but did not kill anything. So he returned 
to his children, who were very thirsty. They were living only a very 
short time. Now he went after water for them to Torfva, but he had 
no jug, so he got water in his mouth. When he arrived there he 
drank and drew out his mouth full of water. With his mouth full of 
water he ran to his children and now he arrived at Kwandviivi, and 
there on the bluff sat the Red Eagle. He danced on one leg and sang 
as follows : 

»Toldby Sikdhpiki(Shupaiilavi). ^ 

' Told by Lotndvantiwa (Shupa<ilavi). 

" So called because the Hopi throw the heads of coyotes and other game there. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 199 

Tipoki homponcholo 

Yep nu (Here I) 

Cholo, cholo, chololololo.* 

The Coyote laughed at the Red Eagle and spilled the water. Now 
he ran back to the spring again, and again filled his mouth with water. 
Now he ran again, and again arrived at the Red Eagle, who was still 
dancing, and because he (the Coyote) laughed again, he again poured 
out the water. Now the Coyote was angry. "Why do you dance 
here that way?" he asked the Red Eagle. "Now let me go to the 
cedar timber and hunt some pitch," and he ran very fast to the timber, 
and there a pinon-tree had a great deal of pitch. He cut that off and 
carrying it, went home. Now he again descended to Toriva and 
drank there, very much, because he was very thirsty. When he had 
drank he filled his mouth and then pasted up his mouth with the pitch. 
Now he again came to the Red Eagle, who was again dancing. The 
Coyote again laughed, but his mouth was closed up tightly and he did 
not spill the water. Now at last he ran to his children very fast. 
When he arrived there they were sleeping nicely. When he had taken 
off the pitch he poured the water into their mouths, but they did not 
get awake. Why, they had died! Now because he was very angry 
he wanted to kill the Red Eagle, and went to him, very angry. When 
he arrived there the Red Eagle flew away. When he flew away he 
showed him his leg and, behold ! he had two legs. The Coyote jumped 
at him but did not catch him, and thus he did not kill him. 


Haliksai! At Ishmovala the Coyote was living, and at Nuvatu- 
tcaovi, a short distance east of Ishmovala, the Turkey lived. They 
both had children and were great friends, and often visited each other. 
One time when the Coyote came to the house of the Turkeys they 
fed him pinon nuts, which he relished very much. The little Turkeys 
were very nicely figured, and the Coyote enjoyed looking at them. 
He envied them for their beautiful feathers and was wondering 
how they were figured so nicely. As he looked at them he stroked their 
bodies with a forepaw. "Yes," the Turkey mother said, "I baked 
these, my children. I put them into an oven and baked them, then 
I ate their meat, but I did not break any bones, nor did I bite into 
any bones. Them I left entirely unhurt. Early in the morning I 

' Referring to the exposed roots of trees, herbs, etc., standing up above the ground. 
2 Told by Kwdyeshva (Oraibi). 

200 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

put them into a tray, waved them up and down, singing the following 
song over them : 

Pipichacha, pipichacha (archaic). 
Talahoya, huwamu, itimu! 
Wake up, please, my children! 

Then I threw all the bones outside and there my children got alive 
again, and since then they are so beautifully figured." She was, of 
course, deceiving him. "Oh!" the Coyote said; "yes, these are very 
pretty, and I shall do the same." 

In the evening he returned to his house and early the next morning 
he went after wood. Returning with the wood, he heated *his oven. 
He made the oven very hot, then took one of his children and pitied 
it, but the little Turkeys had been so pretty and he had so envied them 
for their pretty figuring, that he threw the little Coyote into the oven. 
Hereupon another one, and another one, as he had a great many 
children. He threw them into the oven until the oven was full. 
He placed a stone over the opening and plastered up the oven. While 
they were being baked in the oven he ground some com to make some 
hurushiki. So in the evening he took them out of the oven and found 
them thoroughly baked. He took out one after another and then 
commenced to eat. They tasted very fine. He ate all the meat, 
but the bones he did not hurt. He did not break any, nor did he 
crush any with his teeth. Gathering the bones into a basket he went 
to sleep. 

During the night the Turkey mother said to her children : ' * We 
had better flee away from here on account of your. uncle, the Coyote, 
because he will be very angry and will certainly come and devour 
us." Hereupon she sent her children away to the San Francisco 
Mountains (near Flagstaff). She took the pelts, blankets, etc., in 
which they had been sleeping, and rolling some of the smaller ones up, 
placed them on the floor and covered them up so as to make them 
appear as if they were still sleeping, under the covering. Hereupon 
she followed her children. 

The Coyote in the meanwhile got up once and looked whether the 
sun was not yet rising, but it was still dark. After a while he looked 
again and then the sun came out. He at once took the tray (tuchaiya) 
containing the bones of his children, went out with it, waved it up and 
down the way the Turkey Woman had shown him, and sang the song 
which she had told him she had sung over the bones of her children. 
Hereupon he also threw the bones away. But alas! nothing became 
alive, and only the bones were lying there. When he saw what had 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 201 

happened he cried bitterly and became very angry. "I shall go over 
to the house of the Turkey," he said, "and shall certainly devour the 
little Turkeys too." Hereupon he went over to his friend's house, 
running vfery fast. When he came to the house he at once entered 
and thought they were all sleeping nicely. He jumped upon their 
beds and grabbed what he believed to be the young Turkeys, but 
found that nobody was there. They had deceived him. "Ah," he 
said, "they have run away, but I shall certainly overtake them." So 
he rushed out, hunted up the tracks of the Turkeys and followed them 
running very fast. While the Coyote was following their tracks, the 
Turkeys had arrived at the Little Colorado River, but when they had 
crossed it the little Turkeys were very tired. "I shall leave you 
here," their mother said, "and run ahead of you." But one of the 
little ones was crying very bitterly. The Turkey mother ran ahead 
to the San Francisco mountains and informed the Turkeys living 
there about what had happened. "You that are strong come quickly 
and help us; the Coyote is following us and he will kill my children. 
You go quickly and get them." So two of the Turkey men that were 
very strong came out and ran towards the place where the Turkey 
mother had left her children. The latter, however, remained because 
she was very tired. 

The Coyote in the meanwhile found the little Turkeys and chasing 
them, said: "Aha, I shall devour you" (All kurzh nu umui c6wani). 
The little Turkeys were running around and crying very bitterly. 
Just as the Coyote was about to take one of the little Turkeys the 
two Turkey men came upon him, grabbed the little ones, of which 
there were two, took them on their backs and ran away with them. 
"Why do you take them away?" the Coyote cried. "I am hungry 
and I want to eat them. That is the reason why I followed them." 
But they did not listen, and as they were strong and the Coyote was 
very tired, he had to return to his home hungry. But before he got 
home he died. 


In Oraibi the people were living. At fshmovala the Coyote lived. 
Away over there at Kdhlcangwovakaavi lived a great many Chfros, 
and they were always dancing there. One time the Coyote was 
walking about east of their village. The Chfros saw him as they 
were dancing. They were singing as follows: 

* Told by QOydwaima (Oraibi) .' 

202 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Ishawu, ishawu, hohoongyanikay colmoki 

Coyote, Coyote, to dance is longing, 

Ishawu, oomii hongina. 

Coyote upward dances, 

AatRamii hongina. 

Downward dances, 

Machiwa, machiwa, chirorororo. 

Is called, is called chirorororo. 
The Coyote was looking at them and wanted to dance along. 
"Very well," the Chfros said to him, whereupon each one of them 
gave him some feathers; one some wing feathers, another some tail 
feathers, and so on. They made for the Coyote wings and a tail, and 
put small feathers into his body, whereupon the Coyote was very 
happy. "Thanks," he said, "that you have made wings for me. I 
am going to dance with you now." Hereupon they danced, again 
singing the same song. The Coyote danced with them. Now they 
were flying upward somewhere, and arrived somewhere away high 
up. Now they crowded around the Coyote and said: "Why, this is 
my wing; why, this is my tail; why, these are my feathers;" some of 
them had given him these things, and now they took ever3rthing away 
from him, and alas! he began to descend. He arrived at the earth 
and died. The Chiros laughed at him. "Thanks," they said, "that 
you have died, because you very often do commit depredations on 
some one's property. That is why you were going about again." 


At some distance southwest of W^lpi is a place called Water Killing 
Hill (Bd.q6ychomo), where there are still some old ruins. A short 
distance north of this place is a place called Skeleton Hill (Mdschomo). 
At these two places the people from Orafbi, Wdlpi, and the other 
villages rested with their captives after they had destroyed Aod.tovi, 
taking with them many men, women, and children. Here at these 
places, it is said, they extorted from their captives the secrets of their 
ceremonies and altars, and after they had learned everything from 
them, they killed a good many of them, probably torturing some of 
them. Tradition says that in some cases they cut women's breasts 
off and left them to perish. From this killing of those captives these 
two places have derived their names. 

At the first named place the Porcupine used to live, a long time 
ago, while the Coyote was living at the last named place. One time 

• Told by Sikdhpiici (Shupatilavi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 203 

the Coyote went to visit his friend, the Porcupine. "Sit down," the 
latter said. "All right," the Coyote said, and so they talked to- 
gether a long time. When it was noon the Porcupine said: "We are 
going to eat something. You build a fire ;" so the Coyote built a large 
fire. When the Coyote had built the fire the Porcupine said: "Now 
we are going to have something to eat." So he drew a small pointed 
stick from his hair on the top of his head and thrust it into his nose. 
After he had done this repeatedly, blood and fat dropped out of his 
nose on the fire, where it was roasted. This he handed to the Coyote 
to eat. So they were eating. "Aha," the Porcupine said: "thus I 
am preparing food." "Yes," the Coyote said, "we are happy." 

So after they had eaten they conversed until evening; then the 
Coyote said, "I must go home now." "Very well," the Porcupine 
replied, "it is evening now." "But you must visit me too, to-mor- 
row," the Coyote said, and thereupon left, the Porcupine saying 
laughingly, "You will have something good too, since you have seen 
it here." So the next morning the Porcupine went over to his friend 
and there sure enough found that the Coyote also had a pointed stick 
thrust into his hair. When it was noon again the Porcupine also 
built a fire at his friend's kiva. "We are going to eat something 
fine," the Coyote said. So the Coyote pulled out his stick, drew close 
up to the fire, bent over it, and also began to poke his nose with the 
stick, whereupon also blood, mixed with fat or tallow, began to come 
out. It covered the fire, and finally began to flow away, and wouldn't 
stop. The Coyote's nose was bleeding and bleeding, and finally he 
became exhausted and fell down. 

The Porcupine, thinking that his friend had died, laughed, and 
without having eaten anything, left the kiva and went home. He 
was angry at his friend because he wanted to imitate him, and now 
was not successful. By and by the Coyote revived. The blood had 
stopped flowing, forming large hard pieces of coagulated blood and 
grease in front of his nose. He was very angry. "That friend of 
mine," he said, "that friend is the cause that this happened to me; 
he wanted it this way. I am going to devour him." So after he had 
become strong again the next morning, he went over to his friend to 
attack him. When he arrived there he looked down, and his friend 
looking up noticed the blood on his nose. "Well now, have you not 
died? I thought you had died, and that is the reason why I went 
away." "Yes," the Coyote said very roughly, "you have bewitched 
me. On your account I almost died, and now I have come over here 
to devour you." "No, no," the Porcupine said, "you are not going 
to devour me. Why, you are my friend, and a friend will not eat up 

204 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

his friend. No, indeed." Then he began to talk kindly to his friend 
saying: "Well, since you have not died, we will live together again." 
The Coyote then also quieted down, and they conversed together 
amicably. They then lived there again as friends, the Coyote think- 
ing that he would have a chance sopietime to take revenge on the 


Halfksai! In the village they were living, and south of Ldnangva 
at Coyote Gap (Ishmovala) the Coyote was living. At Badger Gulch 
(Hondncika), about one-eighth of a mile south-east of Oraibi, lived 
the Badger. These two were great friends with each other, and often 
visited each other. One time the Oraibi were cleaning out the spring 
of L^nangva, in which the maidens of the village assisted. They 
had taken their food along, which they placed near a rock not far 
from the spring. Towards evening the chief said: "Now get your 
food and let us eat." So they spread blankets on the ground and 
placed the food on it and ate. After they were through they went 
to the village. 

The Coyote was sitting a short distance away watching the people 
as they ate, and envied them. Early the next morning he heard the 
crier announce another spring cleaning. As soon as the Coyote heard 
this announcement he ran over to his friend, the Badger. Arriving 
at the latter's house, he asked: " Is my friend in?" "Yes," the latter 
replied, "come in!" "Very well," the Coyote said, "but I am in a 
hurry. These Orafbi are going to clean the spring again and they 
have something very fine to eat there. Let us go over and take part 
in the eating, but do not be slow. Follow me soon." "Very well." 
the Badger said. Hereupon the Coyote left, the Badger soon follow- 
ing him. They entered the Coyote's house, and from there the Badger 
commenced to dig a hole towards the place where the food was, and 
after he had gone a little way he turned around, which is the custom 
of the badgers. The Coyote noticed it and said: "Oh! you are 
turning back again." "Yes," the Badger replied, "that is the way 
I dig. We must not be alone in this." "Yes," the Coyote said, 
"here is some one else close by. He digs straight ahead." 

Hereupon the Coyote left his house and ran over to a place a short 
distance east of his house where the Mole (Mtiyi) lived. He entered 
the latter's house and said : ' ' The people are cleaning the spring there 
and they have a great deal of food there, of which we want to get 

* Told by Kiwdnhongva (Oraibi) . 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 205 

some. But the Badger, who has been digging towards it, always 
turns around, and we shall not get there. You come and scratch a 
hole for us and we shall give you a great deal of it." The Mole was 
at once willing and said: "Very well, I shall come," and went along 
with the Coyote. After entering the Coyote's house the Mole at once 
commenced to dig a hole underground, which he did very rapidly. 
The Badger followed him, enlarging the hole. The Coyote followed 
the Badger and scratched out the loose dirt. 

They arrived at a place not far from the rock where the food had 
been placed the day before. Here the Mole made a small opening 
and looked out and saw that the people were just arriving, and that 
the maidens again placed the food near the rock. So the Mole con- 
tinued his digging to the place where the food was, and while the Hopi 
were at work he reached all the food to his companions. The Mole 
handed it to the Badger, the Badger to the Coyote, and the latter 
carried it to his house. When the Hopi were through with their work 
the chief again said to the maidens that they should now go and get 
their food. They would eat and then go home. So the maidens 
raced towards the rock where they had placed the food, but when 
they arrived here they found all their food gone. They looked around 
and found a hole in the ground, but only for a short distance, because 
the Badger had tightly closed up the hole from the inside. "Well 
now," the maidens said, "somebody has put our food in here." So 
the men and the youths brought their hoes and followed the opening 
in the ground, but they soon found that it was only open a short dis- 
tance. Hereupon they abandoned it and went home hungry. 

In the Coyote's house the three now divided up the food and the 
Badger and the Mole carried home their portions. On this they lived 
for some time afterwards. Soon afterwards the Coyote again visited 
the Badger. The Badger had cut up into small pieces some I6I60- 
kongs and roasted them. They were very fat. This food he set 
before his friend, the Coyote, and with it some comiviki. The Coyote 
ate the food with relish. "But that tastes well," he said; "what is 
it? where did you get it?" "Why, I opened my side," the Hondni 
said. "My intestines are covered with much fat, and I took out some 
of that fat and prepared this food from it." "Did it not hurt you," 
the Coyote asked, "when you opened your body?" "No," the Badger 
replied, "I opened it, took out the fat, and you see there is nothing 
the matter with my body. With this knife here I opened my body," 
showing the knife to the Coyote. "Very well," the Coyote said, "I 
am going to take this knife along and I am going to do the same, so 
to-morrow you must visit me, too." Hereupon he left and went home. 

2o6 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

The Badger laughed, saying: "That Fool Old Man (Una Wuhtaka) be- 
lieves that I took that fat out of my body." 

The next morning the Coyote took the knife and commenced to 
cut into his abdomen. It hurt him very much, and as he was 
cutting he moaned, "Ana-na-na," but he kept on cutting and the 
blood was running out profusely. When he had cut through the 
abdomen wall he took hold of the fat and commenced to pull at it, 
but before he got through he became exhausted and fell down and 
died. When his friend, the Badger, arrived he found the Coyote 
lying there dead. "That Fool Old Man," he said, "thinking that I 
extracted that fat from my body!" And thus the Badger killed his 
friend, the Coyote. 


Halfksai! North-east of W^lpi at Oaktoika lived the Coyote. 
West of this place at Shiw^pba lived the Badger. They were friends. 
One time the latter visited his friend, the Coyote. "Have you 
come?" the Coyote said. " Yes, " his friend replied. Hereupon they 
conversed until noon. "Now let us have something to eat," the 
Coyote said, whereupon he went into a room and got out some juniper 
berries. "This I am eating," he said to his friend, and set it before 
him, "Now, eat this," he said. Hereupon they ate. When that 
was eaten they conversed until towards evening, when the Badger 
said he had to go home now. "Very well," the Coyote replied. 
And after having invited his friend to visit him too, the Badger went 
home. In the evening he went on a hunt and tracking a rabbit 
into a hole he quickly dug him up and pulled him out. Having 
killed the rabbit he took him home and put him away until the next 

Early in the morning he roasted the rabbit nicely and then waited 
for his friend, who soon came. "Have you come?" the Badger said. 
"Yes," the Coyote said. "Very well," the Badger said. So they 
conversed all forenoon and at noon the Badger said: "Now, we are 
going to have something to eat, too," whereupon he brought forth 
the roasted rabbit, which looked very inviting. Cutting the rabbit 
up, the Badger invited his friend to eat, whereupon they enjoyed 
their meal very much. When they had eaten they again conversed 
with each other, and were very happy talking about the good food 
that they had eaten. Towards evening the Coyote said that he must 
go home now. "Very well," the Badger replied, whereupon the 

' Told by Sikdhpiki (Shupa\ilavi). 

March. 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 207 

Coyote left, his friend having wished him a happy journey. After 
that each one continued to Uve in his house. 


Haliksai! In Oraibi the people were living. At Badger Gulch 
(Honancika), lived the Badger. His friend the Coyote lived at ish- 
movala. The two were great friends. One time they were hunting 
together. They were hunting and had gotten as far as Mowdhpi, 
quite a distance west of Ap6hnivi, but they had not killed anything. 
Some time before the Coyote had been hunting alone and had found 
the place where a K6honino maiden had died some time previously. 
So he said to his friend the Badger: "Let us go and hunt the place 
where the K6honino maiden has died, and let us revive her. You 
are a doctor and will certainly know how to do it." So they went 
to the place and there sure enough found the bones. 

They gathered the bones and placed them on a pile. The Badger 
had on a black kilt (kokdmvitkuna). This he spread over the bones. 
The Coyote was anxious to see what his friend would do, but his 
friend said he should not stay there, but he should go away, he 
should hide somewhere. Then the Badger was thinking that the 
maiden would have to have some flesh and some color, so he sent the 
Coyote westward to C6h6h-toika to get some dry grass. When the 
Coyote brought this they put some of the grass with the bones. He 
then sent the Coyote to a place west of Mowahpi to get some red 
paint (cuta). Of this he also put a small quantity under the black 
kilt. He then sent the Coyote to a spring called Hidden Spring 
(Nauyva), to get some water from there. When he returned they 
poured a little of the water in a bowl and wet the paint with it. 

The Badger now told the Coyote to go away. He went away but 
soon sneaked back again, crawling towards the place where his friend 
was working over the bones. The Badger was angry and said to him 
that if he did not go away, and if he saw that, the maiden would 
never revive. Hereupon he drove the Coyote off, and the latter 
went away quite a distance this time. Then the Badger sang as 
follows : 

Hatataplocho, lochoooo, 

Hatataplocho, lochoooo, 

Payapim, Kohninapim, 

Nowacha' pim way a! way a! 

Momoka, momoka ai, ai. 

Narrator could not give the 
meaning of these words. 

1 Told by Lomdn6mtiwa (Oraibi). 

2o8 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol, VIII. 

Hereupon he poured some of the paint over the bones and grass. He 
then repeated the song several times, always pouring some of the 
paint over the material as he concluded the song. All at once the 
bones began to move under the cover. He waited a little and then 
removed the cover and, behold! the maiden was alive. She sat up 
and looked around. "Why do you want me?" she asked. "It is 
not I that wanted you," he said, "but the Coyote," whereupon he 
called the latter. The Coyote came running and the Badger said to 
him: "You wanted me to revive this one, now she is alive again." 
"Yes, " he said, "it was I who wanted it that way. " This way they 
talked together and then they said they wanted to go home, and told 
the maiden so. She was willing to go with them. 

As they went home the Coyote coveted the mana and wanted to 
marry her, but the Badger was not willing. He said: "That is not 
the purpose for which we brought her to life. She was to be our 
clan sister (tdmci). We wanted her to build the fire for us. " They 
finally came to Big Hill (Wopachomo), and the Coyote was anxious 
to have the maiden. He rushed upon her and bit her in the calf of 
her leg. The Badger was very angry, saying: "Why did you do that? 
That is not the reason why we brought her. You are bad. " As he 
was saying this the maiden fell down and died again. 

They were thinking where they should bury her. So the Badger 
took the body on his back and took it south-west. The Coyote fol- 
lowed him a short distance then returned to the place where she had 
died, but he soon again followed, overtaking the Badger. "Why did 
you follow me? " asked the Badger. "One does not follow the dead. " 
In a little while the Coyote again ran back to the place where the 
maiden had died. "When he comes back again," the Badger said to 
himself: " I shall not say anything to him. But how shall I kill him? 
He is bad." In a little while he put down the corpse and began to 
dig a grave. As he was working at it the Coyote returned. So they 
here buried the maiden and then returned home. 

But it was evening when they came to the Coyote's house. Here 
they both remained over night. In the morning the Badger went to 
his home, inviting his friend, however, to come and visit him the 
next day. As he went home he was thinking how he should kill the 
Coyote. As he went along he killed some bull-snakes (l6l6okongs). 
When he arrived at his home he had killed four of them. On his 
fireplace was standing a pot. He cut the l6l6okongs up into short 
pieces and put the pieces into the drying pot. He stirred them 
over a slow fire until they were thoroughly dry. The l6l6okongs 
were fat. When he was done with this he put on another pot and 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi ■ — Voth. 209 

made some hunishuki. As he was done with that his friend 

"My friend , ' ' the Coyote said . "Ha!" the B adger replied . * * Are 
you in?" the Coyote asked. "Yes," he said, "come in, come in." 
So the Coyote went in and they commenced to eat right away. When 
they were through eating the Coyote asked the Badger: "What have 
you here that tasted so good?" "Yes," said the Badger, who had 
a knife in his hand. "I did not know what to set before you, and 
so I cut open my abdomen, took my entrails out and roasted them 
for you, and before I was through, my abdomen was closed up again. " 
The Coyote would not believe him. "Certainly you did not roast 
that, yet you are saying it," the Coyote said. "Yes," the Badger 
replied, "I roasted that. You see my abdomen is not quite well 
yet,"" whereupon he showed it to him, having made a little scratch 
on it beforehand. And then the Coyote believed him. "I am go- 
ing to do that, too," the Coyote said. "You come and visit me to- 
morrow morning. But I have no knife and roasting pot; you have 
a knife and a pot, let me have them. " "Very well," the Badger said, 
"you take them along." He gave him the knife and the pot, and 
then the Coyote left the kiva and ran home. After he had left the 
Badger said: "Get out, old man, you will certainly die, believing me 
that way. " 

When the Coyote got home he went to sleep. In the morning 
he put the pot on the fire and then leaned against the wall. He took 
the knife and opened his abdomen a little, but it hurt him, and he 
turned away. "Oh my! I shall not die," he thought, and then made 
a larger cut. He then laid down the knife and took hold of the edge 
with his four paws and tore a big opening in his abdomen, whereupon 
the entrails dropped out. He moaned very much when he opened 
his abdomen, saying " And-na-na-na-na-na-. " He then took hold 
of one of the larger intestines and thereupon fell over and died. 

When the Badger came over he looked in and said, "Friend 
(Kwach)," but receiving no answer he entered. He found that his 
friend was dead. He said: "Of course, you died here, being de- 
ceived that way. Of course, I did not really open my abdomen. 
You have been deceived." Hereupon he took the fat from the 
Coyote, and returned to his house. Close to his house was an ant 
hill. He spread this fat over the ant hill, whereupon the ants moved 
away, and that is the reason why the ants do not remain when coyote 
fat is placed where they are, and that is also the reason why coyote 
fat is used for ant bites. 

2IO Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Haliksai! At Mundovi the Kdkontu'' (Sing. K6na) were living. 
But they were all maidens and were constantly grinding com. There 
was a long row of them, and they were singing as they ground the com. 
One time the Coyote came around and was going up and down there. 
"There," he said, "there is somebody here singing." So he went 
up and saw a number of maidens grinding com. When he came to 
the house he looked through the window where they were grinding 
corn. They sang the following song: 

Talaw n6n6nga, Early we go out, 
Nononga, ma! We go out, see! 

(Referring to the custom of going out early in the morning [ktii- 
vato] and sprinkling meal towards the east.) 

The Coyote listened to them and looked at them. By this time 
the K6kontu noticed the Coyote. "Come in," they said to him. 
"How shall I get in, you have such a small house,'-'' he said. "All 
right, you talk to us from outside," they said. And then they said 
to one another: "Let us go out and do something." So they came 
out and went to a steep bluff south of where they lived, where there 
was a large pinon-tree growing at the edge of the bluff. The Coyote 
went with them and here they now played, running up the tree on 
one side and jumping down the tree and from the bluff on some sand 
that had piled up at the foot of the bluff. As they could run up 
steep bluffs they would repeat this constantly, jumping down, com- 
ing up again, jumping down, coming up again, and so on. The 
Coyote looked on and envied them because they could do this. "You 
are enjoying yourselves," the Coyote said to them, "I shall join 
you." "All right," they replied, "you come and play with us." 
"But when I shall jump down there I shall hurt myself," he said. 
"No," they replied, "that will not hurt you at all." 

Hereupon he joined them, ran and played with them, and finally 
climbed up the tree, too. When he saw the K6kontu constantly 
jump down he also jumped down, but before he had reached the 
bottom he was circling around in the air and landed forcibly on the 
ground, and of course was killed. The K6kontu laughed at him, 
saying: "You fool, that you did as we did. We are not heavy, and 
nothing happened to us, but you are too heavy for that. " So when 
they had laughed at him they went home again, leaving him there dead. 

' Told by Kwdyeshva (Or^bi). 

^ Small brownish animal with a short tail, and having white stripes running over its snout and 
head and along the back, living in rocks. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 2 h 


Aliksai! The people were living in Shong6pavi. North of the 
village (about three miles) , was a bluff in which a Sparrow-hawk had 
his house (nest). A short distance (about half a mile), north of 
Shong6pavi was a sand hill in which lived many Grasshoppers. These 
the Sparrow-hawk relished very much and was constantly watching 
them. When he would see the little Grasshoppers jumping about, 
he would swoop down on them and carry them to his children, who 
would quickly devour them. There were ten Grasshopper children, 
all of whom the Sparrow-hawk killed, one after another. When they 
were all gone their parents mourned over the loss of their children. 

At this juncture a Coyote came along, saying to the Grasshopper 
mother: "You are singing nicely. Sing to me, too." "No," she 
insisted, "I am not singing, I am crying. This Sparrow-hawk killed 
all my children and I am crying. " But the Coyote would not listen, 
and said: "If you do not sing to me I will devour you." Hereupon 
the Grasshopper mother repeated her song: 

Wala, wala, chochon nacomta, 
Tumaci kele nanakavoo 
Itimuy uuyinglawu 

Uy, uy, h- h- h- (with a rising inflection to represent 

The Coyote at once ran away singing the song of the Grasshopper. 
Arriving at a rock he stumbled over it and fell down, losing by that 
the song. He tried to sing it again but was just able to say the first 
syllable, Wa, Wa. So he returned to the place where he had left 
the Grasshopper woman, the latter, however, had also left the place 
immediately after the departure of the Coyote, leaving in her place a 
stone that resembled the form of the Grasshopper. Arriving at this 
stone the Coyote said, "I have forgotten my song, sing it to me 
again," but received no reply. "If you do not sing I shall devour 
you, " he said, * ' but still receiving no reply he grabbed the stone and 
broke his teeth. The blood was running from his mouth. In this 
condition he ran about to hunt food, but even when he found some 
he could not eat it as he had no teeth, and so finally he perished 
with hunger. 

' Told by Lomdvftntiva (Shupaiilavi). 

212 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


HaHksai! In Orafbi the people were living. At Grasshopper 
Bluff (Tfitolchomo), the Grasshopper Old Man (T6t6l Wuhtaka) and 
his wife were living. They had children. At tshmovala lived the 
Coyote. It was planting time. The Grasshopper had a big field east 
of where he lived. The two were great friends. When it was plant- 
ing time the Grasshopper also wanted to plant but he said to his wife 
that he was not going to plant alone, others were going to help him, 
so she should put up a good deal of food. She prepared some muh- 
piki,'' some q6ma,^ and filled a jug with water. All this her husband 
took on his back, took some seeds, and went to his field. Here he 
seated himself in the kisi* that he had built in his field and waited, 
but nobody came. It was nearly noon and still nobody came. So he 
ate his food all alone. When he had eaten he took the seed, went 
into the field and planted all alone. In the afternoon it became very 
hot and he was thirsty, so he returned to the kisi, drank some water 
and lay down to rest, leaning his feet against the side of the booth. 

While he was lying there in that manner he heard somebody 
come. It was his friend the Coyote. "Well now," the latter said, 
"why is my friend lying down that way?" "Yes," the Grasshopper 
replied, "I am lying here because I am tired. I am afraid this kisi 
will fall down on me, and how shall I run away?" "Now, let me lie 
down, too," the Coyote said, so he lay down beside his friend, also 
leaning his hind feet against the booth. The Grasshopper jumped 
up then, said that his water in the jug was about gone and he would 
get some more water. Picking up the jug he went to his house where 
he found his children. As he was planning some mischief against his 
friend, he told his children to go before him to their uncle, the Deer, 
who lived at Cotton Field Mount (Pichmvaschomo). 

The Coyote was, during this time, lying in the kfsi with his hind 
legs against the timbers of the booth. He waited and waited, and 
finally became tired. "I guess my friend is not coming," he said, 
" I guess he lied and it is not true that this kisi will fall down on me. 
I shall at least try to let go with my feet and quickly jump out." 
So he did so, and while the booth was shaking it did not fall. "There, " 
he said, "he just lied to ine. I shall go and eat up his children. " So 

* Told by Macdhongva (Oraibi). 

2 Rolls of thin wafer bread (piki). 
^ Meal of sweet com. 

* Shade, shadow, umbrella, etc., in this case a booth or temporary shelter in the field, built of 
branches and brush. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 213 

he went to the house of his friend and found the door closed with a 
grass mat. This he removed and went in, but found no one in the 
house. "Aha," he said, "they have run away from me," and com- 
ing out of the house he found their tracks leading north-eastward. 

He followed the tracks and came to the house of the Deer. "Has 
the Grasshopper come here with his family?" he asked. "Yes," the 
Deer replied, "they have come here." "You get them out here," 
the Coyote said. "No, you come in yourself," the Deer replied. 
"No, no, bring them out," the Coyote insisted, "I want to devour 
them." "No, no, you come in yourself," the Deer once more said. 
So the Coyote went down the ladder two rongs and then jumped out 
again. "Oh," he exclaimed. "Do not be afraid," the Deer said, 
"we are not going to hurt you. " So he again went down two rongs, 
but jumped out again, being afraid. "You just go in, " the Deer said, 
"we shall not hurt you." "No, you bring them out here," the 
Coyote once more requested. But finally he concluded to go down. 
He stopped at the elevated portion of the kiva, and saw two strong 
Deer standing one on each side of the fireplace. In another part of 
the kiva he saw the wife of the Grasshopper and her children. "You 
hand those to me here," he said to the Deer. "No, you come down 
yourself, and get them," they replied. So he stepped down into the 
deeper portion of the kiva, but at once one of the Deer picked him 
up with the horns and threw him upward towards the hatchway. As 
soon as he fell down the other Deer picked him up and threw him 
upwards, and so they kept it up until he was dead, whereupon they 
threw him out. 

Hereupon the Deer said to the Grasshoppers: "Now, you go out 
wherever you think, nobody will hurt you now." When they had 
left the kiva their mother said to them: "Now, every one of you go 
where he wants to go," so they immediately scattered, flying in all 
directions, and that is the reason why the grasshoppers are now found 
everywhere. If they had not scattered out at that time they would 
be just living at one place now. 


Haliksai! In Oraibi the people were living. Over there at How- 
akapchomo somebody, some maidens had a crop. They had a father 
and a mother; three maidens there were. They were living at 
Pilcatsva.* From there they went to watch their crop; and now at 

« Told by OSyAwaima (Oraibi). 

* A place in the north-west comer of the village. 

214 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol, VIII. 

Ishmovala lived the Coyote. He had eaten watermelons, but he 
was longing for those maidens. Them he wanted. The Coyote had 
a grandmother and to her he said: "My grandmother!" "Ha!" she 
said. "Shall I not start south for those maidens?" "O my!" she 
said, "they certainly will not want you, but if you want to go to 
them, you go to the village and there somewhere you enter through 
a window opening, and if there is. a bow hanging anywhere, take it; 
also if there is an arrow quiver, take that, too; also red yarn, and if 
you find some blue yarn take that, too ; also if you find some leggings, 
take them; and then a blue shirt; and if you go somewhere in the 
rear of the village and find some red stone ochre, take it. That much 
you come and "bring." Thus she said to him. 

Now the Coyote started for the village and arrived there, and 
sure enough, he found a broken bow somewhere and took it. Also 
an arrow quiver he found, which he also took; and a shirt, and leg- 
gings; some blue yarn, and stone ochre. That much he brought 
along. Now he went to his grandmother. The grandmother dressed 
him up in it. He put on the shirt and the leggings, had his hair 
tied up, put the quiver with arrows behind his loin string. Now the 
ochre he put on his face like the Hohd Katcina, and thus he went to 
the maidens. But the father of the maidens had put up a stone 
trap east of the Coyote's house, and now the Coyote went to the 
maidens, but he arrived at that trap, and there at the balance some 
rabbit meat was tied. When he arrived there he pressed towards it 
(the meat), but he was fooled. He went into the trap and took hold 
of the meat with his teeth and pulled at it, and of course, the trap 
shut and thus he died there. 

When it was evening those maidens going home went to the trap, 
of their father and arrived there, and there that (Coyote) was caught 
and they laughed at him when they saw that some one with an arrow 
quiver was sticking out there. When they had seen him they went 
home and when they arrived there they slept during the night, but 
in the evening they said to their father: "Our father," one said. 
"Hay!" he said. "In your trap there something has been caught. " 
"Very well," he said, "to-morrow I shall also go there." When it 
had become morning the father went there and arrived at his trap, 
and sure enough he (Coyote) was caught. He pulled him out and 
carried him to his field. When he arrived there he skinned him and 
hung up his skin as a watching flag. And after that it was hanging 
there as a flag. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 215 


At Squash Seed Point (Batang\oc Toika), lived the HAaa Katcina. 
North of there lived the Hototo Katcina. At Put^tokaovi lived the 
Sohdncomtaka Katcina, north of the village lived the Red Eagle 
(Palakway) Katcina, and at Katcinvala lived many Katcinas. At 
Ishmovala lived the Coyote and his wife. The Coyote used to see 
the Katcinas come and have their dances and processions, and one 
time said to his wife: "We are going to do that, too. People like to 
see this." 

In the morning the Coyote went out, and standing on the roof of 
his kiva he called out to his friends, the Coyotes, that they should 
come and assemble in his kiva. Soon they came from all sides, 
many of them. When they had all assembled he said to them: "I 
want to 'overtake' something, too, like these Katcinas do. To-mor- 
row we shall have a Katcina dance, so you go to the village, and if 
you find something in the rear of the village such as feathers, pieces 
of skin, etc., bring it here." They all declared themselves willing. 
The Coyotes thus went out and went around the village hunting for 
pieces of skin, feathers, pieces of gourds, especially the necks of long- 
necked gourds, and brought all these things to the Coyote's kiva. 
Here they sewed up kilts, made bunches of feathers for head-dresses, 
etc., thus working all day. Each one prepared a costume of a Kat- 
cina that he had seen. During the night they slept there. 

In the morning one of the Coyotes went to the place where the 
HAaa Katcina always dresses up; two others to the place where the 
Hot6to dresses up; one to the place of the Sohdncomtaka; one dressed 
up like the PaUkwayo at the place where that Katcina lives ; and a 
number of others went to Katcinvala. When all were ready the 
Hdaa shouted four times and then went northward where he was 
joined by the two Hot6tos, then by the next ones, and these by the 
Palakway, and finally by the Katcinas at Katcfnvala. They all then 
went to the Coyote's house at Ishmovala. The Coyote and his wife, 
who lived here had not gone along but had remained with' their chil- 
dren. Here the Katcinas now had a dance. 

The Oraibi happened to have a Coyote hunt on this day. Some 
of them went southward, others northward, from the village ,| forming 
a large circle, and then proceeding towards the village. But they 
found no Coyotes because the latter were all assembled at ishmovala. 
While they were still dancing, the Oraibi came upon them' and at 

> Told by KwAyeshva (Oraibi). 

2i6 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

once closed in upon them. When the Coyotes saw that they were 
surrounded they began to run, trying to escape, but as they had 
masks on they could not see so well, and many of them were killed 
at once; others threw down their masks, but as they had their cos- 
tumes on they could not run fast and so were also killed. Only the 
family that lived at ishmovala, and who had not put on costumes 
or masks, escaped. When the Hopi had killed all the Coyotes they 
laughed at them and went to the village, being happy over their suc- 
cessful hunt. 


Alfksai ! ' At Hoh6yapi the people were living. The Coyote had 
children somewhere. So he was hunting some food for them and 
had killed a rabbit and he did not want to eat it alone, so he mounted 
a bluff and called it out in the way Coyotes bark. So from the north 
came a yellow Coyote, from the west a blue one, from the south a 
red one, from the east a white, from the north east a black, and from 
the south east a gray one. "This here I killed," he said to them, 
"and because I do not want to eat it alone I have called you. We 
shall eat it together." So they tore it to pieces and devoured it 
there very quickly, and that is the reason why a coyote never eats 
any prey that he has found alone, but always calls out when he has 
found something. 


A long time ago some Oraibi children were hunting some Tlich- 
vos. They found a nest high up on a bluff, somewhere east of the 
village, but as they could not get to it they returned to the village. 
By and by a Bull-snake (Lolookongwuu) , being in search of food had 
also discovered the nest of the Tdchvo. While coiled up at the foot 
of the bluff the Snake was discovered by the Bird. The latter, feeling 
secure at its high place, began to joke the Snake, singing as follows: 

Lolookongwuu, lolookoi^gwuu ! 

Bull-snake, Bull-snake! 

Tcongmomoki, tcongmomoki 

Dying of hunger, dying of hunger, 

Suun pi pak wuptipkaa. 

Never you'll ascend here to my nest, 
and then rushed back into its little hole. The Snake at once became 
angry and said: "I am going to get up to you there. You are talk- 

' Told by Tawiima (Mish6ngovi). 
* Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi). 


March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. a 17 

ing to me that way now, but I am going to devour you." Where- 
upon he commenced to hunt a place of ascent. Finally having found 
a place, tried to climb up, but soon got tired and fell back. The 
little Bird seeing it, triumphantly sang: 

Suun pi pak wuptipakaa. 

Never you'll ascend here to my nest. 

This made the Snake still more angry and it tried to get up to the 
nest again and succeeded in climbing up higher than before, but fell 
back again. The little Bird again sang its little song of triumph. 
Thus the Serpent made three unsuccessful efforts, but the fourth 
time it succeeded in reaching the mouth of the opening in which the 
little bird's nest was, and hooking its mouth over the rim, looked into 
the hole and saw four young birds in the nest. He said to the Bird : 
"Now, don't you run away, I am going to devour you," and then 
entered the hole. The bird escaped, leaving its little ones in the 
nest. The Snake coiled up in the nest and devoured the four little 
birds, whereupon it remained in the nest four days. On the fourth 
day it left the place but crawled up on the bluff where it coiled up. 
The old Bird kept flying and running about in the neighborhood of 
the Snake, bewailing the loss of its brood. The Snake then began 
to exert its charm on the poor Bird, trying to cause it to come nearer. 
This the Snake did by strong inhalations, and whenever the reptile 
inhaled the bird would be drawn towards the snake, when it exhaled 
the bird would try to escape, but would be drawn closer towards the 
Snake's mouth at the next inhalation.' This game the Snake car- 
ried on with its poor victim for quite a while, the poor Bird being 
entirely under the charm of the reptile. Finally it was drawn by a 
last strong inhalation on the part of the Snake close to the latter 's 
mouth and then the Snake devoured its victim. 


Alfksai! At H6yapi the people were living. There they were 
living. At a little distance to the north of this place is a small bluff, 

' The Hopi claim that they have repeatedly observed the exerting of such a charm over mice , 
little rabbits, etc., on the part of bull-snakes. One told me that he had watched a snake charm a 
large mouse for quite a while. The snake when inhaling and exhaling produced a loud whizzing 
sound. The mouse would be drawn towards the snake, apparently against its will, and being in 
great terror when the snake inhaled, but would run to a rock while it was exhaling. When finally 
the snake had drawn its victim close to itself, it wound itself around the mouse in such a manner 
that nothing could be seen of the latter. 

Others have watched the same procedure between a snake and a rabbit. The Hopi say that 
sometimes they take pity on the victim, and with a stick or some other object cut through the line 
of the charm upon which the victim is at once set free and escapes. 

2 Told by Lomdvantiwa (Shupalilavi) . 

2i8 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

and close to the bluff is a place called Tcuakpi. Here the Rattle- 
snakes were living and had a kiva. During the summer they would 
run about as rattlesnakes, but in the winter they were in their kivas 
and were Hopi, their snake skins hanging on pegs on the wall all 
around the kiva. 

One winter it was snowing very heavily, there being about four 
or five feet of snow on the ground. About midway between Tcuakpi 
and Shongdpavi is Tdvanashavi where there is a deep opening in the 
earth. Here the Locusts (Mdmahtu, Sing, Mahu) were living. 
There are two kinds of Locusts, one Dumdmahu (white earth or kaolin 
Mdhu), the other kind being simply called Mdhu. Both kinds, 
however, lived together there. Around the house of the Locust 
there was no snow, but everywhere else there was very deep snow, 
such as the Hopi had never seen before. As it remained on the 
ground a long time many of the Hopi froze to death. So the Snake 
chief thought over the matter and spoke to his people. "Ishiohi!" 
he said, "this cannot be this way. We are tired and exhausted and 
our children are dying. It cannot remain this way. Some one go 
over to our fathers at Ttivanashavi and see what they have to say 
about this. It shall not be this way." So he called upon the Sand 
Rattlesnake (Tuwi-tcua) and said, "You are strong, you go over 
there. " So the Sand Rattlesnake entered the snow and tried to make 
its way through the snow, but he had not yet reached the place when 
lie became cold and tired and returned. 

Hereupon the Bull-snake (Lolookong) was called on. "You are 
brave," the chief said, "you try it." So the Bull-snake put on his 
snake costume and made his way through the snow, but he had not 
nearly reached the place yet when he became very tired and began to 
shiver with cold; so he returned also. The chief then called upon the 
Racer (Taho), saying, <*.' You are not very heavy, you are swift, so you 
try it. Where there is a bare place, not covered with snow, you can 
rest awhile, and then maybe you can get there." So the Racer put 
on his snake costume and started. He also made his way through 
the snow, and whenever he would be cold he would shoot upward tf 
the top and if he saw any wood or trees or grass protruding from, the 
snow he would go there and warm himself in the sunshine. Thus he 
finally reached the place where he was going and found that for quite 
a distance around Ttivanashavi there was no snow. It was warm 
there, so that even grass and many flowers grew. Here he could run 
swiftly and finally came upon the kiva in which the Locusts lived. 

The ladder was protruding from the kiva. The Racer at once 
descended the ladder and entered the kiva. "Sit down, sit down," 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 219 

the Locusts said, showing themselves very kind. They fed the Racer 
on peaches and watermelon and piki, made of fresh roasting ears. 
The Locusts sometimes play flutes in a ceremony and that was the 
reason why it was so nice and warm there. So, while the rest of tjie 
people were freezing to death, the Locusts had the finest things to 
eat. "Now then," the Locust chief said, "you certainly have come 
hefe for some reason." "Yes," he said, "yes." "It has snowed 
very heavily and we are wood-poor, and our children are dying on 
account of the cold, and we have tried to reach you and they finally 
sent me to see whether I could not reach you, and now I have got 
here. You have pity on us and come and assemble with us, but 
come quickly." So they at once began to prepare to dress and 
paint up and told the Racer that in four days they would come over 
and assemble with them. One of the Locusts took a flute, went out 
of the kiva and blew the flute along the tracks of the Racer, towards 
the Snake house. Returning to the kiva the Locust said, to the Racer: 
"Now you can go home and you will not be troubled by the snow. 
You will find a nice road and you need not be afraid. " So the Racer 
left the kiva and found a nice path back to the Snake house. He 
now did not get cold, and arrived there in a short time. 

When he had entered the kiva, they asked the Racer: "Did you 
get there?" "Yes," the Racer replied, "I got there and they told 
m^ that in four days they would be with us. We should then wait 
for them." "Thanks, thanks, we are happy." And now they 
waited for the Locusts. On the fourth day in the evening they came. 
"Come in, come in," said the Snakes, who, however, had now the 
form of Hopi, the Locusts having the same form. One after another 
the Locusts came in with a chirping noise. They were dressed in 
costumes made of rabbit skin blankets, still used by the Hopi, which 
were very woolly and warm, and as one after the other of the Locusts 
entered the kiva it became warmer and warmer in the kiva. The 
Snake people finally began to perspire because it had become hot in 
the kiva. 

Immediately upon leaving their own kiva the Locusts had begun 
to chirp through their flutes, and immediately the snow had begun 
to melt and to disappear. By the time they had reached the Snake 
kiva it had all disappeared. As soon as they had entered the kiva 
they lined up and sang the following song, dancing while they were 
singing and shaking small rattles : 

2 20 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Haaaaaaaow Inamu, Haaaaaaaow Ingumu! 

Hao my fathers, hao my mothers! 

Macilanang, Cakwalanang 

Drab Flutes, Blue Flutes. 

Inamu, conwak katcita 

My fathers, beautiful living 

Talaowyahainani itamuhuhui 

(In) summer will begin for us. 

Aaaaahaay aahaahaay aaahahahay. 

Talaow ciwawayina, taalaow ciwaywaytimanii. 

(In) summer blossoms wave, (in) summer blossoms will 

Aaaahaayahay ahaayaaahaaayaay aaahayaaha aaaha. 
lyihiyihiyihiyi iyihiyihiyihiyi. 


Hapi ma kwangwa-mahu, duma-mahu tiyotu 

New then (the) good locust, (the) white earth locust youths. 

Conwak katcita talaowyahinani itamuhuhui. 

Beautiful living (in) summer for us (they) will begin. 

Aaaaahaayaay ahaay aahaayaay 

Taalaow shiwawayina, taalaow shiwawaytimanii. 

(In) summer blossoms wave, in summer blossoms will sway. 

Aaaaahaayaaay ahaay aaahaaayaay aaaahay aaaha. 

lyihiyihiyihiyi iyihiyihiyihiyi. 

When they were through with their dancing, they immediately 
left the kiva, the Snakes thanking them profusely. During the same 
night^they[.wenf back to their home. It was very hot in the Snake 
house, so that the people were bathed in perspiration and they slept 
well that night. In the morning, when the sun rose, they went out and 
there was no snow, but the ground was covered with water from the 
melting snow. After that they were not cold any more. They sat 
in the sunshine and enjoyed seeing the grass coming up. The Locusts 
bring warm weather, that is the reason why the priests often, when 
they make bd,hos in winter, throw pieces of a locust on the fireplace 
and burn it because the smoke. and odor bring warm weather. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 221 


A long time ago the Squirrel and the Chipmunk lived near the 
Nose Gulch (Pong6yakv6c6) , the Squirrel living on the north side 
and the Chipmunk on the south side. The two were g9od friends and 
often visited each other. Near by were some peach orchards, where 
a certain old man owned a number of trees. There the two would go 
every day and eat peaches. The Chipmunk relished the peaches, 
while the Squirrel preferred the kernels from the stone. The Chip- 
munk would climb the trees, break open the peaches, and eating the 
flesh of the peaches, throw down the seeds to the Squirrel; or the 
Chipmunk would also throw down peaches, which the Squirrel 
would put in its mouth and carry to a certain place on the rock, 
where the two afterwards would feast on them. 

They were careful that the owner of the peach orchard would not 
find them there, because they knew that the latter made very desper- 
ate efforts to capture and kill them. One time the Squirrel said to 
the Chipmunk: "We ought to have a little dance some time. When 
you go home you try to make a song and then come and sing it to 
me, and then when we go to eat peaches again we shall "have a little 
dance there and sing the little song." So the Chipmunk went 
home and thought over the matter and tried very hard to compose 
a song. Finally he concluded to make a song about his friend, the 
Squirrel, and when he was done he went over and sang it to the 
Squirrel. The latter at first was not very much pleased and said: 
"Why you have song-tied me, you have made a song about me." 
"Yes," the Chipmunk said, "I did not know what to sing, and[^as 
we always go and eat peaches together and have such a good time 
there and then lie down on the rock together, I thought I would 
compose a song about that. " This satisfied the Squirrel. They then 
practiced the song together, which was as follows : 

Lakana, lakana! 
Squirrel, squirrel! 
Oyu nalaa, 
Satisfied alone. 
Oatu owaka 
(The) rock on top 
Pushickatcii — 
Lying stretched out ; 
Hinahina, hinahina. 

' Told by Qoydwainia (Oraibi) . 

2 22 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

You have spoken correctly, the Squirrel said, "we are living in 
plenty." Hereupon they went to the peach orchard again to eat 
peaches but found the old man in the orchard, so they waited a little 
while until he had done his work and had gone to sleep under one of 
the trees. They then carried a great many peaches as usual, to the 
place on the rock where they generally feasted, and after they had 
filled themselves they had a little dance, singing their song. They 
stood on their hind legs holding their front paws upward. The old 
man awoke from the noise of the singing, and when he saw them he 
at once knew that they were the culprits who destroyed and carried 
away his peaches, so he ran towards them, saying: "Aha, why are 
you making noise? I have found you. You are naughty and I am 
going to kill you, ' ' and saying this he tried to climb the rock upon 
which they were. They jumped down, however, and both rushed 
into the house of the Squirrel at the foot of the rock. The old man 
followed them and when he saw where they had gone, he waited. 
The two were very happy and laughed at their pursuer. The Chip- 
munk looked up and said: "Aha, there he is watching us. I am go- 
ing to get out, pass him, and run to my house. He cannot catch 
me." "All right," the Squirrel said, "try it." So the Chipmunk 
rushed out. The man ran after it furiously, trying to kill it, and had 
almost overtaken it when the Chipmunk had reached its house and 
rushed into it. 

After that the two did not fear the old man and continued to live 
off his peach orchard, being careful, however, that he did not catch 
them. And so ever since the Squirrel and Chipmunk are not very 
much afraid of the Hopi and destroy and eat their peaches. Had the 
old man at that time killed the two, such would not be the case now. 


Aliksai! In Shupaulavi, north of the village, is a bluff where 
there is a place called C6oyoko House (C6oyok-ki). Here the Cooyo- 
ko lived. One time a Fox, who was very handsome, came along, 
and the Cooyoko Uncle (Tahaam) was sitting on the edge of the bluff 
when the Fox came along. The sun had not yet risen, and the Cooyoko 
was sitting and waiting to watch the sunrise. "Come here," he said 
to the Fox, "come to me here." "All right," the Fox said, and 
came. "Sit down, sit down with me," the Cooyoko said, which the 
Fox did. "Now," the C6oyoko continued, "let us have a contest 
and see upon whose song the sun will rise. The one that loses shall 

1 Told by Sikdletstiwa (Shupalilavi). * 

.March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 223 

be killed with this knife here," which the Cooyoko had. "O my!" 
the Fox said. "Yes," the Cooyoko said, "let us have a contest." 
"All right," the Fox said, "be it so. You sing first." So the 
Cooyoko sang the following little song: 

To — ishkakolitai to — r ishkakolitai 

Aaaha, iiihi — ' 

and then said to the Fox: "Now, you sing, too," whereupon the Fox 
sang the following song: 
Ishka! Ishka! 

Hereupon the C6oyoko repeated his song. The sun by this time 
was just about to loom up. "Now you sing again," he said to the 
Fox, whereupon the latter repeated his song, and when he was sing- 
ing, the sun loomed upon the horizon. So he had won the contest. 
"Alas!" the Cdoyoko said, "well now, I have wanted it this way and 
you have beaten me. Be it so then. " The knife was lying by their 
side, so the Fox took it, approached the C6oyoko, and cut the latter 's 
throat. And so the latter died over a bet. 


A long time ago the Little Gray Mice (Povdyamu; lived at Tum- 
ble Down Bluflf (Tukwishahpukpu), south-east of the village, and the 
Little Brown Mice (Pavavumshamu) lived at Chir6ve, west of the 
village, far down the mesa. The two kinds of mice were on friendly 
terms at that time. During the night they would come to the vil- 
lage and whenever one would find hidden away in jars or packed 
away in the rooms, com, etc., it would invite the others and then 
they would come and carry away the food to their holes. This they 
did a long time. The two kinds of mice would often visit each other 
and dance together. They would usually sing the following song, 
both parties it seems generally using the same words: 

Talawyayna talawyaynaaa 
It begins to dawn, it begins to dawn. 
Ahaha, ihihi. Talawyayna, talawyaynana, 
Yaoohoo, oohia, ahaha ihihi. 

One time one of the Gray Mice had found something very good to 
eat, perhaps peaches, and ran over to the Brown Mice, saying: "I 
have found some good food and I have already made a hole in the 
cover so that we can get at it. " Hereupon they all came from both 

* The words in both of the songs are obsolete and no longer understood. 
' Told by Qoyiwaima (Oralbi). 

2 24 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

places, but when they were carrying their food away to their houses 
they commenced to quarrel over it and had a great fight. Many 
were bitten, although none were killed. After a few days the Gray 
Mice went over to the Brown Mice again, entered their kiva and 
danced. They changed their song somewhat, however, singing as 
follows : 

Talawyayna, talawyayna. 

It begins to dawn, it begins to dawn. 

Ahaha ihihi, 

Talawyayna, talawyayna, ahaha, ihihi, 

Yaoohoo oohio. 

Pas nu pawupshat wupashurut 

Very I (of) big mice, long tails 

Mamkashi, (afraid). Pi nuu, pi nuu! O! I! O! I! 

Yaoohoo oohia 

Pas nu yan toonumkat mamkashi 

Very I thus whistlers afraid (of) 

Pi! nuu! pi, nuu! Pu yaami! Pu yaami. 

0! I! O! I! Now off! now off ! 

When they were through singing they rushed out of the kiva 
back to their home. The Brown Mice laughed at them, saying: "Aha, 
they are afraid of us." The two kinds of mice have never been on 
good terms since, and from that time they began to scatter out 
through the fields and through the houses, and that is the reason 
why they now may be found everywhere. 


A long time ago a Badger lived north of the village of Orafbi. He 
was a doctor and the people used to go to him seeking aid and cure 
for their various ailments. The place where he lived was called Bad- 
ger Burrow (Honan Yaha) ; the Small Gray Mice (Tucanhomihtci) , 
or rather many of them, lived west of Orafbi at a place called Big 
Hill (Wopdchmo). 

One time the Hopi were on a hunt west of this place, where those 
Mice lived, and as ill luck would have it, one of the hunters hit another 
one with his boomerang and broke his leg. Nobody seemed to take 
interest enough in the unfortunate man to care for him, so he tried 
to get home the best he could. Seeing a light at the aforesaid Big 
Hill, he made for that place and found an underground room similar 
to the Hopi kfvas. In it he observed a number of small people like 

1 Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi). 

March,, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 225 

children. They at once noticed him, saying: "Somebody is looking 
in here," and invited him to come down. "How can I come in?" 
he said. "What is the matter with you?" they asked, to which he 
replied: "My thigh bone is broken." So one of the small men went 
up the ladder and carried the lame man down, placing him on the 
floor north of the fireplace. Two rabbits, which the man had killed 
and brought with him from the hunt, he left outside. The people 
pitied the poor man and said: "So this has happened to you." 
"Yes," he answered, "could not one of you hunt me up a doctor?" 
Whereupon one of the small men whispered to another one: "Let's 
repair the leg for him." "All right," he answered, who was a chief. 
Hereupon a door was opened on the north side of the kiva which led 
into another room, and all the small people, who seemed to be chil- 
dren, were sent into that small room. One of the men, who took 
care of the fire at the fireplace, remained with the sick man. The 
one who remained, presently called out: "Now come in here," where- 
upon a very great number of the Mice entered the room, crowded 
around the patient, covering him completely, and commencing to 
rub him all over the body and otherwise worked on and about him, 
and in that way plied their art as doctors upon the patient that had 
so unexpectedly dropped in upon them. All at once they all ran 
away, entered another room again, and the man found that his leg 
had been made well. He was very happy and leaving the two rabbits 
as a remuneration, he went home to the village. The people knowing 
that his leg had been broken the previous day, were surprised to see 
him well and inquired who had cured him. He told them. 

The Badger, who lived north of the village, heard about it and 
became very jealous and angry about the matter. The man whose 
leg had been healed by the Mice said to the people, that the "Old 
Man Badger" was somewhat behind. It had been those Mice who 
had cured him and what was more, they had not asked for any pay, 
whereas, the Old Man Badger always asked something for his ser- 
vices, meat, cactus bulbs, etc., and he advised people who ever had 
any ailments, to go to these Mice physicians that lived west of the 
village, and had cured him. The Old Man Badger did a great 
deal of thinking over the matter and was angry. Finally he con- 
cluded that he was going to test the knowledge of the Mice doctors. 
" I am going to feign sickness and shall call them over, and if they can 
tell me my ailment, I shall believe in them. " So he feigned sickness; 
placed some pelts and blankets on the floor and a bowl by his side, 
and laid down. In order to make it appear that he was very 
sick he took a little nourishment in the morning only and kept 

226 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

expectorating into' the bowl. This he did for three days;'at the end 
of which he looked very tired and exhausted. So he called some one 
who was passing by and said to him: "You go over there to those Mice 
doctors and fetch them here, because I am very sick. " vSo this man 
went over and told them that that poor Old Man Badger was very 
sick and seemed to be dying, and that they should have pity on him 
and come over there the next day. Having delivered this message 
to them, he returned to his home. They were willing, and their 
chief taking the lead, they went to the mesa, passed by the village 
on the north side, along the edge of the mesa, to the dwelling of the 
Badger. This dwelling consisted of a kiva like the Hopi kivas of 
to-day. The Badger was still angry and had hidden a stick under 
his bed. The mice, however, had brought no medicines with them. 
Arriving at the kiva, the chief went down the ladder first, passing by 
the east side of the fireplace to the bed of the patient. He was fol- 
lowed by his companions, of whom there were many, who also crowded 
around the bed of the sick doctor. The latter was groaning very 
much, acting as if he was about to die. The chief of the Mice doctors 
then began to sing the following song in which he was accompanied 
by all the others : 

Cowiskwi naiukwiwiwaa ! 

Rabbit meat cook for us ! 
To which the Badger replied in a faint voice : 

Ham pai pi pam himuu shulawu. 

Oh why this something all gone. 

The Mice kept slowly moving on in a circle and soon commenced to sing 

Aahai! aahai! Ayam hapiii, 

Honanyahay epee 

At the Badger burrow over there. 


The Badger Old Man 

Tucun Homihtcit 

The Tucan Homcihtci 

Aotuhik unangwyat 

A doctor to be believed 


Because he heard 

Naloshwat aknachangkwainitaa Hahahaha 

Four times he fasted 

Hainawa Hainawa 1 ,, 

TT . TT • r No meaning. 

Hainawa Hainawa J 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 227 

Free rendering: 

At the Badger burrow the Badger 
Old man heard that the Tusan 
Homihtsi believed himself to be a 
Doctor and hence fasted four days. 

The Mouse doctor sang this in order to let the Badger know that he 
had at once detected the fraud. Being through with the singing, he 
told the Badger that nothing was the matter with him; as soon as he 
would eat something he would get well. 

While they were singing they had kept slowly going around the 
bed of the sick doctor and when they were through with their singing 
they had reached the ladder. The leader, after having given the Badger 
his opinion as mentioned above, at once ascended the ladder, being 
followed by all the others. The Badger was very angry by this time, 
and grabbing the stick which he had hidden under his bed, he began 
to strike at some of the Mice, but as he had fasted so long, and the 
Mice jumped around in the kiva and up the ladder very fast, he failed 
to hit any of them. He tried to follow them, but failed to catch and 
kill any of them for the same reason. But some of the younger Mice 
could not keep up with the older ones while they were running to 
their home, being chased by the Badger, so they scattered out, and 
not being able to find their way home, they dug holes for themselves, 
and that is the reason why these mice, "H6mihtsi," are now living 
all over the country. The Badger is the cause of this scattering of 
these Mice. 

But these new settlers had nothing to eat, so they went to hunt 
food, and wherever they came upon some seed or plant they would 
appropriate them, and to this day, wherever the Hopi plant some- 
thing, these Mice will come and eat it. If that Old Man Badger had 
not scattered them at that time they would not be all over the country 
now, but would still be living at the one place west of the village, where 
they had their home at that time. But, on the other hand, if any 
Hopi works in his field or travels anywhere, or is away from" his village 
for any purpose, and if he becomes sick, or gets hurt, these Mice in an 
unseen secret way take care of him so that he does not die; but 
they do not come to the village to take care of any sick. 

228 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Long ago the Badger and the Small Gray Mice (Tuc^n homihtci) 
were Hopi, but they were very bad and hence became these two 
animals. They were both doctors. The Badger doctor cured people 
mostly by herbs, of which he made decoctions and lotions, etc. The 
Mice effected their cures by singing, rattling, rubbing, and by kneading 
the bodies, scraping the skins, and by other means of sorcery. 
These two were rivals, and the Badger doubted whether his rival, the 
Mouse, really knew anything about diseases and medicine, so he 
decided to try him. One time he fasted for four days and four nights, 
and when he had become very weak he sent for his rival, the Mouse. 
The latter brought with him a rattle, a buckskin, in which he had 
some medicines wrapped up, and also a small medicine bowl. In the 
latter he made a mixture containing different medicines. This he 
placed beside the couch where the Old Man Badger was lying and 
then sang the following song, accompanying it with his rattle : 

Hininiya, hininiya! 

Uma wurz, Tusan-Homihtci, 

You, of course, a small gray mouse, 

Honan Wunhtakat 

Badger Old Man, 

Tucan-Homihtci tuhikunagwyat 

The Tucan Mouse a medicine man heart 

Aaahiin nawotniqo. 

(That) something (in order) to find out, 

Naloshtalat aonachoongkwainiita. 

Four days (you) fasted. 

Aayoooo, ayoayo. 

Aayoooo, ayoayo, ayayo. 

After he was through singing he told his rival, the Old Man 
Badger, that he should eat well and then he would get well, and then 
laughingly left. The Old Man Badger was astonished and said to 
hir^self: "I did not know that he could look inside of me. He is 
certainly a great doctor." Hereupon he ordered something to eat 
and got well. 

1 Told by Lomdvantiwa (Shupaiilavi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 229 


A long time ago a little Mouse (H6mihtci) lived south of the 
village of Oraibi at Scent Hill (Hovakapchomo), because a certain 
herb called hovd,kpi' — that which has an odor — was growing there 
in great abundance. Near by, on top of the rocks south of Oraibi, 
lived a big Owl that seemed to be determined to kill the little Mouse. 
The Owl would frequently be flying around the hole of the Mouse, 
sometimes when the latter was outside darting towards it, so that the 
Mouse often had a narrow escape from death. The latter made 
various plans to protect itself. Finally it went to get a number of 
sticks from a weed called Tave.' These the Mouse pointed at the 
end and placed in the ground all around the hole, so that the points 
were protruding from the earth. One night the Owl again swiftly 
flew down towards the hole trying to catch the little Mouse, which 
was running about between the stakes. One of the sticks pierced 
the Owl's breast and killed it. The Mouse at once went to work and 
pulled out all the Owl's feathers and carried them into its hole, tying 
some of them into little bunches. "But what shall I do with all 
these feathers?" it asked itself. "I am going to get my neighbors 
together and arrange a dance." 

So after dark the Mouse went out and called out: "You, my neigh- 
bors who live here, come here to my house quickly." So a great 
many Mice at once assembled in the house of the one who had invited 
them and asked: "Why do you want us here?" "Yes," the Mouse 
answered, "I have killed this Owl here and do not know what to do 
with all the feathers, so I thought we would have a dance and dress 
up in these feathers, and that is the reason why I called you in." 
Hereupon it distributed all the feathers and all made little bunches 
of them and tied them on their heads. They concluded that early 
in the morning they would have a dance, and one they requested to 
make a song (ydwaata). The following song was soon prepared, and 
then all practiced it so that they might be acquainted with it in the 
dance : 

Tuhuckan chohona, tuhuckan chohona; 

Dancing busily, dancing busily; 


To be busy again. 

Aha ! ahahaha ! 

• Told by OoyAwaima (Oraibi) . 

' Artemisia filifolia Torrey. 

' Sarcobatus vermiculatus Torrey. 

230 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

The meaning is that they dance in order to bring about an oppor- 
tunity to get at some seeds and kernels again. 

By this time it was morning and a number of them were sent 
after some more sticks, which were again pointed and thrust into the 
ground in the same manner as the first sticks had been put in, only 
somewhat farther away from the house (hole) of the Mouse. This 
was done for protection in case any more Owls should be around 
while they were dancing. They then tied the larger feathers of the 
dead Owl in a large bunch and set it in the center of the inclosure. 
This was to serve to them as a tiponi, around which they were 
going to perform their dance. They then got ready for the dance. 
Though they were only small they had large bunches of feathers 
(nakwas) on their heads. The leader held a little bow with some tiny 

The daiice that they were performing was an imitation of the dance 
of the Mdmchitu Fraternity. They were very careful to keep within 
the limits of the sticks that they had put in last. While this dance 
was going on, a large Hawk was sitting on a rock south of Oraibi. 
"Aha," he said, "there is something going on somewhere. The Mice 
are enjoying themselves." He at once swooped down on them, ig- 
noring the pointed sticks, as he was very strong, and killed a great 
number of Mice, taking one in each talon. These he carried to Ish- 
movala, a rock west of Oraibi, on the top of which he devoured them. 

Those that had not been killed rushed awav into their houses. 


A long time ago the people lived in Oraibi and in Shong6pavi. 
A little distance north-east of Oraibi, at a place called Sparrow-Hawk- 
Catching-Place (KalAtipka), lived a little Sparrow-Hawk. Farther 
down in the rock lived a large Hdkwa.^ The Sparrow-Hawk cauglt 
many lizards^ for its brood, but would never attempt to catch tlie 
HAkwa, so that the latter began to think the Sparrow-Hawk was 
afraid of it, and remarked on it. "Why is that little Sparrow-Hawk 
afraid of me?" he asked. "I am so fat, and I am sure the Sparrow- 
Hawk is very anxious to have me, but he is afraid of me." These 
thoughts the HAkwa soon put into a song and teased the little Sparrow- 
Hawk by singing the following song, dashing into a large crack 
in the rock as soon as it had sung the last word of the song : 

' Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi) . 

2 A species of lizard of a dirty color. 

^ Ktikutsa, a smaller kind than the Hftkwa. and green, 

March, 1905. The Tr.\ditions of the Hopi — Voth. . 231 

I Kalavocnayu, My kidney, 

Ani wihu qoyiotaka, (Having) on fat very much, 

Hav alihi alihi ) ^, . , 

-, ' ,., . ,., . ; No special meaning. 

Haay alihi alihi, ^ ^ . 

Ahao hanaki ' Aha! covets (them). 

This somewhat irritated the Sparrow-Hawk, who warned the 
HJlkwa in the following words: "Why are you talking there; I am 
not afraid of you; I could kill you if I wanted to do so, but I do not 
want you, you are dirty." Soon the Hakwa came out and sang the 
same song again. The Sparrow-Hawk became more angry and re- 
peated its warning. The little bird then began to make plans to 
kill the HAkwa, but did not know just how to go about it, but when 
the latter had sung the song four times the Sparrow-Hawk was very 
angry and was determined to kill the HAkwa. 

By this time the young Sparrow-Hawks in the nest had become 
large enough to be able to fly, so the mother told them: "Let us kill 
that Hdkwa down there. He has made me very angry and says I 
am anxious to have him, and am afraid of him. Now, I want to kill 
him." Hereupon he instructed one of the young Hawks to follow 
him to the top of the rock. Here he placed the little Hawk on the 
same stone where he had always been sitting when the HAkwa. had 
angered him, and then flew away. 

The HAkwa again came out of the crack, and mistaking the young 
Sparrow-Hawk for the old one, he began in a taunting manner to sing 
his song. The Sparrow-Hawk had in the meanwhile made a large 
circuit, and just as the Hakwa was singing the word "Hanak" the 
Sparrow-Hawk swooped down on him saying: "What, are you singing 
again ! I am not afraid of you ; I am going to kill you now and then 
we are going to devour you." Hereupon he grabbed him with both 
talons and killed him, and took him home to his nest. He found that 
the Hdkwa was indeed very fat. Then he and his brood lived upon 
the H^kwa until the latter were large enough to leave the nest and 
take care of themselves. 


Haliksai! A long time ago a Sparrow-Hawk lived at Kaldtipka, 
somewhat northwest of Oraibi. The Sparrow-Hawk had some 
children, so every day the Sparrow-Hawk mother would go to hunt 
some food for her children. Close by were many grasshoppers. 

1 The last word is sunR with a quick rising inflection. 
* Told by Wikvaya (Oraibi). 

232 FiKLD Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

These the Sparrow-Hawk would capture and take them to her nest 
for her brood. At other times she would go and hunt some Praver 
Beetles (hohoyahtu). The mothers of the Beetles and of the Grass- 
hoppers were very unhappy. They saw that the 3^oung Sparrow- 
Hawks were growing fast but their children were disappearing. 

One morning the Grasshopper mother sneaked out of her house 
and looked up and saw the Sparrow-Hawk mother sitting again near 
her nest. The Sparrow-Hawk mother saw the Grasshopper and 
swooped down upon it and caught it. The Grasshopper mother began 
to moan in the following manner: 

Takakalatu Manakalatu 

(The) man Sparrow-Hawks, maiden Sparrow-Hawks, 

Itimui yukumanta 

My children have gotten. 

Oh! Oh! 

The Sparrow-Hawk then released the Grasshopper mother and re- 
turned to her nest. Soon some Hopi children came along and began 
to capture the little Grasshoppers. The Grasshopper mother, seeing 
it, told them they should not take them, but they should go and catch 
the young Sparrow-Hawks and take them along. So they went to 
the house of the Sparrow-Hawk and took the young Sparrow-Hawks 
and took them along to the village. 


Aliksai! At Macdhtoika the Crow was living. She had three 
children. South of Munaovi lived the Hawk. 'He had four children. 
They were always hunting some food for their children, the Hawk 
hunting rabbits, little squirrels, etc., while the Crow hunted lizards, 
snakes, mice, etc. One time as they both were hunting some food for 
their children, they met in the valle}^ east of Oraibi. "Come here," 
the Crow said. "Very well," the Hawk replied. " What do you want 
with me?" "What do you think?" the Crow said, "we want to be 
friends, and that is the reason I have called you." "Very well," the 
Hawk replied. "You come and visit me to-morrow," the Crow said, 
"and I shall prepare something good to eat for you." 

Hereupon they parted and continued their hunt. In the evening 
they both arrived at their homes. The Hawk brought for his children 
a rabbit, which he cut up for them and fed them. They enjoyed the 
prey and then slept well all night. The Hawk was thinking about the 
visit that he was to make at his friend's house the next day, and he 

I Told by Kwdyeshva (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi ■ — \'oth. 233 

was thinking about the good food that the Crow had promised to pre- 
pare. Early in the morning, before he had eaten, the Hawk went over 
to his friend. The latter was cooking some food already, and when 
it was done he placed it before the Hawk. It was a loWokong, cut 
up into pieces. The lolAokong had been very fat so that it was very 
fatty food, but the Hawk did not relish it. It smelled very strong. 
So he only pretended to eat, reaching his hand towards the vessel and 
back to his mouth without taking any food. After he had done that 
for a while he said to his friend that he was satisfied, as he had eaten 
much, but he spoke a falsehood. 

After they had eaten they conversed together a long time, talking 
especially about their hunting. The Crow had a great many lizards, 
snakes, grasshoppers, and beetles in her house, which filled the house 
with odor. The Hawk, not being used to this odor, did not enjoy 
his stay there at all, because it smelled so strongly. ■" Towards evening 
he returned to his house, first inviting his friend, the Crow, to come 
and visit him the next day, and promising that he would also prepare 
some good food for her. In the evening, when the rabbits are out, he 
hunted some rabbits and brought them to his children, who were very 
happy over them. After they had eaten them, they slept. The Crow 
was thinking during the night about her visit at her friend's house, 
and about the good food that she was promised. Early in the morn- 
ing, without having partaken of any food, she proceeded to her 
friend's house. 

The Hawk, remembering the food that he had received at the 
Crow's house, and which he had not relished, only cooked the skins 
and intestines of the rabbits, preparing a food of these for his friend. 
When the latter arrived she asked: "Is somebody at home?" "Yes," 
the Hawk replied, "come in. Sit down." Hereupon he set the food 
which he had prepared before the Crow, and as the Crow likes almost 
anything, she relished the food very much. The Hawk had thought 
she would not eat any of the food, but she ate heartily of it. They 
talked all day together, and then in the evening the Crow returned 
to her house and she is still living there, hatching her young, while 
the Hawk is still living at the same place, where he also hatches his 

234 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Haliksai! A long time ago, when people lived in all the seven Hopi 
villages, and also at Sikydtki, Red Eagle and his wife lived on the 
bluff running westward, north of Sikyatki. He had four children. 
He lived on a small steep bluff called Kw^katpe. One time, early in 
the morning, they had a dance and sang the following song: 

Pu turzh huvam, umuh totim! 
Now then come here, your youths! 
Kuywaman ayalalwaahahay. 
(To) behold send them! 
Ura conwayningwu 
Why pretty 

Kwakatpe palakwayo titooya 
At Kwakatpe (the) Red Eagle hatches children. 
Ura vungve tutunglainingwu. 
Why when grown up (they) are, ask for them. 
Haooo talti ! talti ! 
Ah, it has dawned! It has dawned! 
Haooo, talti! talti! 
Ah, it has dawned! It has dawned! 

Kwa — ! (Here they all flew upward a little way and 
alighted again). 

One of the men from Sikyatki heard them singing and saw them 
dance and told his people about it. They soon afterwards went and 
captured the small Eagles, and forever afterwards they used to get 
young eagles there, the feathers of which they used for their prayer- 
offerings, masks, etc. 


Over yonder at Owl Gulch (Mongwupcovo) lived a large Owl with 
her children, and north of there at a bluff lived a Red Eagle (Pald- 
kwyaho), who also had children. The two were great friends. The 
Eagle always hunted during the day. He often told his friend to go 
with him on a hunt, but as his friend, the Owl, could not go during 
the day, they never hunted together. One time the Eagle visited his 
friend and found the latter sound asleep during the day. He sat 
down and waited. Finally he scratched the Owl a little with his 

' Told by Puhunomtiwa (Oraibi). 
1 Told by Kwdyeshva (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 235 

talons, but the Owl did not notice it. He then took hold of his eye- 
brows and lifted his eyelids, but the Owl did not notice anything. 
He then took hold of the whiskers of the Owl and pulled out a few 
hairs, whereupon the Owl got awake, saying, "Ishana! Why do you 
do that way to me?" "We wanted to go hunting," the Eagle re- 
plied, "and now you are sleeping. You get up and we shall go 

The Owl was willing and so the two went out. The Eagle took 
hold of the Owl so that the latter should not go to sleep again. 
They went into the valley east of Oraibi to hunt. Here they found 
a party of Oraibi who were also hunting, and who were following a 
rabbit. The Eagle, seeing the rabbit, swooped down on it and carried 
it to the top of the bluflf close by. The Oraibi, seeing it, very were 
angry. The Eagle then returned and hunted for his friend, the Owl, 
and after searching for him for some time found him sitting at the 
edge of a steep bank of the wash, sleeping. He said to the Owl, 
"Why are you sleeping here again; they will certainly kill you." But 
the Owl did not hear anything. 

Then two Oraibi boys from the hunting party came near and one 
said to the other, "Listen! somebody is talking to some one here;" 
whereupon they saw an Eagle flying up and an Owl sitting at the rim 
of the bank, sleeping. The boys had bows and arrows and one of 
them put an arrow on his bow, aimed, and shot the Owl through the 
head, so that the bird tumbled down into the wash. The Eagle, who 
was flying around above them, was angry and said, "There he was 
sleeping, and now this happened to him." The two boys carried the 
Owl home, the other hunters also going home, and the Eagle then 
lived in his house all alone. 


Halfksai! At Potatulcaovi lived the Bee, and at M6ngwupcovi 
lived the Asya (a species of bird). They were both women and both 
had children. They were great friends with each other. The Asya 
one time was walking around in the peach orchard north of her house 
and was eating peaches, which she relished very much. One time 
she was visiting her friend, the Bee, and the latter fed her honey, of 
which she ate. After she was through eating they conversed together 
all day. In the evening the Asya returned to her house, inviting her 
friend, however, to come and visit her too in the morning, which the 
Bee promised to do. The next morning the Bee went over to her 

1 Told by Kw4yeshva (Oraibi). 

236 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

friend's house, but at that time the Bees had no wings. They walked 
like the hohoyawuu, so that she did not get there very quickly. 

The Asya was living in an opening in a rock, which the Bee entered. 
The Asya gave her a seat and told her to be seated, and then fed her 
peaches, which the Bee ate. "Do you like these peaches?" the Asya 
asked. "Yes," she said, "I always eat them. I like them very 
much; I live on them." "But," the Bee said, "what do you think, 
shall I make some medicine for the peaches? They are not good," 
because the peaches at that time were not sweet as they are now ; they 
were sour. "Very well," the Asya replied, "make some medicine 
then, and I shall have something that tastes well." Hereupon the 
Bee put some honey on the peaches, and ever since the peaches are 
sweet and taste better. The Asya was very happy and said to the 
Bee, "I am glad, and I shall give you something too, because you have 
made my peaches better." 

Hereupon she pulled out some of her feathers, made some wings, 
and attached them to the Bee, saying to her, "Now fly." But the 
Bee said, "I do not know how it is done." "You just extend your 
front legs." The Bee did so and moved them, whereupon she could 
fly, and flew away. Ever since that time the bees can fly. 


At our village the people were living. At the place where now 
Shokhungioma and his wife,Sing6si, are living somebody lived and had 
a daughter whose name was Awat Mcana. The father had a field 
west of the village in the valley and often watched that field. He 
became tired of watching the field alone, and so one time he said to 
his daughter she should relieve him once; he would go down early 
and then after breakfast she should come down and take his place. 
So after breakfast she went down and took her father's place and the 
latter returned to the village. She was sitting in the kisi (a temporary 
booth or bower to give shade) ; all at once she heard some singing at 
a distance in the hollow, but she did not go there. In the evening 
she went home. The father thanked her that she had assisted him. 
"Yes," she said," to-morrow I am going down again when it is very 
early." The father asked her whether their com had already roasting 
ears. She said yes, she had gone through the com and had found 
that the roasting ears were beginning to come out already. 

Her father had seen what the girl had believed to be singing 
children. They were Grasshoppers. So in the morning she went to 

1 Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi • — Voth. 237 

the field early and stayed there during the day. When the sun was 
well up it became warm and then she heard the singing again. She 
thought she would see what it was, and going in a southerly direction 
she came upon a little wash, and away down in the wash in the shadow 
of the bank she saw many little beings engaged in a dance and in 
singing. When she saw them she stopped short, but the Grasshoppers 
also noticed her and said: "Somebody is standing there"; so they 
stopped their dancing. The maiden said, "Go on, dance some more," 
but they hesitated for a little while. She urged them to perform 
another dance, but they refused to do it. She finally said, "If you 
dance for me once more you can have one division of our corn-field 
and eat the com." They then were willing to dance, bending their 
front legs like arms, and swinging them lively back and forth, to 
which they sang the following song:* 

Yayaaaaa shaolololo, 
Yayaaaaa shaolololo, 
Yayaaaa shaolololo, 
Yayaaaa shaolololo, 
Halatoni halatoni, 
Halatoni halatoni, 
Yamoshkiki yamoshkiki, 
Ruk, ruk, ruk, ruk. 

When they were through they said: "Now, let us go," and then 
they began to emerge from the wash and it was found that they had 
wings, so they flew to the corn-field and began to devour the com. 
The maiden ran after them, and when she saw that they were eating 
away the com beyond the limit she had allowed them, she told them 
they should stop as her father would be angry. When she saw that 
they would not stop she began to cry and took her blanket and began 
to beat them. When she found that that would not do any good she 
left them and ran to the village, arriving there nearly at. noon, all in 
perspiration and nearly out of breath. Her father was just spinning 
cotton for a ceremonial robe (at66), for her. "Why did you come 
home?" her father asked. "Yes," she said, "something is eating our 
com," and then she told him all about it. "Ishohf!" he exclaimed, 
"they are certainly going to eat all of the com." He at once laid 

' The meaning of some of the words only is known. The first word is probably derived from 
"ydyalawa" (damage), referring [to the damage done by the Grasshoppers in the corn-field, 
"yam6shkiki" expresses such ideas as swarming, crowding each other; "ruk" is said to refer to 
the rubbing of the legs against the wings by the Grasshoppers. 

238 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

down his spindle and hurried to the field and found that the Grass- 
hoppers had eaten up all the corn. He then grabbed a stick and, 
knowing where he had seen the Grasshoppers before, and also seeing 
their tracks in the sand, he followed them. 

It seems that on returning they had not been flying, but walking. 
When he came upon them he found that they were resting and sleep- 
ing, as they had filled themselves so full with the com. He jumped 
into the wash saying: "Ishohi, you have eaten my com," and began 
pounding them with his stick. He killed a great many, but others 
escaped. He destroyed their houses there entirely, and that is the 
reason why now the grasshoppers do not all live at one place, but 
may be found almost anywhere. Hereupon he went home, being sad 
at heart. When he came home he chided his daughter saying: "Why 
did you tell them about our corn-field? They are bad." But he 
added: "I have only you alone, and I shall not be angry at you. That 
corn will sprout and grow again." 


In Orafbi they were living, and at the Hohoyaw village lived the 
Hohdyawtu (certain black Beetles) . It was always hot and the wind 
was blowing, and it did not rain. As these Beetles drink rain-water 
they became very thirsty. Some became so thirsty that they died. 
So their chief said one time : ' ' Let us have a dance and perhaps if we 
dance it will rain, because if it does not rain we shall all die!" "Very 
well, we shall have a dance," they said, "and maybe it will rain then, 
and we shall not die." So one evening they assembled to practice 
for the dance and their chief made a little song for them. This they 
were practicing. They practiced a while in the evening, and then 
they went to sleep. 

The next day they were going to have their dance. Early in the 
morning they got up and their chief made four nakwakwosis for them. 
He deposited the nakwakwosis west of their little village, and spoke 
to the clouds in the San Francisco mountains saying: "We are thirsty 
here, so you come quickly this way and bring us some water that we 
may drink and not die." So he returned to their village and they 
dressed up for the dance. They painted their bodies black, and 
then they danced. They were in a hurry because they were thirsty. 

Their chief began to pray to the clouds in the San Francisco 
Mountains. "Come this way quickly and bring us water." So they 
were formed in a line now and one of them acted as leader. By this 

* Told by Kwdyeshva (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 239 

time a cloud was forming in the mountains. They now sang the 
following song: 

Yoookwaa yoookwahayaha, Rain, rain. 

Ihi, aha, ihi. 

As they were singing, the clouds came nearer and it began to rain and 
thunder, and the water began to fall so that they could now drink. 
When they had quenched their thirst they were very happy and ran 
about because they were no longer thirsty. 


Ishyaoi! East of Tcookavii lived a great many Ants. Onetime 
the chief of the Ants said to them that they were going to have a 
Katcina initiation in four days. On the fourth day two of the Ants 
dressed themselves up as Hu Katcinas; one as Angwiishnacomtaka, 
just the same as is being done to-day when children are initiated into 
a Katcina society. They dressed up at Koritvi, a short distance 
north-west of the village. Some of the Ants also made a sand picture 
on the floor of the kiva; then the Ants began to bring their children 
that were to be initiated into the kiva. 

When the children had all been put in, the Katcina priest of the 
Ants related the story in the same manner as the Katcina priest now 
relates it at the Katcina initiation. Four little Koyemsis then had 
their performance. One of the Ants was in the meanwhile sitting on 
a rock outside, and when they were through in the kiva this Ant 
swung one fore-foot vigorously as a signal for the Katcinas to come. 
The Katcinas at once came running to the kiva, circled around the 
kiva several times, and then entered it, taking places opposite the 
sand picture. They then flogged the little Ant children. They 
flogged them so hard that they almost cut them through in the middle 
of their body. When they were through all the Katcinas left the 
kiva and ran away. And that is the reason why the ants are now so 
thin in the middle of their bodies, because they were almost cut in 
two on that occasion. 

100. lAvOvOlvipiki and nOnvOvOlpiki.' 

Haliksai! In Oraibi the people were living. A short distance 
south of the village is a rock called LAkokpi, because a long time ago 
the women here used to rub out the seeds from a certain grass called 

> Told by KwAyeshva (Ora{bi). 
2 Told by Loman6mtiwa (Oraibi). 

240 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

lahu. At this place lived, Ldvovolvipiki so called after a certain food 
that was prepared of the seed of this grass. The food consisted of 
small balls (p6v61piki), which were prepared of the meal of this seed. 
West of the mesa on which Oraibi is situated, and somewhat south- 
west of the old ruin of Chirove, used to be a place where a great deal 
of n6n6 (Sporobolos Wrightii) used to grow. At this place lived 
N6nv6v6lpiki, so called after certain little balls of food prepared of 
the meal of the n6n6 seed. These two were great friends. One time 
N6nv6v6lpiki visited his friend on the mesa. While they were con- 
versing the two concluded that they wanted to have a dance. West 
of the mesa, at Howakapchomo, lived the Mice maidens (Homitc- 
mamantu). Ldvovolvipiki was to fetch these maidens in order to 
get them to participate in the dance, while his friend was to go to 
the Kwan kiva to borrow a drum. 

Hereupon they started, the one to get the maidens, the other one 
to get the drum. They were going to perform a Paiute dance. When 
N6nv6v6lpiki came to the Kwan kiva and announced his presence he 
asked: "Are the Kwakwantus at home?" "Yes," some one replied 
from the kiva, "come in." Whereupon he entered. "Sit down at 
the fireplace!" whereupon the visitor seated himself. "I have come 
to borrow your drum," he said. "Very well," they replied ," take it 
along." When they had given him the drum he went to his friend 
at L^kokpi. "Is my friend in?" he asked. "Yes," the latter replied, 
"come in." So he beat the drum a little and went into the kiva. 
The Mice maidens were already assembled. So during the night they 
were all awake practicing their songs and dances. 

In the morning they gave to each mana an eagle feather which 
they tied to their heads as a nakwa, and each mana put a red dot on 
each cheek. They then went out and performed their dance. While 
they danced they sang the following song: 

Cay! cay! awatcahi — na. 
Cay! cay! awatcahi — na. 
Impu naroo tukava, 
Ao-ao-ao-ao iyahi — na. 

While they were dancing the P6okongs (Pookonghoya and Baloon- 
gawhoya) were hunting. They came to the place where these were 
dancing. "Ah, here are the little Mice," they said, whereupon each 
one of them shot and killed one of the Mice. Seeing the marks on 
their. cheeks they said, "Ah, they are spotted." Hereupon P6okong 
hoya saw the N6nv6v6lpiki and said, "Ah, here is a N6nv6v6lpiki. 
Oh (Alf)! r shall devour it," whereupon he devoured the N6nv6v6l- 

March, 1905. Tni: Traditioxs oi- the Hopi • — Voth. 241 

piki. His younger brother hereupon saw the Ldvovolvipiki and said, 
"Ah, and here is a Lavovolvipiki, I shall devour it," which he did. 
That ended the dance. 


A long time ago there lived some people north of Oraibi ciose to 
the north of the place where the Oraibi at present dry their peaches. 
They were called Yayaponchatu. There was only one village of them, 
probably only a small one. The villages of Pivanhonkapi, about 
four miles northwest of Oraibi, and Hdckovi, about two miles north- 
west of Oraibi, which have been in ruins long ago, were then, too, 
still inhabited. The people in PivanhonRapi seemed to have been very 
much degenerated. The village chief of that village was much worried 
over it, especially over the fact that the women of that village would 
even participate in the games of chance, especially that of tot61ocpi, in 
the kivas; even the chief's wife was no exception. It is stated that 
she would even neglect her children when she was gambling in the 
kivas. Sometimes he would say to her, in order to get her out of the 
kiva, that she should go and nurse their little child that was crying 
outside. The chief finally became concerned and angry over the 
condition of affairs to such a degree that he decided to adopt severe 
measures. So he went to the village of the Yayaponchatu, who were 
known to have special influence over and with storms and fire, and 
who, in fact, were looked upon as being in league with supernatural 
forces. "I have come to you," he said. "For what purpose?" they 
asked him. "My people," he said, "are dark hearted; they are bad. 
They will not listen to me. The women are gambling to such an 
extent that they are even neglecting their duties and their children. 
I want you to punish my people." They said that he should choose 
the element with which they were to exercise judgment, either the 
fire or the storm. He chose the fire and went home, telling them, 
however, that in four days they were going to have a dance in his 
village, and invited them to participate in the celebration. On his 
way home he stopped at the village of Htickovi, telling his friend, the 
chief of this village, to come and see him in the evening and to bring 
his friend, his assistant, whose name is not known, with him. When 
meeting in the evening, in the house of the chief of Pivanhonlcapi, the 
latter told his two friends all about the matter, also that in four days 
they were going to have a dance in his village and inviting them also 
to come and take part in the dance, which they promised to do. So 

• Told by Ooyiwaima (Oraibi). 

242 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

these three people were the only ones in possession of the secret. On 
the fourth day they had a series of dances. During the day the differ- 
ent kind of Katcina were dancing at each dance, and leaving the village 
when they had completed their performances. The Yayaponchatu 
people performed the last dance. They were masked like the Hohe 
Katcina of the present day, their bodies, however, being decorated 
like certain personages that appear at the Soyal ceremonies at present, 
taking from the kiva in which the ceremonies were performed certain 
prayer-ofiferings, which they deposited at a large spring west of the 
village. The Yayaponchatu were sprinkled with corn-meal the same 
as all the other Katcinas, whereupon they performed their dance, and 
while they were dancing they sang the following ominous song, 
alluding to the judgment that was to befall them: 

Ahaha, Ihihi 
Pai ntivupi yepee. 
Why, at last here 
Uni uh kiyu 
You your houses 
Palaomawuy akwa 
Red cloud with 
When enveloped 
Hakami yang 
Somewhere over there 
Pamoci conako 
The mist through 
N aiik wilmuy ionihiii 
Carrying one another 
Kiihkiihki nawitaha 
Villages along 
Ahaha, Ihihi. 

Some of the spectators, watching the dances from the house-tops, 
when they heard the song became somewhat alarmed and began to 
think and talk of the matter. Nobody, of course, fully understood the 
meaning of the song and of the presence of these strange neighbors. 
Four of these last named dancers carried certain prayer-ofiferings the 
same as are now being deposited during the Soyal ceremony by the 
aforesaid messengers. These prayer-ofiferings consisted of sacred meal 
piled up in small trays. Into these trays are placed a number of little 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 243 

husk packets, which are supposed to contain sacred meal mixed with 
honey. These littte packets are fastened to nakwakwosis. But the 
prayer-offerings carried by the four dancers on that occasion also had 
a little spark of fire over each one of these packets. At the conclusion 
of the dance one of these was handed to the village chief of Pivan- 
honlcapi, the other to the village chief of Hfickovi, the third to the 
latter's assistant and friend, and the fourth was retained by the leader 
of these last named dancers. 

Late in the evening the chief from Htickovi and his friend came to 
the chief of Pivanhonlcapi and all three smoked over the prayer- 
offerings which they had received from the Yayaponchatu. Then 
the chief from Htickovi sent his friend with one of them to the San 
Francisco Mountains, which are situated about ninety miles to the 
south-west, to deposit the same there among the trees and high grass. 
The other two the two chiefs kept, each one hiding his one away in 
some lower room in his house. Tradition does not mention what the 
chief of the Yayaponchatu did with his prayer-offering, beyond the 
fact that he took it home with him. This was during the night fol- 
lowing the dance. The next night the women and some of the men 
again assembled in the kivas to gamble. Some of the men, however, 
did not participate. They all at once noticed a light in the San 
Francisco Mountains and remarked about it, mentioning it also to 
those in the kiva. The latter ridiculed them, and took no notice of it. 
The next night the same thing was repeated, only the fire in the 
mountains appeared to be larger. Those who were outside of the 
kiva, looking on and watching the gambling, again mentioned the fact 
to the others, but the latter again showed themselves skeptical. 
During the da}' also they had observed smoke at the same place, 
without, however, taking special notice of it. During the third night 
the fire became larger, and those who noticed it became somewhat 
alarmed, but their remarks upon the fact again met deaf ears. On 
the following day the smoke arising from the San Francisco Mountains 
seemed to be threatening, and those few that were considered the 
better class of the people became alarmed. During the fourth night 
the people again continued their gambling and carousing, those out- 
side watching with great alarm the fire on the San Francisco Moun- 
tains, which now began to spread itself towards the Hopi villages. 
They told the people so and asked them to come out of the kiva and 
see for themselves. The latter again laughed at them saying: "You 
only want us to stop our playing. We do not believe what you say." 
At short intervals their attention was drawn to the approaching fire 
with more persistence and in more urgent language, but without avail. 

244 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Finally one of the players came out of the kiva to see for himself, 
and when he saw the air full of smoke and the fire rolling towards 
the villages, he cried out in despair to those in the kiva that the 
reports about the approaching disaster were only too true. When 
the latter also saw the smoke they rushed out of the kiva and to their 
houses, trying to gather some of their effects before fleeing. But the 
fire was now upon them and most of those who had procrastinated 
were either suffocated or burned to death. Only a very few escaped 
from the two villages. These, it is said, left that part of the country. 
They lived at certain places for a little while and then moved on. It 
is said that some of the small ruins in these parts of the country mark 
the sites of the temporary houses of these former inhabitants of 
PivanhonRapi and Htickovi. 

The village chief of Oraibi, when becoming aware of the approach- 
ing danger, became very much worried. "My children are dear to 
me," he said, "and I do not want to have them destroyed." So he 
quickly proceeded to the house of Spider Woman, which is situated 
south of the village, half-way down the mesa. She advised him to 
at once make two arrows, using on the shafts the feathers of the blue- 
bird and wurmawuu. This he did. When he was done he sent out 
a messenger with one arrow, instructing him to thrust it into the 
ground west of the village at the foot of the mesa. The other one he 
took to the shrine of Achamali, north of the village, where he thrust 
it into the ground in front of the shrine. Spider Woman then wove 
a network of web between the two arrows which she moistened with 
water. When the fire reached this protecting network of moist 
spider-web its force was broken and the village of Oraibi saved from 


Hali'ksai! A long time ago the people were living in Walpi, but 
not on top of the mesa. The village was then west of the mesa where 
there are now the ruins. The people at Sikyatki were also living. 
One time the Racer Katcinas from Sikyatki came over to Walpi to 
have a race. During the race one of the Walpi men cut off the hair 
knot of the H6msontaka Katcina, instead of cutting off just a small 
portion of the side lock, as is usually done. This made the Katcina 
very angry. He returned to Sikyatki and then for some time he 
practiced running. When he had become very strong he made up 
his mind that he was going to take revenge on the one who had cut 

' Told by Sikdhpiki (Shupaulavi). 

March, 1905. Tmi Traditions of the Hopi — Votii. 245 

his hair. One time the Walpi came over also to have a race at 
Sikyatki. The young man whose hair had been cut was still angry. 
He took a knife and then went up on the l)luff opposite Sikyatki, 
where he waited. 

When the dance was in progress he went down and entered the 
plaza. He wore the mask of the H6msontaka Katcina. Four 
clowns performed in connection with the Katcina dance. These saw 
him first and said: "Here a Katcina is coming." "Yes," he said, 
"we want to race." "Very well," they said. So he raced with them 
and caught every one of them, cutting a small portion of their side 
locks off. When they were through with the racing he kept looking 
through the crowd of people. Soon he detected on top of a house a 
maiden who had her hair whorls done up nicely. He recognized her 
as a sister of the one who had Cut his hair, and he was determined 
to take revenge on her. When the clowns noticed it they said: 
"There he has found a friend." 

Hereupon he dashed away and ran up the ladder to the top of 
the house where the maiden was standing with another maiden. 
The people dispersed as he came upon the roof. He rushed to the 
place where the two maidens were standing. They rushed down the 
ladder and entered a house. He followed them and grabbed the 
sister of his enemy, taking hold of her hair whorls and, jerking a 
knife from his belt, he cut off her head. He took hold of one of her 
hair whorls and rushed out, swinging the head where all the people 
could see it. Hereupon he ran away. The people followed him 
but could not overtake him. They rushed up the mesa and the 
dance broke up immediately. 

When the Katcina had reached the top of the mesa he turned 
back and again waved the head to his pursuers. They were very 
angry. He turned and went to the village again by another trail, 
still carrying the head in his hand. The people of the two villages 
quarreled severely, but the Walpi people withdrew to their village. 
There was, however, constant wrangling and fighting going on be- 
tween the two villages after that. The people of Sikyatki, it seems, 
were very wicked. They were especially wicked towards the women 
and maidens, and as they did not even spare the chief's wife, .he got 
very angry and was determined to take revenge upon his own people. 
He agreed with the chief of Walpi that when his people would be 
planting for the chief in the valley, the Walpi should come to the 
village and destroy it. So when the Walpi heard the announcement 
that the Sikyatki people were going to plant the fields of their chief 
they made ready. 

246 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

They went on top of the mesa and watched. Many of them had 
balls of pitch with them that they had procured from the woods. 
When the Sikyatki people were out in the fields they rushed upon the 
village where they found only some women and children. These 
they killed. They then rubbed the pitch on the walls of the houses 
and set the houses on fire, thus destroying the village. When the 
people who were planting saw the smoke rise from the village, they 
at once realized what had happened. They rushed to their village 
but had only their planting sticks with them. The Walpi, before set- 
ting fire to the houses, had secured the bows, arrows, and tomahawks 
so that they were well armed when they met the people of Sikyatki, 
and in a short time had killed them all, including the chief who had 
been the instigator of the revenge. Thus Sikyatki was destroyed and 
has ever since been in ruins. It came so suddenly that even now 
charred corn is constantly found in the ruins. 


Haliksai! A long time ago the people were living in Aoatovi. In 
Shongopavi, Mishongnovi, and Walpi they were then not yet living 
on top of the mesa, but at the places where there are now the ruins of 
those villages. In Oraibi they were living where the village now 
stands. The villages of Sichomovi and Hano were then not existing. 
They were erected when the Walpi moved on the mesa. The people 
at Aoatovi had a great many ponies so that the men hunted on ponies. 
They had strong hearts. When they were hunting they were full of 

Thus they were living there. They had not any cattle yet, but 
they lived on game and on sheep, of which they had some at that time 
at Aoativi. One time they were going on a hunting expedition again, 
but this time the maidens of the village participated in the hunt. 
They were, however, not on horseback as the young men were. At 
about noon they- had gone as far as they wanted to go, and returned. 
When they had found a rabbit it was placed on the ground and the 
maidens raced for it, and whoever won the race received the rabbit, 
which she handed to either her father or her brother who was present, 
who then tied it up and carried it home in the evening. 

The daughter of the village chief, a very pretty maiden, who had 
big hair whorls, was also among the hunters, and as the hunting 
party was returning in the afternoon one of the young men in chas- 
ing a rabbit on his pony, dashed over this maiden and killed her.. 

1 Told by Tangakhoyoma (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 247 

Her father, the village chief, became very angry. His heart became 
very bad about that, and he was thinking about it very deeply. 
The men at the village had been bad for some time and the chief 
determined that he would take revenge. He made up his mind that 
the village should be rased to the ground so that grass should grow 
there. This he was thinking in his heart while he was angry. 

The chase was broken up and the people went home mourning. 
The chief said that he was not angry, but he said that with his lips 
only, and in his heart he was angry and planned a punishment. One 
night when all were fast asleep he proceeded to Shongopavi and 
entered the village chief's house, because at that time the people did 
not lock their doors. The village chief was fast asleep, but the visi- 
tor touched his head and waked him up. The village chief of Shon- 
g6pavi arose and built a fire. They each took a seat opposite the 
fireplace. The chief of Aoatovi filled his pipe, which he had brought 
with him, with tobacco that he had also brought, lit the pipe, smoked, 
and handed it to his friend, the Shong6pavi chief, who also smoked. 
When the pipe was empty, the latter handed it back to the Aoatovi 
chief who cleaned it out and laid it down. "Now then, why have 
you come?" the Shongopavi chief asked. "You certainly go about 
in this way for some reason. " "Yes," the visitor replied, "there in 
my village my children (people) are bad. They have bad hearts. 
They will not listen to my talk, they will not do what I tell them to 
do, and when some time ago we had a hunt they rode over my daugh- 
ter and killed her. I have put her away but I am angry at that. 
Now then, my village shall be rased to the ground. It shall be turned 
to sand and grass shall grow there. " "So that is why you are going 
about here," said the Shong6pavi chief. "Yes, that is why I have 
come here. I am very angry and that is why I have come to you 
here. So you must instruct your strong men to practice their strength 
in running and racing so that they become strong. In four days I 
shall return again." Having said this he returned home. 

The people in the village had no suspicion of what was going on. 
The chief kept the matter strictly to himself. In the night of the 
fourth day he went again to Shongopavi. The chief of Shongopavi, 
expecting his friend, had retired for the night, but had not gone to 
sleep, so when he heard his friend come he got up and built a fire. 
They sat down again, smoked, and he again asked his visitor why he 
had come. "Yes," he said, "you remember what I told you and 
that I requested you to prepare your strong men. Are they willing?" 
"Yes," the Shong6pavi chief replied, "they are willing and are prac- 
ticing." "Very well," the other one said, "now on the third day 

248 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol VIII. 

from now you must dress up and get ready. They must get ready to 
have a Katcina race with my young men. Four of your men shall 
dress up as Katcinas. " Hereupon he returned to his village. 

The young men again practiced for three days and then they pre- 
pared for the Katcina race. Their mothers cooked ttihpavu (steamed 
sweet corn-ears), and the next morning four of the young men pro- 
ceeded to Aoatovi, taking the presents with them. One was dressed 
as H6msona,* the second as a Chilitoshmoktaka,^ the third as an 
Angwushngontaka,^ and the fourth as a SiEapku.^ When the Kat- 
cinas came to Aoatovi they entered the plaza, which was very much 
like the one in Shongopavi at the present day. In the center was a 
shrine. They laid down their sweet corn on the ground and waited. 
The Katcirra chief of the village cried out: "Now then, you young 
men come here. These Katcinas have come here to have a race with 
you. They have come to you. " The men of the village now crowded 
into the plaza and the race commenced. The presents which the 
Katcinas had brought were decreasing. Sometimes the Katcinas 
won the race, at other times the others won. When there was only 
one bunch of corn ears left, one of the Aodtovi young men placed it 
aside, saying, that he was going to win it. The H6msona Katcina 
challenged him to a race, so the two raced, but the Katcina remained 
way behind. When the young man who had outrun the Katcina 
by far, returned, the H6msona grabbed him by the hair, threw him 
down on his back, sat on his body, jerked out his knife, of which every 
H6msona Katcina carried one to cut the loser's hair, thrust the knife 
into his throat and cut it. Having done this the H6msona ran to- 
wards the other Katcinas where also the Katcina chief of the village 
was standing with his com meat and nakwakwosis, which he was to 
hang to the Katcinas prior to their departure. But the H6msona, as 
soon as he had arrived, motioned to "the other Katcinas to run, 
whereupon they left the village without waiting for the prayer-offer- 

When the people saw that the young man who had raced with 
the Katcina did not retufn they were suspicious that something had 
happened. "Oh!" they said, "that young man is not returning 
and here these Katcinas are running away. He probably has hurt 
that young man." Hereupon they rushed to the end of the village 
where the murder had occurred. Here they found that the young 

> The-One-With-The-Hair-Tied-Uu. 

■^ The-One-With-The-Ground-Spanish-Pepper-Wrapped-Up. 
" The-One-With-The-Crow-Feathers-Around-The-Neck. 
■• The-One-With-The-Yellow-Painted-Face. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 249 

man had been killed. "Why, he has been killed," they called back, 
"let us follow them and let us kill them." Hereupon the men and 
the youths of the village ran after their bows and arrows, thrust them 
behind their belts and rushed after the Katcinas.' Those who could 
get some ponies got them and followed the Katcinas on their ponies. 

The Katcinas had in the meanwhile descended the mesa and were 
running westward, one after the other, along the trail. When they 
were about south of Walpi they were beginning to become tired and 
ran somewhat slower. At a bluff called HuKdtwi, the H6msona fell 
somewhat behind. By this time those men of Aoatovi who were 
on horseback had overtaken them and at once surrounded the 
Hdmsona. They killed the Katcina, shooting him with their bows 
and arrows. Hereupon they followed the others, and at the foot of 
the incline they overtook the ChiHtoshmoktaka, whom they also 
surrounded and killed. There were now two left. In the valley 
south-east of Mishongnovi they overtook the Angwushngontaka, sur- 
rounded and killed him. There was only the Silcapku left now. 
When he had arrived at the wash he jerked off his mask, looked back 
and saw that his pursuers were not very far away. He discharmed 
himself by swinging the mask in front of himself four times. He then 
placed the mask on top of a brush, jumped into the wash and ran out 
of it on the other side. The two chiefs had arranged that those of 
the Katcinas who would go through the wash before the pursuers 
should overtake them should not be killed, but the Shong6pavi chief 
had agreed, that if they overtook any of his four Katcinas before 
they had crossed the wash, they might kill them, and the Aofitovi 
chief had instructed his people to that effect before they left the 
village to pursue the Katcinas. Hence, when the pursuers came 
upon the mask that was hanging on the brush, they said: "He has 
crossed the wash, we shall not follow him, but we shall return. " 
Hereupon they returned. 

When the Katcina arrived at Shong6pavi the chief said: "Thanks, 
that you have come back, that you have been left. I shall see you 
living here. Be it then that way, that the others have been killed. " 
Hereupon the chief of Aoatovi was thinking over this matter, and 
during the night he again went to Shong6pavi, just as the sorcerers 
(Pdpwaktu) always go about in the night. The Shong6pavi chief was 
expecting him and, while he had retired, he had not gone to sleep. He 
at once got up, built a fire, and again asked: "What have you come 
for?" "Yes," the Aodtovi chief replied, "I have forfeited my peo- 
ple. We have killed your Katcinas so I give you my people, I give 
you all my people. In four days you come and get my people. The 

250 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

women and the maidens you take, but the men and the old women 
you may kill." The Shongdpavi chief hung his head and meditated 
very seriously. Finally he raised his head and said: "No, I do not 
want that, I shall not do that. My Katcinas went over there to race 
and they killed one of your handsome young men. You followed 
them and you killed three of my Katcinas. We are even now. I 
shall not go and kill others, I shall not go and bring any one here to 
my village. No, I do not want that." The Ao^tovi chief then also 
hung his head and reflected. He finally said: "Very well. Oh! so 
you do not want to make me glad. You do not want my people. 
I want my village to be rased to the ground, but you will not. Very 
well, then, be it that way. " Hereupon he got up and left, returning 
to his village. 

When he arrived there he again thought over the matter. In 
the night he went to Oraibi, entered the chief's house, shook him, 
and awoke him. The chief got up, and built a fire. They smoked 
together, and then he related the same story to the Orafbi chief that 
he had told to the Shong6pavi chief. He added that he had re- 
quested the Shongdpavi chief to destroy his people but he had refused 
to do so, and hence he had now come to him. "Now, what do you 
think about it?" he asked. "So that is why you are going about," 
the Ora£bi chief said, "so that is what you have planned. It is with 
you. If your children (people) are not dear to you, and if you really 
want your village destroyed, I shall be willing to assist you, and 
nothing shall then be done to my people. But if your children are 
dear to you, if you value them, and if your village is dear to you, I 
shall not want to do that because my people might then be destroyed 
also. So it remains with you to say about it. " " No, my people are 
not dear to me," the other chief replied, "I want my village to be 
destroyed and leveled to the ground so that grass shall grow there, 
and nothing shall happen to your people. That is the reason why 
I have come here and have told you this. " 

"Very well," the Oraibi chief said, "then I am willing to do it." 
"All right," the Aoatovi chief replied, "thanks, thanks, now I am 
happy that you are willing. Thank you! Here I have brought you 
these, my people," whereupon he produced two small clay figures, 
which he held in his hand, one representing the males, the other the 
females of his village. "You select one of these," he said, "whichever 
you select you shall have, and the others shall be left for the other 
villages." "Very well," the Oraibi chief said, and selected the 
figure representing the females. "Thank you, that you have brought 
these to me and that they are not dear to you. Thank you. " "Very 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 251 

well," the Aoatovi chief said, "these you shall have, and the others 
the other villages shall have. " When that was decided the Aoatovi 
chief said, "Now, for four days you must make bows and arrows and 
get ready, and you invite the people at the other villages, and then 
on the fifth day you must come and kill us." Hereupon he returned 
home to his village. 

The next day the Oraibi chief called his warrior chiefs and told 
them what the Aodtovi chief wanted of them, instructing them that 
he should tell his other people of the village to prepare their bows and 
arrows. This he did, and so the people made bows and arrows and 
shields during the four days. Three of his nephews he sent to Wdlpi, 
Mish6ngnovi, and Shong6pavi to tell those people about the request 
of the Aoatovi chief, and that they should get ready to partici- 
pate in the destruction of that village. Shupaulavi did not at that 
time exist. The chiefs of the different villages declared themselves 
willing to take part in the expedition, only the chief of Shong6pavi 
said to his people: " Now, this is the request that has been made upon 
us. Now, if any of you that are wicked and bad, want to take part 
in that, be it so, but I do not want that. I do not want to get their 
people to live with us here. They may spoil us. We want to live 
here alone. I do not want to take part in it. " 

So on the fourth day the Orafbi chief said that some of them 
should go to Walpi, invite them, and then proceed with them to- 
wards Aoatovi; some of them would go by way of Shong6pavi and 
Mish6ngnovi, and then meet the others near Aoatovi. Thus they 
parted in two parties. The party from Oraibi that went to Shong6- 
pavi entered the village and separated, the different clans looking 
up their clan relatives with whom they ate a meal. They then 
asked them to join them, saying that they should take part, and they 
wanted to go to Aoatovi because the chief there wanted them to 
destroy the village, and no one should remain behind. They all 
declared themselves willing to take part asking them where they 
were going first, and when the Orafbi told them that they were 
going to Mish6ngnovi yet, they said that they should just go on 
ahead, and in the meanwhile they would dress up and get ready and 
follow them. 

Hereupon the Oraibi proceeded to Mish6ngnovi where they again 
scattered into the different houses, inviting their clan relatives to 
join them. They were at once willing to do so, and taking their 
bows and arrows, and wrapping a blanket around them they were 
ready to start. The Oraibi kept looking towards Shongdpavi, but 
nobody came and they suspected that the Shongdpavi had deceived 

252 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology^ Vol. VIII. 

them. The party that had gone to Wdlpi direct had in the meanwhile 
arrived there and found the Wdlpi willing to join them. The two 
parties then met towards evening, south of Hulc^twi, where they con- 
versed together about the matter until the sun went down. They 
then moved towards Aoatovi where they arrived at the foot of the 
mesa when it had become quite dark. Here they again rested. 

While they were smoking here, the chief of Aoatovi and his wife 
came down to them, each one carrying a large bundle of pfki, which 
they gave to the people, and which the latter ate. After they had 
eaten, the Aoatovi chief said to them: "Thank you that so many of 
you have come. Thank you that you have done as I want it, and 
have come to destroy us here. You stay here during the night, and 
then when it begins to dawn you go up and hide under a bluff," 
which he pointed out to them, "and when the sun rises my son will 
sit on top of my house and then you must watch him. When he 
rises and goes down from my house the men will all have gone into 
their kivas and then you must rush upon the mesa and separate at 
the different kivas and kill the men there. The Oraibi chief shall 
then select those women and maidens that he wants to take along, 
and then the rest of the villages shall take those that they want." 
Hereupon the chief and his wife left and returned to the village. 

The raiders did as they had been told do to. The village chief, 
who was a powaka, had bewitched his son and probably others, so 
that while they knew about the plan of the chief they were in harmony 
with it and willing that the chief's wish should be carried out. For 
that reason also, almost all the men assembled in the kivas. Those 
who suspected something were so much under the wicked influence 
and charm of the chief that they were drawn into the impending 
danger. When the chief's son had given the raiders the signal agreed 
upon, the latter rushed into the village, surrounded the kivas, pulled 
up the ladders, and threw the many bundles of fire-wood that were 
lying at the different kivas, into the kivas. When the men in the 
kivas looked up they saw arrows pointed and shot at them, but as 
they had no weapons with them they were helpless. Some of the 
men rushed into the houses where they found much Spanish pepper, 
of which the Aoatovi people, who had plenty of water, raised a great 
deal. The men then threw firebrands into the kivas, and when the 
wood and the roofs of the kivas were set on fire they threw the pepper 
into the fire, the smoke of which caused the men to cough vehe- 
mently and many of them smothered to death. 

While this was going on the people of Mishongnovi and W^lpi 
rushed into the houses and took all the younger women and maidens, 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 253 

and the children that they wanted to take, and moved off with them, 
not waiting for the Oraibi who were to have the first opportunity 
to select their prisoners. So the Oraibi only got a very few. The 
older women were killed. The chief of Aoatovi and his son were 
both destroyed with the others in the kivas. The village was not 
destroyed, but as soon as the raiders had taken such prisoners as 
they wanted to take and had killed the others and probably took 
some of the spoils of the houses, they returned. At a place between 
Walpi and Mishongnovi called Skeleton Mound (Maschomo), they 
halted. The Oraibi now showed their dissatisfaction and said to 
the others: "This is not the way the chief told us that it should be. 
We should select our prisoners first. You have taken what belonged 
to us. This here was to be ours; that there was to be ours; and this 
was to be ours; and you have taken them. Now you give to us what 
belongs to us, as the chief of Aoatovi told us." Thus they spoke to 

But the Mishongnovi and Walpi refused to give up the women 
and maidens. "We have captured them, we have taken them," 
they said, "and by that they became ours. We shall not give them 
to you." Hereupon the Oraibi chief said: "Very well, then these 
are mine. They were given to me," and hereupon he called upon 
his people to take them." "Let us kill them," he said, "and then 
they will belong to nobody, and there will be no wrangle about them. " 
Hereupon the Oraibi grabbed a great many of them, whereupon the 
women and maidens who were thus taken cried and begged to be 
allowed to go along. "Do not kill us," they implored them, "we 
shall go with you." Many of the younger and prettier ones about 
whom the quarrel had taken place were killed. Some, however, 
pitied their victims and these as well as others about whom there was 
no contention were taken to the different villages. That is the rea- 
son why in Oraibi, Mish6ngnovi, and Walpi so many of the Aoatovi 
people may be found to the present day. 

In Oraibi the following clans are represented from those people: 
the Sand clan, the Rabbit clan, the Coyote clan, and the Butterfly 
clan. Of the latter, however, only one woman is left. There are in 
Oraibi two different kinds of all of these clans except the Sand clan, 
all of which are probably the Aodtovi people, while those of the other 
clans have come from different directions. The Aoatovi people in- 
troduced in Oraibi the Odqol cult, which is the latest cult introduced in 
Oraibi. The same cult was also introduced by them in Mish6ngnovi 
and W^lpi. At every Soyal ceremony these clans place their b^hos 
at a separate place at the edge of the mesa for their dead ancestors. 

254 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 


Aliksai! At Aoatovi they were living. The village chief had 
some fine nice fields there. North of the village were two springs. 
The village chief also had a son, but all the maidens of the village 
were afraid of this youth and refused to marry him. He was a great 
hunter and always went hunting. So one time he again led a hunt- 
ing expedition. They went south-west of the village, away ofif, where 
they assembled at a certain place. They had built their fire. Some 
of the maidens of the village took part in the hunt. They then 
formed two parties, and these spread out to form a circle. There 
were a great many rabbits and they killed a great many. A large 
hawk took part in the hunt too. He would swoop down on the rab- 
bits and kill them. This he did for the village chief's son, so that 
when they went home the village chief had a great deal of game to 
carry home. When the sun was low they arrived at the spring close 
to Aod,tovi, Here they drank and then they went up to the village. 
On the way up they ate many peaches and watermelons that were 
growing close to the mesa. The peaches were just beginning to get 

The village chief's son not having anything to carry, ran ahead to 
the village, wrapped up in his blanket, and seated himself on top of 
a house and watched for the hunters to come up. When they assem- 
bled in the village he came down and met his father in the house. 
Here they ate supper. When they were through his sister removed 
the remnants. The father then smoked on the game, whereupon 
the son addressed his father and said: "My father, I am unhappy 
here, and now our children (people) they shall be happy here only 
this long too. Let us do something to them. You go to Toriva to- 
morrow morning." "Is that so?" the father said. "Yes," the son 

So early in the morning the village chief repaired to the village 
of Hano, where he met the chief of that village. "Why have you 
come?" the latter said. "Yes," the visitor replied, "my son spoke 
to me somethii^g not good last night, and I have come to tell you 
about it. The maidens of our village refuse to marry him. They 
run away from him and so we want you to come and fetch our people. 
You notify the other villages and then you come sometime and bring 
powder of Spanish pepper with you, and then when they are all in 
their kiva you give them that pepper. " ^JHereupon the village chief 
returned to his home. The chief of I^^no went to inform the inhab- 

' Told by Kuhkuima (Shupaiilavi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi ■ — Voth. 255 

itants of Sitchomovi, and of Walpi, both of which villages were then 
situated north of the mesa where there are now some ruins. He told 
them that the next night they should get ready for the expedition. 

So the next evening the people of the three villages came out, 
went down the mesa and repaired to the village of Aoatovi, where 
they camped at the spring north of the village at the foot of the 
mesa. There was a great storm raging at that time. So in the eve- 
ning they ascended the mesa. The men were still in their different 
kivas eating their evening meals. The enemies drew out the ladders 
from the kivas so that the men could not come out. They then 
gathered the women and children, and while some of the raiders 
drove them off in little bunches and parties, others threw firebrands 
into the kivas and destroyed the men. The captives were taken to 
the villages and distributed there where they remained. 


A long time ago the people were living in Oraibi. They were also 
living in Walpi which, however, then was not on top of the mesa, 
but somewhat farther down towards the north-west. One time the 
children (people) of the chief in Oraibi were very bad and the chief 
concluded that he would punish them. So he went over to the war- 
rior chief in Wdlpi. He sat down and they first smoked, then the 
warrior chief asked him what his object in coming was. "Yes," he 
said, "my children are very bad and I have come to see what you 
think about it. After some days we will come by here to attack 
Walpi. You must then be ready and come to meet us in the valley, 
and when my children return and run, you must kill them, but those 
who pass the rock that is standing south of Pondtoika, they shall re- 
main unmolested." 

The warrior chief of Walpi agreed to this, on the condition that 
the Oraibi chiefs would not ask for any of the lives of the Wdlpi. To 
this he agreed. So the Oraibi chief returned and told his people 
that in four days they would make a raid on Wiilpi and try espe- 
cially to steal some maidens. They were willing, and so during the 
night after the third day proceeded towards Walpi. Early in the 
morning they approached the village, but the Walpi were ready. 
They descended from their village well armed, and, sounding the war 
yell, rushed upon the Oraibi. 

One of the Walpi young men had a very large, fierce dog. This 
dog rushed ahead and bit a great many of the Orafbi in the leg, thus 

» Told by Sikahpiki (Shupatilavi). 

256 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

disabling them. The Oraibi had been so thoroughly surprised that 
they got frightened and fled when the Wd,lpi rushed upon them. The 
latter now chased the fleeing Oraibi and killed a great many. The 
big dog also disabled and killed a number of them. Only a few 
passed the rock mentioned above. On account of this battle, in 
which that dog killed so many Oraibi, a dog is engraved on that rock 
and it is called the dog mark (Pokvaita). 

This is the way chiefs often punished their children (people) when 
they became "bewitched." That is one reason why there are so 
very many ruins all over the country. Many people were killed in 
that way because their chiefs became angry and invited some chief 
or inhabitant from other villages to destroy their people. 



Haliksai! In Walpi the people were living, but at the place 
where the old village stood before the people had moved on the mesa. 
And in Oraibi the people were also living. The Walpi always had 
races west of the village in the valley for practice. When they had 
become strong, they said: "Let us go to Oraibi and race there, be- 
cause they are not strong and nimble." One time they had a Kat- 
cina race in Walpi again, as they used to have frequently. One of 
the Oraibi youths who had a friend in Walpi went to visit his friend 
on that day, though he had not heard about there being a race there. 
As the Katcinas were coming towards evening his friend said to the 
Oraibi youth, that he should stay all night and see the Katcinas, and 
then go home in the morning. So the Oraibi youth remained for 
the Katcina race. 

They did not come until towards evening. When they had 
arrived on the plaza the Koyemsis challenged the young men of the 
village to come and race with the Katcinas. The Oraibi youth en- 
joyed seeing the race, but he was somewhat timid and afraid to 
participate in the race. When the race was over the young m"en of 
the village had long races yet down in the valley, but they said to 
one another, that no one should tell the Oraibi youth that they in- 
tended to go there and race with the Oraibi. In the evening, how- 
ever, the friend of this young man told him that the Walpi had been 
practicing and that they intended to come to Oraibi and race with 
the Orafbi youths. He added that they should also practice in Oraibi 
for this coming contest, and said that these Wdlpi"were braggarts 

' Told by KwdyBshva (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 257 

and not so strong as they said they were. When he had told him 
this they retired for the night. 

Early the next morning, before he had eaten a morning meal, the 
Oraibi youth returned to his village, running very fast. When he 
arrived there he told the crier to make an announcement. The latter 
announced that the youths of the village should assemble on the 
plaza, as a certain youth had something to communicate to them. 
Hereupon the young men assembled on the plaza and asked the 
young man what he had to tell them. He said that he had been in 
Walpi, that they had Katcina races there and practiced running, and 
that they were going to come over here to race with them, so they 
should now go and practice running and thus become strong. "Let 
us race here north of the village," he added. "They were going to 
come here without informing us, but my friend there told me about 

So they assembled at Hohoyahki, north of the village, and there 
had two races. "Let us stop now," they said to each other; "if we 
race too long one gets tired and does not recover from his fatigue." 
Thus they practiced for four days. On the fifth day the W^lpi came. 
They did not know, however, that the Oraibi had heard about their 
coming. When the Walpi arrived at the spring Keq6chmovi, east 
of Oraibi, where there were then no houses, they dressed up at 
that spring so that the Oraibi should not find out so soon, but the 
Oraibi had noticed them. When they had dressed up they ran to- 
wards the village, following a trail straight up towards the Katcin- 
kihu Kuwawaima. Here they gathered and stopped for a little 
while and then ran towards the village. 

The people of the village, though they had known of their coming, 
acted as if they had not seen them. Two of the Katcinas were Koy- 
emsis who carried gifts in the form of comiviki, roasted sweet com 
ears, etc. When they had arrived at the plaza one of the older 
Orafbi went to them and asked: "Have you come? Have you 
arrived?" "Yes," the K6yemsis replied. "On what account did 
you come?" they were asked. "Yes," the K6yemsis said, "we have 
come to contend with your young men in a race." Hereupon the 
old man asked the Oraibi youths to descend from the houses and 
race with these Katcinas. Immediately a large number of the young 
men came down, laid off their clothes, and raced with the Katcinas. 
As so many entered the race the Katcinas were soon tired. They 
did not capture one Orafbi racer, did not even get near enough to 
strike him with their yucca leaf whips. 

When they were through racing they had not caught a single 

258 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

Oraibi youth, and the Oraibi had won from them all the presents. 
The Katcinas were very tired. The man who had received them on 
the plaza gave them at least some prayer-meal, whereupon they 
returned to the Katcina house south of the village, where they laid 
off their costumes. They then again met the Oraibi men to race 
with them west of the village. "You have beaten us, " they said to 
the Oraibi, "if we do not win in this race then we shall indeed be 
very mucb dejected. " They then descended from the village on the 
west side, ran towards Mum6shvavi, from there south-westward, then 
south around the mesa point, and ascended the mesa from the east 
side, thus describing a very large circle. 

The Wdlpi again could not overtake the Oraibi and when they 
got to Keq6chmovi, the Walpi were very tired and gave up the race. 
The two Koyemsis who were a little older than the others and were 
not quite so tired went up to the Katcina house and got the costumes 
of the Walpi, whereupon the Walpi all returned, very much in des- 
pair. They went very slowly and were very quiet. "The Oraibi," 
they said among themselves, "are very strong." It was early in 
the morning when one after the other arrived at Walpi, some of them 
being so tired that they had fallen far behind. They agreed that 
they should not go and race with the Orafbi again. 


The Navaho had repeatedly raided the other villages, though the 
Oraibi had never had a real encounter with that warlike tribe, by 
which they were surrounded, but they did not allow themselves to be 
lulled into a false safety. They kept their bows in order, their 
quivers full of arrows, and did not forget to constantly practice 
shooting. One day while a number of the men had been practicing 
with their bows and arrows on the west side of the village, at the foot 
of the mesa, where they had filled several sand piles with arrows, the 
news was called down to them from the edge of the mesa that a large 
cloud of dust was seen in one of the wooded canyons towards the 
north-east, and that it looked as if a great many people were approach- 
ing the village. It was towards evening. The men gathered up their 
bows and arrows and hastened to the village. Here the roofs were 
covered with expectant people, whose faces were turned towards the 
approaching dust cloud about six miles towards the north-east. It 
soon became clear to all that an expedition was undertaken against 
the village of Oraibi on the part of the Navaho. Suddenly the Hopi 

1 Told by Qoydwaima (Oraibi). 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 259 

noticed that the approaching enemy halted and evidently had struck 
camp for the night. A great many camp-fires were soon seen at the 
place where they camped. These were kept up all night. The great- 
est excitement prevailed in the village. The different clans were 
invited to assemble in the ancestral homes of their respective clans, 
where councils were being held during the greater part of the night, 
as to what was to be done to meet the approaching danger. After 
these councils were over the village crier invited all the people to the 
public plaza of the village. Firewood was being brought together 
and a large fire was kept up in the center of the plaza. The 
situation was discussed in all its aspects. People encouraged one 
another. Those who were expected to set out as warriors were espe- 
cially encouraged ; they were told that they should be careful of their 
lives and that any plunder that might be found on the enemies, such 
as weapons, clothing, etc., should be owned by whomsoever succeeded 
in taking it. All narratives about this event agree in this fact, that 
a number of Hopi, who either were entirely discouraged from the be- 
ginning or saw no hope of their gaining the victory, and who perhaps 
acted as traitors, went to the Navaho during the night. They took 
with them such presents as buckskins, blankets, different articles of 
clothing, etc. Arriving at the Navaho camp each one approached 
some Navaho warrior and told him: "I want you to kill me to-mor- 
row in the battle." "What will be the price for it?" he was asked 
by the Navaho warrior. "This," the Hopi answered, and handed 
him the present that he had brought. Hereupon the Navaho war- 
rior would puncture the foot of the Hopi, near the ankle, over a pot 
that had been put into the ground, and the blood thus extracted 
would be allowed to run into the pot. The loss of blood so 
weakened the Hopi warriors that they could only walk slowly on the 
next day and were easily singled out by the Navaho. These Hopi 
hereupon returned to the village, not of course telling their breth- 
ren what they had done at the Navaho camp. 

The Navaho during the night sang their war songs and performed 
their war ceremonies. Early in' the morning at the so-called white 
rising — as the Hopi called the early dawn — the Navaho broke camp 
and made towards the village of Oralbi. At the so-called yellow 
dawn — as the Hopi called the dawn immediately before sunrise — 
they had reached a place north of the village where they ascended 
the mesa and filled the entire space north of the village. 

The Hopi had not been idle during the night. After they were 
through with the councils and had made up their minds that they 
would have to fight, they began to prepare for the approaching en- 

26o Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

counter. The Hopi at that time had a great many buckskins. 
Every warrior wrapped two or even more of these around the upper 
part of his body, taking care that the thick head and neck part of the 
buckskin covered his chest or abdomen. Arrows and bows were 
secured wherever they could be gotten. Furthermore, they armed 
themselves with stone tomahawks, boomerangs, and thro wing-sticks 
of every description. Some put the head-dresses peculiar to their 
societies on their heads, for instance, those belonging to the Horn 
Society, two horns; those belonging to the Agave Society, one horn; 
and so on. Most of them tied some feathers into their hair. When 
all were ready they lined up north of the village, filling the whole 
space from the rim of the east side to the edge on the west side of the 
mesa. The warrior chief of the Burrowing Owl clan performed cer- 
tain war rites, the same, it is said, that are still performed as a part 
of the great Soyal ceremony. 

A water tray was placed on the ground, many fetishes and amu- 
lets, bones, etc., were placed around the medicine bowl, and a num- 
ber of war songs chanted. At the conclusion of the ceremony the 
bodies of all the warriors were decorated with certain spots, the 
material used being a peculiar stone, which is found west of Oraibi. 
This stone is called pookdngnayoo (war god vomisis). The war chief 
pulverized this stone, mixed it with the water from the medicine 
bowl, and decorated the bodies of the warriors by rubbing his hand 
over the outside of the lower and upper leg close to the knee, the out- 
side of the lower and upper arm close to the elbow, and over his heart 
and back. It is, in fact, the same decoration which may now be seen 
on the body of the snake dancers. 

By this time the Navaho began to come nearer and the Hopi 
drew up in line ready to meet them. The leader of the Navaho, being 
mounted on a pony and dressed in a large piece of bayetta (a red 
European cloth), with not only his but also his pony's body covered, 
rode up to the Hopi. After saying something to them, which, how- 
ever, history has failed to record, he shot the first arrow into the 
crowd of the Hopi. without hitting any of them. Hereupon he swung 
around his pony and dashed back to his people, who now rushed 
towards the Hopi, and the battle was opened. The sun had not yet 
risen. The battle at once became very fierce; the Agave, Snake, 
Lizzard, Burrowing Owl, and Squash clans took the lead. They were 
armed with shields, war clubs, tomahawks, etc. They were followed 
by those fighting with bows and arrows. While the first line served 
with their shields as a protection, striking, of course, their assailants 
with their war clubs wherever they had an opportunity, the archers 

March, 1905. The Traditions op the Hon — Voth. 261 

shot into the enemy through the spaces between the warriors in 
front of them. The Hopi succeeded in driving the NaTaho slowly 
backward to a place a few miles north-east of Oraibi where they drove 
them off the mesa. One of the Navaho had lived in Oraibi a while, 
and in fact had been initiated into the Wtiwuchim society. He could 
speak the Hopi language and called out to one of the Hopi warriors 
by the name of Chiniwa: "You had better fight us here where we 
now are and do not follow us, but remain where you are, because you 
will all be killed. Our people have not yet all arrived ; there are many 
more farther east." Chiniwa conveyed this information to his 
brethren warriors but without avail. The Hopi followed the Navaho. 
and in the valley both drew up a line of battle ready to again engage 
in regular battle. While the two lines of warriors were facing each 
other, a Navaho woman, being mounted on a pony, grabbed a lance 
from a Navaho warrior, dashed towards the line of the Hopi, followed 
by her people. They broke through the line of Hopi and thus divided 
the latter into two parties. These they at once surrounded, which 
placed the Hopi at a disadvantage. 

The sun was by this time just rising and the Hopi saw that the 
Navaho warriors were simply dressed in their loin cloths, some hav- 
ing on moccasins. Their bodies were decorated with red paint over 
which they had drawn their fingers when it was still wet, making 
their bodies full of lines. Their hair was hanging down their backs 
loose. They were all mounted on ponies. The Hopi, however, had 
this advantage, that their bodies were well wrapped with heavy 
buckskins, while those of the Navaho were nude, so that a great 
many more of the arrows of the Hopi proved fatal to their enemies 
than vice versa. The Hopi say that many of the Navaho arrows 
were shot into the buckskins that were wrapped around their bodies 
and were dangling down on all sides from their bodies. This accounts 
partly for the fact that the Hopi, though outnumbered by their 
enemies, were not exterminated. 

The battle lasted until late in the afternoon. The Hopi would 
break through the circles of the warriors surrounding them, but were 
always surrounded again by new parties, so that the circles sur- 
rounding the fighting Hopi became smaller and smaller. The Hopi 
say that the Navaho were much better provided with shields than 
they were, so that they could cover themselves completely when 
encircling the Hopi, but the Hopi say they would not always shoot 
at the enemies just in front of them but would sometimes threaten 
them and then turn around quickly and then shoot at somebody 
else from the side and past their shields. They also say that the 

262 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Navaho in charging them on their ponies would often, after they 
had shot an arrow, or saw that they were threatened by some 
special Hopi warrior, turn their ponies around quickly and lower 
themselves by the side of the pony, while they dashed away, but 
often the Hopi still succeeded in shooting them even in that posi- 

The arms of the Navaho also consisted of bows, arrows, shields, 
and war clubs, and some few had guns and pistols which they had 
procured from the Spaniards. In the afternoon a small party of 
Hopi succeeded in climbing the point of the mesa north-east of the 
battle-field, called Shongohtoika. They were followed by some of 
the Navaho warriors, but the latter soon had to give up the pursuit on 
account of the many rocks and boulders that are scattered close to 
the mesa. The party of Hopi remained at the edge of the mesa 
looking down upon the battle-field. Here the nephew of Chiniwa 
had in the meanwhile been shot in the foot so that he could not walk. 
His uncle Chiniwa said to him: "You will probably not get away 
here." "No, perhaps not," the young man answered, "but I want 
at least to shoot some one yet." So he laid all his arrows that he 
still had in his quiver on his lap and shot into the body of the Navaho, 
when the latter at once surrounded him and killed him with their 
lances and clubs, and tore from his body his buckskin and clothing. 
In the meanwhile the men on the edge of the mesa counseled with 
one another whether they should go down and assist their hard-pressed 
brethren, but only three were willing. These went down and hid 
behind rocks, towards which a party of Navaho was driven by a 
party of Hopi. When the retreating Navaho had come within shoot- 
ing distance of the three Hopi hidden behind the rocks, the latter 
killed a number of them from their safe shelter. Hereupon the 
Navaho scattered, giving the Hopi who were pursuing them an oppor- 
tunity to also rush behind the rocks where they were greeted by their 
three valiant brethren. All now ascended the mesa where they pro- 
ceeded in a north-westerly direction along the edge of the mesa. 
They were preceded by the party of Navaho who had pursued them 
to the foot of the mesa, and who had in the meanwhile rounded on 
their very swift ponies on the point of the mesa and ascended on the 
point of the opposite side, but it seems that this party of Navaho 
for some reason or other — because they were afraid, the Hopi say 
— failed to attack them. All they did was to wave the buckskins, 
clothing, etc., that they had taken from their slain brethren, and 
mock them. 

The Hopi finally found a place where they could descend the 

March, 1905. The Tr.\ditions of the Hopi — Voth. 263 

mesa, crossed the small valley, which is quite deep, stopped at one 
place and then reached a small spring by the name of Oh6wikba. 
Here they rested, as they were very thirsty and a number of them 
were wounded. The latter asked their comrades to dress their 
wounds the best they could then carry them home the rest of the 
way, which was done. The Navaho party who had pursued these 
Hopi had not followed them, they had descended the mesa at some 
other place, but made for the village of Oraibi. In the valley where 
the main battle-ground was, the fighting had also ceased by this 
time. The different groups of fighting Hopi had succeeded in cut- 
ting their way through their assailants and were running towards 
the village, leaving a great many dead and wounded behind. The 
Navaho had also lost very heavily, but it is said that the Navaho 
carried their wounded away while the battle was raging, taking them 
all to a certain place from which they later took them with them, 
tying them on their ponies. The retreating Hopi were followed by 
bands of Navaho, while other bands of the latter tried to outflank 
them and to reach the village first.' 

While both parties were drawing closer to the village, the Hopi 
retreating and the Navaho following them, more or less fighting was 
going on, about which various details are still mentioned when the 
events of this important day of Hopi history are related. For in- 
stance, when the Hopi had arrived on top of the first mesa south of 
the battle-field, six of them hid in a stone inclosure. Whether it was 
a sheep corral or a temporary shelter that some Hopi had built, is 
not known. Here they were at once attacked by a party of Navaho 
whom they kept at a respectable distance with their well-directed 
arrows. The Navaho seeing that they could not overpower these 
men with their bows and arrows procured from some of their comrades 
some firearms. With these they kept shooting at the imperfect in- 
closure until they had killed five out of the six men. The sixth one 
jumped out of the inclosure, rushed through the attacking party, 
and jumped down at a steep though not very high place from the 

' The number killed on both sides will perhaps never be fully ascertained, but the afore- 
mentioned Navaho, Mayalolo, who had become a member of one of the Hopi societies, later on 
came to Oraibi, and he is authority for the statement, which the Oraibi keep reiterating, that a 
great many more Navaho were killed than Hopi. He also stated, which of course is also substan- 
tiated by the Hopi, that a great many Navaho ponies were also killed. It is reasonable to believe 
that this statement is correct from the fact, already mentioned, that the Navaho were fighting 
with naked bodies, while the Hopi were well protected by buckskins which they had wound 
around them. It seems that they werie about equally well armed, and the courage of the Hopi 
was probably as great as that of their assailants. The fact that the Navaho were mounted, of 
course placed the Hopi at a disadvantage while they were fighting on even ground, but wherever 
the Hopi could withdraw behind rocks or into other unapproachable places, the Navaho derived 
but little benefit from their ponies. 

264 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

mesa. Of the various missiles that were fired at him, none proved 
to be fatal. The Navaho followed him to the edge of the mesa, but 
had not the courage to jump after him. He hid away under a pro^ 
jecting rock where he stayed all day. 

While this happened, one of the Hopi warriors, who had proven him- 
self especially brave, had rounded the point of this mesa and was mak- 
ing his way towards the village of Oraibi. He was followed by several 
Navaho who hit him several times, but owing to the fact that he was 
well wrapped with good buckskins, none of the shots took fatal 
effect. These Navaho, as the Hopi believe, became somewhat super- 
stitious about this man. The latter claim that the pursuing party 
abandoned pursuit of this one warrior, saying to one another: "Do 
not follow that man. He is very brave and will surely kill you." 
Some of the Hopi by this time discovered that among the Navaho 
warriors there were some Hopi from the village of W^lpi. These Walpi 
had so thoroughly disguised themselves with paint and by combing 
their hair in the same manner as the Navaho that they had not been 
recognized before. One of the first to recognize them was the man 
lying under the rock, who noticed that the short front hair of one of 
the Walpi dropped from behind his ear. Soon the brave warrior 
just mentioned also recognized the Walpi, and at once addressed 
them, saying: "So, you are with them too, we thought there were 
only Navaho. " "Oh!" the Walpi said, "we are being recognized 
now. Let us kill him. If we do not kill him he will certainly tell on 
us in Oraibi. But how shall we kill him, shall we attack him and shoot 
him?" "No," some one said, "let us go and capture him." Here- 
upon some of them dismounted and they as well as some on horse- 
back formed a ring around the man and then closed in on him. He 
broke the skull of one of them with his tomahawk, whereupon he was 
immediately overpowered and thrown upon the ground. One of the 
Walpi by the name of Shiita knelt on his breast and forced a lance 
into his throat, killing him. They took all his clothes and buckskins, 
cut open his breast, tore out his heart, which they took with them. 
All this was observed and later on reported by the man hidden under 
the rock not far away. The Walpi then took their victim on a horse 
and took him with them to Walpi, where they placed hinj in a small 
hut or inclosure which a herder had built for a temporary shelter, 
throwing stones upon him. 

In the meanwhile troops of Navaho, among whom were many 
women, had reached the village where the Hopi who had remained 
behind had assembled their flocks of sheep on the plaza, which the 

March, 1905- The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 265 

Hopi say was crowded with sheep. They had closed up the passages 
to the plaza with beams, rocks, etc., placing also guards at every 
opening, watching the sheep. When the Navaho arrived, however, 
they tore down the barriers in the opening on the north side and 
drove the sheep out. The Navaho women were busily engaged in 
shelling the corn north of the village and loading it on their ponies. 
One Hopi watching one of the approaches was shot in the leg by one 
of the Navaho. The Navaho seemed to be in a hurry, for they only 
rifled some of the houses on the north side of the village ! The arrival 
of the Hopi warriors by that time may also have been a cause of their 
not carrying their depredation farther than they did. When they 
had loaded a number of ponies with corn they left the village, taking 
also with them all the sheep that had been assembled in the plaza. 
Spmewhat north-east from the main battle-field they camped. Here 
they also had, during the battle, taken a great many of their dead 
and wounded, and they later admitted that there were a great many 
of them. They tied the dead, as well as the wounded, on their ponies, 
and then left for their homes. It is also said that a great many of 
their ponies that they took with them had been wounded in the fight, 
and later on they told the Hopi that on the way quite a number of 
them died. These they left behind them. Also a number of the 
wounded died while they were traveling, and it is said that all that 
died were buried at a place somewhere west of Kf'shiwuu, a place 
about sixty miles north-east of Oraibi. It is also said that there was 
a great deal of mourning among the Navaho as they returned from 
this expedition. Most of the information on the Navaho side was 
later on brought to Oraibi by the aforesaid Mdyololo and another 
Navaho by the name of Litotovi, both of whom had been with the 
Hopi for some time, and had been initiated into their Wtiwuchim 

After the Navaho had left the village, stragglers of the Hopi war- 
riors kept coming in. Many of these were wounded; some of them 
had to be carried to the village. These called the ones who carried 
them Fathers. All the wounded were placed in an ancestral home 
of the Coyote clan. Here the "Fathers" of the wounded remained 
with their " Children." During the night and the following day some 
died. During this time there was a great deal of mourning and 
weeping. The corpses of those who died were taken out and cared 
for by those who had cared for them while they were sick. On the 
fourth day those who still survived were taken to their homes, that 
is, not where their families were, but to. the homes of their parents, 

266 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

where they were then taken care of. Some of the wounded Hopi 
later on also died, while a great many of them recovered.^ 


Aliksai! At a certain place the Navaho were living. They were 
going to have a dance at some place towards the north, so they gath- 
ered together their ponies and early in the morning they dressed up. 
The women did not have calico dresses, but wore blue dresses with 
red borders and silver belts. So when they were all dressed up they 
mounted their ponies and went to the dance. There were a great 
many of them. A very heavy dust rose from all their ponies as they 
traveled on. They went to a place in the large canyon, somewhat 
north of where Fort Defiance now stands. Towards evening they 
arrived at the place where the dance was to be. It was in a very 
deep canyon. They had to go down a steep, dangerous, zigzag trail. 
The Navaho lived well there; they had good homes and near by 
some peach orchards. During the night they had their dance. They 
had prepared a great deal of food of different kinds of meat, and thus 
they were eating, and during the night they had their Katcina dance. 
There were a great many Katcinas that had masks on. The people 
were camped in a circle and had camp-fires, and in the center of the 
circle was the dance. When they were performing the fifth dance a 
light was seen in the distance and a big star was rising that came 
down and fell down near the line of dancers, right in front of the 
head dancer. 

The Navaho are very much afraid of something happening, so when 
his star fell down they all jumped on their ponies and began to scatter. 
Hereupon a great noise was heard west of the camp. The Oraibi had 
arrived to make a raid on the Navaho, but not the Oraibi from the 
present village. They then lived a little farther west, where there 
are some ruins now (the name of which the narrator cannot give). 
A great battle then ensued, but the Navaho were driven back out of 
the canyon, because they tried to protect their wives and children. 

• The Navaho, it seems, had used poisoned arrows. The Hopi say that the way the 
Navaho prepared these arrows was as follows: They would suspend a rattlesnake and place 
a vessel under it, into which the putrid matter from the decaying rattlesnake dropped. They 
would mix with this matter poison that they had extracted from the fangs of the rattlesnakes, 
and with this stuff they would poison their arrows. But the Hopi say that in that battle it 
often happened that the Hopi would procure the bows and arrows of slain Navaho, and thus 
shoot their enemies with those poisoned arrows, so that the Navaho were paid back in their own 
coin, and the Hopi repeat in this connection that a great many Navaho died from these poisoned 
arrows because their bodies were entirely unprotected, while the bodies of the Hopi were well 
wrapped with buckskins, which furnished a good protection against the arrows. 

2 Told by Kiihkuima (Shupaiilavi). 

March, 1905. The Tr.\ditions of the Hopi — Voth. 267 

The Hopi followed them, shooting principally with reed arrows, and 
killing a great many of them. Only a few finally escaped to their 
homes, and that is the reason why the Navaho, when they have a 
dance now, always put out some watchers to look out for intruders. 


Haliksai! At the old ruin on top of the hill (about seven miles 
north-east of Oraibi) used to live some people. Across the valley on 
another mesa was also a village. The inhabitants of these two 
villages used to live farther north-east. They were harassed and 
warred upon by the Utes (Utsia), for which reason they moved to 
the two places already mentioned. For about five years they were 
left in peace in those villages after they had settled there. But in 
the sixth year their enemies found them again, and one evening they 
were seen approaching the village and were camping at the mesa 
somewhat eastward. The chiefs said to their young men: "It seems 
that somebody is camping there. You run there in the evening and 
find out who they are." 

So some of the young men ran there, and sneaking close to the 
camp found out that, sure enough, they were their old enemies. 
When the inhabitants of the villages heard that, they were busy all 
night making bows and arrows and preparing for a fight. Very early 
in the morning the inhabitants of the village on the west side of the 
valley all moved over to a. small village on the east side of the valley, 
that was situated on the extreme edge of the mesa. Here they 
thought they could defend themselves better, as it would be very 
difficult for their enemies to get up to their village. 

When the sun rose the enemies approached the village on the 
west side of the valley, rushed up the hill and went through the 
village, but did not find any one, all having fled. But they soon 
discovered their tracks and followed them. They were on horse- 
back, but when they arrived at the place where these people had 
assembled they could not get up to the village, and many of them 
were shot and killed by the people in the village. But finally, towards 
evening, some of them going around the mesa succeeded in getting 
into the village from the south side, where they captured some of the 
women and maidens, rushed off with them, mounted their ponies, 
and escaped. 

The warriors of the village, though they followed them, could not 
overtake them, as they were afoot. The people who had thus been 

» Told by Kwdyeshva (Oraibi). 

268 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

attacked said that they would not stay at their villages, as they 
would certainly be attacked again by their enemies. So they dressed 
up and packed up all their things, and forming into line, went to 
Orafbi, the chief going at the head of the line. They were admitted 
to the village and are still living there. In that battle not many of 
them had been killed, as they were well defended from their assailants, 
and the latter, after having taken some women and children, escaped. 


A long time ago the Oraibi were living in their village. The 
Spaniards often made inroads upon them and warred against them. 
Finally they made peace with each other and the Spaniards requested 
that they be permitted to live in Orafbi. The Hopi consented, so 
they hunted a place where the Spaniards could build their house, and 
selected a place north of the village of Oraibi, where the ruins of the 
old Spanish buildings may still be seen. Here the Hopi assisted them 
in building their house. They got the stone for them and helped 
them to build their house, which the old people say was built in a 
spiral or snail-house shaped form, there being four spirals. In the 
center of the spiral-shaped construction was the house, or rather kiva, 
as the Hopi call it in their tales. Here, tradition says, the Spaniards 
withdrew, especially in winter when it was cold. Coming out of this 
kiva they had to go around four times through the long winding 
hallway which ended in the square house with four rooms. From 
this house the egress or ingress was made through doors, while from 
the place in the center the Hopi say they came out through the 

Soon another house, which tradition calls an "assembly house," was 
built north-east of this structure. This large house had a tower in 
which bells were suspended. When this assembly house was finished, 
the Spaniards called all the people from the village, and when they 
had assembled at their house, they told them that they should all 
go to the new, large assembly house, and when they had done so the 
Tutd,achi told them that he was going to wash their heads (baptize 
them). They asked him what that was, what that meant. He told 
them that that was something very good. So they consented and 
he poured a little water on the heads of those present. After this the 
Tutdachi called another Tutaachi from Basoi,^ who came with a num- 
ber of others and brought clothing and shoes for the Hopi. The shoes 

» Told by Wikvaya (Oraibi). 

2 This place could not be identified and I doubt whether the name was eiven correctly. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 269 

were made of leather, the clothing of some gray woolen stuff. The 
things were brought on carts with heavy wooden wheels, but there 
was no iron on them. 

It seemed that this Tutaachi was to be the assistant of the one 
living in Oraibi, at least the new arrival remained in Oraibi. The 
Hopi then had to assemble in the assembly house on Sundays, where 
the Tutaachis, or priests, spoke to them. Soon they asked the Hopi 
to work for them. The water in the springs around Oraibi not being 
good, they requested them to get drinking water for them from Mden- 
kape, which is far away. The Oraibi soon got tired of this and some- 
times, instead of going to Mtienkape, they went to Tuhciva, a spring 
south .of the mesa on which the sun shrine is situated, about three 
miles south-east of Oraibi. But the priests soon found out the decep- 
tion, and were angry. They soon set the inhabitants of Oraibi to 
work at making cisterns, and the Hopi themselves were pleased with 
this, as they were now not requested to get water so often from 
the distance. 

The Spaniards also soon brought cattle, and the Oraibi would 
occasionally buy calves from them for corn. Some of the cattle were 
very gentle and were used to drag logs to the village, which the Hopi 
had to get for the Spaniards from Ki'shiwuu, fifty or sixty miles 
north-east. The deep cuts and ruts in the rocks north-east of Oraibi 
where many logs were dragged up may still be seen to-day. Some 
also had to get logs from the San Francisco Mountains (near Flag- 
staff), but as parts of the road from there were very sandy, not so 
many were gotten from that place as from Ki'shiwuu. 

Thus the Spaniards kept the Hopi at work in various ways, and 
they were not bad to them at first. For four years everything went 
along well, and it rained often too, so that there was water in the 
cisterns; but at the end of four years things began to change. The 
priests commenced to forbid the Hopi to have Katcina dances and 
to make bahos. They demanded of them to attend the meetings in 
the assembly house, aijd they did not let them concern themselves 
about the clouds and the rain, and that year (the fifth) it was very warm 
and very dry. The Hopi began to be very tired and did not plant 
much that year, so the chiefs called a council and they talked the 
matter over. "We are not getting along well," they said to each 
other, "we are not happy. It does not rain. Let us try it with 
bahos again. The Hopi have always had it that way, and known it that 
way, to make bd,hos for the clouds." So they again began to have 
ceremonies, each fraternity with its own altar, and they made b^hos, 
but did not tell the priests about it. They deposited the prayer-offer- 

270 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

ings in the different directions, but it did not rain. So the chiefs 
and leaders were very much discouraged. Their "fathers," as they 
had to call the Spanish priests, demanded food from them, and yet 
they had very little to eat themselves, only some votdka (corn-meal 

So they decided to try the Katcinas again, and they arranged a 
Katcina dance, but one of the Hopi went and informed the padres 
that they were going to have a Katcina dance again ; then they had 
the dance, and it rained some, but very little. The padres in the 
meanwhile continued to oppress the Hopi and made them work very 
hard, and demanded contributions of food, etc., from them. They 
would also disregard all the feelings of the Hopi as to their own (the 
Hopi's) religion. They would trample under foot the chastity of the 
Hopi women and maidens. So finally the Hopi became angry and 
began to discuss the advisability of getting rid of their oppressors. 
One time a number of the latter went away, east somewhere, to get 
some supplies, clothing, etc., it is said, so that the padre remained at 
the Mission alone. When the Hopi saw that the priest's assistants 
had left, they met in council in the Nashebe, the chief's kiva, and 
talked the matter over. Some were in favor of going and killing the 
padre, others objected, saying that certainly the Spaniards would 
then come and punish them. But finally the party that was in favor 
of getting rid of the oppressors prevailed, and they concluded that 
they would stand the oppression no longer, but get rid of the priest. 
The question then came up, Who should go and kill him? Nobody 
wanted to do it. Finally the Badger clan volunteered to go. "You 
are not brave," they said, "we shall go." 

So they proceeded to the Mission .and knocked at the door. The 
padre was asleep and after they had roused him up he refused to open 
the door at first, but when they continued to knock he opened the 
door, whereupon they rushed into the room, grabbed him, dragged 
him out of the house, threw him on the ground and then cut his throat, 
one holding his head. Hereupon they carried the corpse eastward 
down the mesa, where they threw it into a gulch and piled stones 
upon it. Hereupon they waited for some time to see whether any- 
body would come, or what would happen. 

The killing of the padre in Oraibi was the signal for the other 
villages to get rid of the padres that lived at those mesas also. The 
Hopi then waited, expecting that Spaniards would come and avenge 
their brethren, but no one came, so they destroyed the houses of the 
Spaniards, divided their logs arid timbers, and used them for their 
kivas. Some of the smaller bells are still owned by the Agave Fratef- 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi -^ Voth. 271 

nity. No one has ever come to punish the Hopi for killing the padres. 
The places where the latter had their large sheep corrals can still be 
seen, especially near the spring Nawaivoco, and at a place about four 
miles south of Oraibi. From that time on the Hopi again had their 
dances and their sacred altar performances in their kivas. 


I. — Origin Myth. 

When nothing but water, Hurtling Wuhti, deity of hard substances, lives 
in ocean in east. Another Huruing Wuhti lives in ocean in west. Sun also 
exists, and before rising in east d^resses in skin of gray fox, but soon exchanges 
it for skin of yellow fox, whereupon morning dawns. Two deities cause dry 
land to appear in midst of water. Sun sees no living being and tells deities. 
They consult and make Wren of clay. Wren flies over earth and reports no 
living being "exists. However, Spider Woman is living in southwest. Deity 
of west makes many other birds to inhabit world. The two deities teach them 
sounds they should make. Deity of west makes different kinds 6i animals, 
which are taught their different languages. Deity of east makes of clay first 
woman, then man, to live on earth and understand everything. Deity makes 
two tablets of hard substance and draws characters on them with wooden 
stick. She rubs with palms of hands palms of woman and man, who then 
understand writing on tablets. Deities teach them language. Deity of east 
takes them over rainbow to her home. They Stay four days, and then she tells 
them to go and select place to live. They build small house. Spider Woman 
makes man and woman of clay. They are Spaniards. She teaches them 
Spanish language and gives them tablets and imparts knowledge to them by 
rubbing hands, as deity of east had done with "white man." She creates two 
burros for them. Spider Woman creates other men and women, giving differ- 
ent langauge to each pair. She forgets to create woman for certain man, and 
afterwards fails to create man for certain woman. Tells woman to go and 
find man and live with him. They meet and live together, but they soon 
quarrel and separate. They come together again, and separate, and so on. 
This is why there are so many contentions between men and their wives. 
Huruing Wuhti of west now creates many people in pairs, husband and wife. 
They live in west and lead nomadic life, living on game. There are many con- 
tentions among people, and deity of west goes to live in ocean in west. Tells 
people to pray to her there. Deity in east does something. Spanish are 
angry and two go with guns to abiding-place of Huruing Wuhti. She gets 
them to lay down their arms and asks them to lift stone. They try and their 
hands adhere to stone. Deity then rubs guns to powder and disappears 
through opening in floor of kiva. From there she exerts influence on stone 
and releases men when they promise to exchange with others good things they 

2. — Huruing Wuhti and the Sun. 

Huruing Wuhti lives on small piece of land in west, and owns moon, stars, 
and all hard substances. She sends Moon for Sun in east. He goes to her, 
and they agree to own all things together. They take skins of all kinds of 
birds, and Huruing Wuhti places them on floor. She then rubs small scales 
from her cuticle between palms of hands and places scales on feathers and 
skins and covers them with native cloth. Sun kindles fire at east side. They 


274 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

wave four corners of cloth, Huruing Wuhti singing, four times, and things 
begin to move and emit sounds as birds do. On removal of cover birds fly out 
into air, but return. Huruing Wuhti gives them to Sun, who places them in 
jar of transparent stone. Sun places different kinds of hair on floor with 
small quantity of his paints. He lets his beard drop upon objects and shakes 
wings towards them. They cover things up, each holding two corners of 
covering, and Sun sings song. Antelope and other animals jump up and run 
around. Sun tells Huruing Wuhti they are hers, and they afterwards consider 
her as their mother. Sun returns under earth to east and makes land by 
turning over land of Huruing Wuhti which is under water. He sees beings 
come out of water whom he calls White People, Spaniards and Mormons. He 
pours birds out of jar and they fly around in air and increase. Sun returns to 
Huruing Wuhti 's house in west. She creates little maiden and little boy from 
pieces of her cuticle. She sends them away to live on earth, and names youth 
Muyingwa and maiden Yahoya. With scale matter from her umbilicus 
Huruing Wuhti makes another maiden. She calls her Sand Clan Member and 
Lizard Clan Member, and sends her after other two, giving her grain of shelled 
corn. Huruing Wuhti now rubs her face and inside of nose, and from scales 
makes child that cries like Hopi child would cry, and another that cries like 
coyote. She says maiden shall be Burrowing Owl Clan Member and youth 
Coyote Clan Member. She gives them each grain of shelled com and tells 
them to follow others. Again Huruing Wuhti creates as before, and they hear 
somebody grunt and another one angry. The former is child like Hopi, and 
she names it Bear Clan Member. She gives him grain of corn and sends him on. 
The other, Head-with-the-Hair-Pushed-over-it-Backward, is Navaho. She gives 
him piece of spoiled meat and sends him on. Sun returns to east, and next day he 
sees smoke arising at different places and people camping. He sees maiden 
and youth traveling along very tirpd. He gives them water to drink and 
little corn for food. He calls youth Sun Clan Member and maiden Forehead 
Clan Member and tells them to travel eastward. 

3. — Coming of the Hopi from the Under-World. 

When people were living below they became quarrelsome, and some \'ery 
depraved. Chiefs decide to find another place to live. They send bird Motsni 
to find place of exit. He is unsuccessful. They then send Mocking-bird, 
who finds place of exit. In meanwhile chiefs cause great flood. Many Bdlo- 
lookong-wuus come with water and many people are destroyed. On return of 
Mocking-bird chiefs announce they will leave in four days. They then plant 
pine-tree and make it grow fast by singing. It grows to opening, but it is not 
strong enough for many people to climb on. They plant a stronger kind of 
pine. This does not reach opening, and they plant reed, which is strong and 
grows through the opening. They also plant sun-flower, but its disk protrudes 
downward before it reaches opening. Spider Woman, Pookonghoya, his 
brother Baloongawhoya, and Mocking-bird climb pine through opening, and 
then Pookonghoya holds firmly to pine and his brother to reed. Mocking-bird 
sits singing songs still chanted at Wdwnchim ceremony. People begin to 
climb, and as they emerge, Mocking-bird assigns them places and gives 
them languages. Language spoken in under-world that of Pueblo Indians. 
Songs of Mocking-bird are exhausted before ali people come out, and others 
begin to return. Kik-wongi from below is with people around opening. His 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 275 

half-grown son dies and is buried. He says some Povvaka has come out with 
them. He makes ball of fine com-meal and throws it upwards. It comes 
down on head of chief's nephew. Chief grabs him to throw him back. Nephew 
tells chief to look down opening. He looks down and sees son walking, so lets 
nephew remain. There is no sunshine. Light is seen at distance, and chief 
sends some one to see about it. He finds field where com, etc., planted, and 
fire burning all around field to keep ground warm. Then he sees very hand- 
some man. Skeleton, by whose side is standing very ugly mask. Skeleton 
feeds messenger and invites all people to come to him. They go and remain 
there. They make fields, and when they have gathered crop they plan to 
start off again. They still have no sun, and it is cold. They paint disk of 
buffalo hide white, with picture of woman in black, and place it on large piece 
of native cloth. Some one stands on moon symbol and chiefs swing cloth and 
throw it upward. It flies eastward into sky, and moon comes up in east. The 
light is dim, and it is still cold, so they try to make something better. They 
cut round piece of cloth, stretch it over ring, and paint and decorate it, as sun 
symbol still used, attaching nakwdkwosis to it. They place symbol with man 
on cloth, which they swing into air. It twirls upward toward east and sun 
rises. It is now warm and light and people think of moving on. They decide 
to go towards sunrise, but to divide into parties, White People going south, 
Hopi north, and Pueblos between them. They soon become estranged and 
attack one another. Castilians are especially bad. They agree that when 
one of parties reaches place where sun rises, stars will fall from sky, and other 
parties are to settle down where they are. Woman in one party makes horses 
from scales rubbed off from her body, and they arrive first and many stars fall. 
Those who arrive at sunrise are to help others when they are molested by 

4. — The Wanderings of the Hopi. 

While living below, everj^thing at first is good. Chiefs and then people 
begin to do bad. Sorcerers increase. People become very bad and take away 
wives of chiefs. Chiefs think of escaping. They hear sounds above and they 
decide to investigate. They make Pawaokaya and sing over it. It comes to 
life, and they tell it to go up and find out. Chief plants looqo tree, but it 
does not reach up. Then they plant reed that reaches up. PawdoKaya ascends 
and finds opening. He goes through and flies around, but does not find any- 
body. He descends tired out and tells chiefs. They make Tohcha, which 
ascends and also finds nothing, returning exhausted. The same occurs with 
Hawk. Chiefs then make Motsni, which flies up through opening and finds 
place where Oraibi now is, and somebody sitting. It is Skeleton. Motsni 
tells him why he has come, and Skeleton says he is living in poverty, but they 
are welcome if they are willing to live with him. M6tsni returns and tells 
chiefs, who determine to go. White Man, Paiute, Pueblo, and all people 
except Zuni and Kohonino then live down there. Those whose hearts are not 
very bad, assemble with chiefs. In four days they meet again and commence 
to climb up reed, led by Village- Chief, followed by other chiefs and their people. 
Village Chief thinks P6pwaktu are going to come up and he pulls up reed. He 
addresses people and says they must live with single heart. Chief's son 
sickens and dies. Chief says Powaka has come with them and he throws ball 
of fine meal upward. It alights on head of maiden. Chief accuses her, and 
says he will throw her down. She tells chief to look down and he will see his 

276 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

child running around. He looks, and lets maiden remain, but says she is to 
stay there for day after they leave. It is dark, and Spider Woman, assisted 
by Flute Priest, makes drawing on Avhite cloth. They sing songs over it, and 
Spider Woman takes disk towards east. Soon moon rises, but it is not very 
light. They then draw sun symbol on circular piece of buckskin and sing over 
it. Spider Woman takes it away, and something rises again, and it becomes 
light and very warm. They have rubbed yx)lks of eggs over sun symbol, and 
this is why chickens know all about time. Chiefs make different kinds of 
plants and other things. Hopi language is spoken, but chief asks Mocking- 
bird to give to different people different language. Mocking-bird does so. 
They sit down to common meal, and chief lays out many corn ears of different 
lengths and tells people to choose of them before they start. Every one wants 
longest ears. Small ears are left for Hopi, who only have com. Chief agrees 
that elder brother shall go with party ahead towards sunrise. He is to touch 
sun with forehead and remain where sun rises. An old woman goes with 
each party. Each party takes stone having marks and figures and that fit 
together. If Hopi live again way they did in lower world, elder brother 
to come back and cut off heads of Powakas. Elder brother and party start 
and become White Men. Chief and party take southern route. Maiden 
Powaka follows them. People travel eastward in different parties with chief. 
They stop at certain places, and this is why there are so many ruins. Pueblo 
passed through while Hopi live. Spider Woman makes horses and burros for 
White Men and they go along much faster. Parties stay where there are good 
fields or springs for one or more years. They plant crops and create springs 
by burying bauypi containing certain herbs, bdhos, etc. They can create rain. 
Contentions arise among parties, and they war on each other. So they build vil- 
lages on bluffs and mesas. Bear and other clans, whose names are taken from 
dead bear, arrive at Mtienkapi. Another Bear Clan arrives at Shong6pavi, 
which is first village started. Skeleton is living where Oraibi now is. Bear 
and two other clans move towards Oraibi. Spider Clan make marks on bluff 
east of Mtienkapi, claiming water for Hopi. Snake Clan arrives and after- 
wards Burrowing Owl clan, and they write something on bluff. Skeleton 
comes to meet Bear clan, who want him to be chief. Skeleton refuses, but 
gives them land, and Bear clan builds houses east of Oraibi bluff where now are 
ruins. Bear clan brings Aototo and Soyal Katcinas. Different clans arrive, 
and fields are allotted to them. Bow clan one of first to arrive, and leader 
arranges Katcina dance. On last day of dance it rains fearfully. Village chief 
tells them they shall have their ceremony Wdwnchim, first. Other clans bring 
other cults, and villages are built up slowly. Everything is good yet. When 
Katcinas dance it rains. They are simple and good Katcinas brought by Hopi 
from under-world. But Powaka maiden has taught others her evil arts, and 
P6pwaktu have increased at Paldtkwapi, which is destroyed by great water 
produced by Bd,l6l6okongs. Some of its people are saved and reach Wdlpi 
and other villages, where they teach evil arts. They put sickness into people, 
and make enemies of Utes, Apache, and Navaho, who used to be friends of 
Hopi. White Men are called by P6pwaktu and worry Hopi. But Hopi are 
still looking towards elder brother who arrived at sunrise first, and he is watch- 
ing how they are getting along. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 277 

5. — The Origin of Some Orai'bi Clans. 

In under-world people live in same manner as here. Chief of Bear clan 
angry at wife for often dancing in Butterfly dance. Chief sends P6okong and 
his brother in search of another world. They find opening above, which 
Pflokong reaches by means of reed. Chief leaves wife dancing, and accom- 
panied by Pflokong and his brotner, Spider clan chief, and many people, they 
start and go out. Bear chief closes opening. It is dark, and chief sends eagle 
to hunt for light. Eagle finds it hot, but he makes it lighter. Buzzard then 
goes and is burned, but makes it lighter. Bear clan and Spider clan go in 
different directions. Spider clan travels north following chief. They come to 
cold country where North Old Man lives. They plant com, etc. Chief has 
cult and altar of Blue Flutes. When com grows he puts up altar, sings and 
flutes. When ears of com develop cold destroys crop. This occurs four years 
in succession, and people start south after Bear people. Chief's wite bathes 
and collects scales rubbed from skin. Chief wraps them in reed receptacle, 
sings over them, covers them four times, and they become burros. They 
repeat performance and Spaniards come out. Chief tells them to put their 
things on burros and follow Bear clan and kill them. Castilians go south. 
Spider people go southeast, and stop at ten different places. They finally 
arrive where sun rises and Americans live. They stay three years and then 
follow Bear clan westward. At Oraibi they join Bear clan, whose chief is 
Machito, and who have Aototo and Aholi Katcinas. Bear clan go south with 
Aototo Katcina and are joined by Young Coin Ear people who have Aholi 
Katcina. They stop ten times before arriving at Americans where sun rises. 
H^re they stop four years. Land is scarce and they go west. Americans say 
it anybody bad they will come and cut their heads off. They finally arrive at 
Shong6pavi and settle down. People accuse chief Machito of greediness, and 
he leaves them with Aototo and Aholi. Hunters find them and want them to 
go back, but they refuse. Machito with stone makes land-mark between 
Oraibi and Shong6pavi. Machito and two Katcinas go up Oraibi mesa. 
Later Spider people arrive, and Machito asks about their wanderings. He 
says they may live there, but they are to watch sun for Soydl ceremony and 
to make his kind of puhtavi. Among Spider clan is Lizard clan, wh"b have 
Marau cult. They are permitted to stay, but are to co-operate in Soy^l cere- 
mony. Other clans that come are Rattle Snake, Badger, Butterfly, and 
Divided Spring. Divided Spring and Blue Flutes have com contest, in which 
latter win. 

6. — The Snake Myth. 

People live north of Grand Canyon. Son of chief wonders where water 
goes to and tells father he \vill go to examine it. Makes boat, into which he 
gets with lot of bdhos and some food, and floats until he comes to ocean. He 
drifts against island. Here is house of Spider Woman, who calls him in. He 
tells her his story and gives her bdho. She points to kiva in water where are 
beads and corals, but wild animals g^ard path. She gives him medicine, and 
seats herself behind his right ear. They cross water on rainbow which young 
man forms by spurting medicine. As they approach kiva they encounter 
successively panther, bear, wildcat, gray wolf, and rattlesnake, all of which 
they appease with bdhos and medicine. At entrance of kiva is Bow standard. 
They descend ladder and find many people dressed in blue kilts. Their faces 

278 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

are painted with specular iron and they have beads around their necks. 
Young man sits down near fireplace. All are silent. Chief fills large pipe 
with tobacco and smokes four times. He hands pipe to young man and tells 
him to smoke and swallow smoke. Spider woman tells him to put her behind 
him. When he swallows smoke she draws it from him and he does not get 
dizzy. Men do not see trick, and say he is certainly some one. He gives them 
nakwakwosis and baho, which make them happy. Chief tells young man to 
turn away, and then people dress up and turn into snakes. Spider Woman 
tells him not to be afraid. Chief, who has not turned, tells him to select and 
take snake. Prettiest maiden has become large snake, which is very angry. 
Snake Woman gives young man medicine, some of which he chews and spurts 
on fierce snake. It becomes docile, and he grabs snake and strokes it four 
times. Chief tells him to look away again, and snakes assume human form 
again. They now talk to young man, and they consider him initiated. M^na 
whom he captured lays food before him. Chief asks why he came, and he 
speaks of running water and that he wants beads from Hurtling Wuhti. 
Young man makes excuse and takes Spider Woman home. On return to kiva 
chief instructs him about Snake cult. Next morning he goes to Spider Woman, 
who makes rainbow road to bluflf, where Huruing Wuhti lives. They find old 
hag, but many beads, shells, etc., on walls. At sundown she becomes pretty 
maiden and invites young man to sleep with her. In morning he finds old hag, 
who in evening again changes to maiden, and remains so. He remains four 
days and nights with Huruing Wuhti, who is deity of hard substances. She 
gives him beads and charges him not to open sack as he goes home. If he does 
they will be gone ; if not they will increase. Young man returns to Snake kiva, 
where he stays four days and nights. Chief tells him to take mana who will 
bear him children, and they Avill hold ceremony. They start and go to Spider 
Woman's house. He tells young man not to touch his wife on way home, or 
she and beads will disappear. On way they sleep separately and beads increase. 
When nearly one more day's travel, sack has become full and man opens it, 
while wife remonstrates. During night he takes out finest beads and shells 
and puts them around his neck. In morning all beads but those given him by 
Huruing Wuhti have disappeared. They come to village, and soon woman 
bears many Snake children. They play with Hopi children, but sometimes 
bite them. Hopi are angry. Husband takes children back to wife's home. 
Snake man and wife travel south-eastward and come to Walpi. Chief admits 
them to village, they to assist people in ceremonies. Woman bears human 
children and their descendants are Snake clan. Snake chief sends nephew to 
hunt snakes, and first ceremony is celebrated. 

7. — The Snake Myth. 

Old men of Pihkash and Kokop clans wonder where Colorado River flows. 
They build box, put provisions and four bdhos with young man into box, 
and send it floating down river. When box will go no further young man gets 
out. He sees water everywhere. In midst is house. Huruing Wuhti comes 
out and calls him four times. He goes to her house on road made by corn-meal 
ball she rolls on water. In evening Huruing Wuhti sends him into side room. 
Sun comes sitting on disk attached to pole. He is dressed like Katcina. He 
assorts bdhos offered him on course around earth and throws those of bad 
people away. He takes bath and eats food. He then goes into house under 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 279 

earth on course again. In east he goes down in house. Hence bahos offered 
to Sun are carried eastward to Sun shrines. There live Flutes of Sun Clan, 
who always play and the Sun rises. Hence gray fox-skin is put up at white 
dawn and yellow fox-skin at yellow dawn. 

8. — The Wanderings of the Bear Clan. 

On leaving sipahpuvi, Bear people separate and go ahead of others. They 
stay for various periods at different places, and finally come to Little Colorado 
River. Here they assume clan name. They see dead bear from which they 
take name. Another party takes skin of bear, from which they cut carrying 
straps, and is called Piq6sha; another party is called Mtiyi, after mice which ate 
hair from bear's hide. These three parties are closely related. Another party 
comes, and is called after the Blue-birds that ate bear's body, and another 
that finds it full of spider-web is called Spider. Sixth party takes skull as 
drinking vessel, and is called Jug clan, and seventh party becomes Ant clan, 
as they find place swarming with ants. These seven clans are thus considered 
as related. From Little Colorado River Bear clan moves eastward, finally to 
Mat6v], where they remain considerable time. Then they move northward 
to site of Shongopavi, where they are first to arrive. They bring Blue Flute 
cult, by which they make crops grow quickly, and various Katcinas. 
9. — The Wanderings of the Spider Clan. 

In under-world people become contentious. They kill son of chief, who 
.sends M6tsni to find place to get out. He flies up and finds opening. Pine is 
planted, and then reed, which reaches opening. Horn people climb up reed 
first, and hold upper part. Many people follow. Mocking-bird distributes 
languages to them. Man drops moccasin and has to make another, which is 
why Hopi have not very nice moccasins. Chief closes opening before all people 
come out, but one of sorcerers comes out. People start on different routes, 
white men taking southern route. Others go further north. Hopi bring 
Mdyingwu, whose body consists of com, and he cannot move fast. Hopi were 
to have horse but cannot ride, but Navaho can. Chief's son takes sick and 
dies. They think sorcerer has killed him. Sorcerer says he is down below. 
Chief looks down and sees child walking about in other world. Chief says 
people who die will go back to lower world. Coyote has stars in hand and 
throws them into sky. White people take with them Spider, who creates 
burros from scales rubbed from her skin. So they reach place of sunrise first. 
Star arises in south as agreed signal to others. Party comes on bear and is 
called Bear clan. Other parties come and receive names from incidents con- 
nected with bear (as in story No. 8, with some variations). They soon separate, 
and Spider clan wanders about long time. Finally it arrives at Chokuvi, 
where are Squash and Sand clans. To escape raids people, with those of 
Mishpngnovi, remove to mesa and build present village of Mish6ngnovi. 
10. — Origin of the YAyaatu Society. 

Man has little boy, who is visited by children of village. They are lazy, 
and steal wood to prepare food they have stolen in \-illage. Priest's son sug- 
gests they go and gather their own wood. They steal burden bands and go 
and gather brush in valley. When ready to start home. Hawk, in form of man, 
comes and invites them to his kiva. After smoking, they exchange terms of rela- 
tionship. Hawk-man dresses boys up in costume, gives each eagle feather, 
stands them in line and tells them to do what they see him do. They jump 

28o Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

down from kiva, and run about through brush. Hawk-man seizes priest's son, 
throws him on cloth, and other boys carry him to kiva, where he is thrown 
through opening. He comes out unhurt, and other boys are treated in the 
same way without being hurt. They return to kiva and see round oven dug 
into earth, in which old woman keeps up fire. Hawk-man throws first priest's 
son and then other boys into ovens, and woman spurts medicine on them. 
When costumes burned off, Hawk-man takes bodies and covers them with cloth 
north of fireplace. He sings songs over them and they begin to move and are alive 
again. Old woman then washes their heads and gives each white corn ear. Hawk- 
man tells them to go home, take their wood to Blue Flute kiva, and remain there 
for him. He hands priest's son eagle wing feather, and youths leave. They 
go to kiva. When it is dark. Hawk enters and takes seat near fireplace. They 
smoke, and then Hawk makes gruel which he feeds to youths. He says they 
are not to go home, and that in morning some are to sit in north end of kiva 
and some in south. The former are to be fire-jumpers and Yayaatu, and the 
latter singers. He sprinkles meal line between them and selects one for witch- 
man. They are to sit apart all next day. They remain there four days. 
Hawk-man coming to feed them every night. In evening of following day he 
brings costumes and yellow paint. Watcher digs four ovens on plaza and 
others bury long cotton string and stretch strings along houses. In morning 
watcher begs wood and heats ovens. Hawk-man dresses up and paints others 
in kiva. At noon singers come out, throw pinch of meal towards sun, march 
to plaza, where they line up and sing. Yayaatu then go to plaza, priest's son 
carrying cloth, and then they rummage through village. People get angry 
and they return to plaza, where priest's son jumps into oven and is carried into 
kiva and resuscitated by Hawk-man and old woman. Others are treated in 
same way. They then dance and perform jugglery, and are discharged by 
Hawk-man. Next morning youths go home and are no longer dangerous. 
They form Ydyaatu Society. 

II. — The Origin of Some Mishongnovi Clans. 

Batki clan and Sand clan come from Paldtkwapi. When travelling, Sand 
clan spreads sand on ground and plants corn. Bdtki clan causes it to thunder 
and rain and crops grow in day. They find Bear, Parrot, and Crow clans at 
Mish6ngnovi, and are asked what they know about producing rain crops. 
They show their power, and their leader is made chief of village. Spring 
Toriva is very small, but Batki-namu puts in it mud, grass, and water from 
Little Colorado River and flow of water increases. Batki is admitted to Ante- 
lope and Blue Flute Fraternities of other clans. Young Corn-Ear clan comes 
from Pueblo and brings larger corn. 

12. — The Destruction of PalAtkwapi. 

After coming from under-world, people remain with Skeleton some time. 
When they travel eastward large party comes to Paldtkwapi. Among them is 
Divided Water clan. Old man belonging to this clan is shamefully mistreated, 
and he reports to village and other chiefs, complaining of young men. Village 
chief says they will move away. He tells son to run to Pine Ridge. They are 
sorcerers. On his return, chief makes four masks which his son puts on, the 
last being like that of Skeleton. He has fingers cut from old corpses tied to 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 281 

wrists as rattler. Chief gives young man long cedar bark fuse and tells him to 
return to Pine Ridge and set pine on fire. He does so, and on return grinds 
com on sister's mealing stone. He now acts as ghost and again goes and sets 
other timbers on fire. This he does several nights, and watchers are set to 
catch him. On fourth night he is caught and put into kiva. People assemble, 
and village chief requests some one to take masks off ghost. Man does so, 
and they see ghost is chief's son. He tells them to plant bihos in five places 
and to have four days' feast, and leaves kiva. They have feast and are much 
relieved when nothing happens. In fourth year afterwards old man who had 
before complained of young men makes many bdhos of hard wood. He makes 
points very sharp. Village chief sends crier chief to announce four days' feast. 
People are mistrustful and do not prepare feast. Night following old man tells 
chiefs to dress him up and put him in katcina shrine on plaza. When all 
are asleep they dig hole in shrine that will admit man. They place in his arms 
all his bdhos, with B^lolookong whistle and little bowl of water to whistle into. 
They destroy appearance of opening. Then they sing sorcerers' songs. Old 
man ejects rumbling sounds and says he has been successful. They leave old 
man who thrusts part of hand through opening. When this is noticed he sings 
and lowers little finger. Next morning he sings again and lowers next finger, 
and so on three days. Then water begins to come out where bdhos had been 
planted four years previously. They suspect flood is coming and they have 
great feast. On fourth day old man in grave sings and lowers fourth finger. 
Immediately he emerges as large Bdlolookong, and Bdlolookongs shoot forth 
from ground with streams of water in all parts of village. Houses fall and 
bury many persons. Others fly to large house on high ground. In one house 
old men climb on tray shelves and turn into turkeys. Chiefs meet in council 
and make bdhos, crush beads and turquoise into powder, of which they make 
two balls. They then call son of village chief and his sister and dress them up. 
They are to drive back Bdlolookongs which are shooting swiftly through water. 
Old man Bdlolookong is still standing where he emerged. Young men takes 
some bdhos, and mdna tray containing two balls and other bdhos and they wade 
into waters. Young man grasps large Bdlolookong and presses him into water. 
Serpent, with young man and sister, disappear and never return. Everything 
is destroyed in village. Only old men turkeys survive, and two little boys 
who had been sleeping during flood and were not drowned. Surviving people 
make food altar and leave village, leaving two children. Turkey takes pity on 
children and sends them to food altar to eat. Big Bdlolookong comes and 
looks after people. He sees children and says he is their grandfather. Tells 
them where to get food and to find knife. Says they are to follow parents. 
Makes them cut piece of flesh out of his back, and says if little of meat is rubbed 
among paint for bdhos it will rain. Children start, and on third day are 
exhausted, and fall asleep. God of Thunder descends to help them. They are 
frightened until he removes his mask. He gives them food. Third day he 
returns and promises them lightning and thunder with which to kill their 
.enemies and teaches them war songs and how warrior who brings home scalp 
is to act. In morning he tells children to follow people, and that they are to 
pray to him. They go and finally find mother, who thought they had perished. 
They tell about piece of flesh. Bdtki people use it with paint and heavy rains 
come. Children become bad, and when grown up they start off to kill some 
one. They pray to God of Thunder, who comes and teaches them how to kill 

282 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropol(jgy, Vol. VIII. 

Apache who are near. In morning they go and are surrounded by Apache. 
After arrow shooting for some time elder brother shoots Hghtning and all Apache 
are slain. They scalp large and fierce warrior, and cut out his heart and, tak- 
ing moccasins and costumes of slain, return. God of Thunder comes and tells 
them to throw scalp on man who is to be War Chief. They return home and 
are discharmed. Scalp is thrown and War Chief made. People leave Homo- 
lovi, and after wandering some time Batki clan goes to Aodtovi, and others, 
who become Forehead Clan, arrive near Shong6pavi, and finally settle in 
Shupaulavi. Chief of Shongopavi informs Spaniards in New Mexico that 
inhabitants of Shupaulavi wish to be taken away. Spaniards come to Keams 
Canyon. Chief of Wdlpi informs chief of Shupaulavi and they go together to 
see leader of Spaniards. They satisfy leader that he has been deceived, and 
after trading for clothes they have brought, Spaniards return. They never 
encroach on Hopi again, but people at Shupaulavi are scared by false news 
that Spaniards are coming, and many move to Shong6pavi. 

I 13. — The Revenge of the Katcinas. 

Katcinas assemble in kiva in mountains and come to village in night. 
They dance on plaza while people sleeping. Not knowing what or who dancers 
are, people become angry and threaten to kill them. Katcinas run away and 
jump from bluff into large crack. Katcina Uncle is in lead. People set fire 
to them and bum them up, except Uncle, who is at bottom. He returns home 
singing and sobbing. He finds Heh^a Katcina hoeing, and tells what has hap- 
pened. They go home to mountain, and when chief hears he orders Katcinas 
to assemble. They make it hail for three days. On fourth day they cause 
cloud to rise over mountains. Clouds spread over sky and Hopi expect good 
Tain. It thunders and lightens and rains great hail stones. All crops are 
■destroyed, and all people except one man and one woman are killed. Clouds 
then disperse and Katcinas say they are revenged. 

14. — -How the Circle (Pongo) Katcina and his Wife became Stars. 

Maiden who refuses to marry watches maidens playing game. Young 
man dressed in blue Hopi blanket comes by and talks with her. In evening 
while she grinds corn, Katcina comes to village and dances. Next morning 
maiden goes to same place and again youth joins her. She consents to marry 
him if parents willing. He is to come and get her next day. He tells her that 
he is Katcina who dances. In evening Katcina again comes dancing and 
singing. Mdna's parents consent to marriage, and she takes tray of meal to 
meet him. They proceed together to kiva where are many different Katcinas. 
Youth is Circle Katcina. Here they remain until mana's bridal costume 
finished, and then she goes home followed by her husband. Woman bears 
two children who are Circle Katcinas. Once mother while husband away goes 
to edge of mesa. Hot6to Katcina comes and she goes away with him. Circle 
Katcina, finding his wife gone, takes children to Katcina house. After awhile 
father and two children go to find mother. They trace her to Sikakva, where 
they find kiva, in which they remain over night and are fed by Hahdii 
Wuhti, who sings that mother passed by there. In morning they proceed 
eastward and come to Owl Spring, where they are entertained by another 
Hahdii Wuhti. During night she goes to Ki'shiwuu where Katcinas have dance. 

March. 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — V'oth. 283 

She returns, and three Circle Katcinas go and dance. Next morning Hahdii 
Wuhti goes to another dance. She returns and tells them mother is there. 
They go and dance on plaza, and on return meet mother, who goes with them. 
At nightfall father sends children on and then kills wife by thrusting stick into 
her throat. He follows sons, but skeleton of wife follows and he runs away. 
He arrives at Hdno, and goes into kiva where women who are making jugs 
hide him under pile of clay. Skeleton comes and finds him and he runs 
away. He goes into kiva at Wdlpi, where war dance is being practiced. He 
is given drum, but Skeleton comes, and he rushes out to Mishongnovi. 
He rushes into kiva where women are making trays for Lag6n ceremony. 
Woman seats him in her lap and hides him under tray. Skeleton arrives 
and drives women about. Man rushes out and runs to Shongopavi, where 
same thing takes place. From here he runs to Matfivi where Flute 
Society has ceremony. They tell him to go into spring and hide in top of sun- 
flower stalk. When Skeleton comes. Flute priest tells her husband has gone 
into spring. She enters and sees sunflower stalk reflected in water and her 
husband on top of it. Thinking he is in water, she dives in and disappears, 
Man comes down and joins Flute players. On fourth day woman comes out 
of water dressed in bridal costume. Priests call two together and place them 
back to back. They make roads with sacred meal, one south and other north, 
and tell them to proceed four steps and then turn and meet again. Man 
returns when he has taken three steps. Priests call on woman to run. She 
starts and husband after her. They are still running and are two stars. 

15. — The Kokoshori Katcina and the Shongopavi Maiden. 

K6koshori goes about stealing Hopi children. Woman throws stone at 
child who follows her. Child sits down and cries. K6koshori pities it and 
takes it on his back to Kishiwu. Katcinas are glad to see it and provide it 
with food. Child becomes homesick, and K6koshori goes to look after parents, 
who also are homesick. Child is dressed and Katcinas fetch it, all carrying 
food. When they come to village it rains very hard. Katcinas walk and sing 
about child. They come to parents' house and send child up. Katcinas follow, 
offering food, and distribute food among people. They go home and rain 
clouds go home. In morning people are sick on account of maiden. After 
a while they have no longer meat to eat. Maiden is homesick after Kishiwu, 
and dies. She is now living at Ki'shiwu. 

16. — How Ball-Head (TatciqtO) Wedded an ORAfei Maiden. 

Young man thinks he will try to marry maiden who has refused all young 
men of village. He sees her grinding com, and tells her to stop. They con- 
verse, and when she finds out who he is, she consents if mother willing. Par- 
ents say he will be welcome. Next morning young man prepares ten bunches 
of corn ears and proceeds to village. Maiden asks him to come in and they 
sit on opposite sides of fireplace. Young man wears mask of Ball-Head. He 
gives her com of which she eats and takes to parents. Maiden says she will 
now save corn meal she is grinding. Maiden grinds blue com four days, and 
on fifth day white com. In evening young man comes for his bride. She 
goes with him to his grandmother, taking tray of white meal. After being 
invited by grandmother and young man to come in, she enters. She hands 

284 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

tray to grandmother, and after evening meal they retire, mdna sleeping with 
grandmother. In morning, after making prayer-offerings to dawn and sun, shells com. Young man calls chickens, who eat com. He tells chickens 
to sit on banquette and then sings to them, accompanying song with drum. 
Chickens sway bodies from side to side to time of singing, and so grind corn in 
bodies. They then vomit meal into tray and leave kiva. Maiden thus saved 
trouble to grind meal. Young man hunts, and they prepare much food. 
Grandmother calls neighbors to come and eat. They come, each bringing part 
of bridal costume. In morning grandmother washes m^na's head with yucca 
suds. Afterwards she dresses m^na in bridal costume. Grandmother sprinkles 
road of meal, and children go to bride's house, where they are welcomed by 
her mother. Young people live in village, which prospers, as young man is 
Katcina. Wife goes astray and husband leaves village. People then become 

17. — The Ah5li and other WAlpi Katcinas. 

In former Wd.lpi village lives Ah61i Katcina and his little sister. In Sit- 
c6movi lives youth with grandmother. Ah61i and maiden go to field to plant. 
In field is bdho shrine where Ah61i deposits com meal and nakwdkwosis as 
prayer-offerings. In shrine lives Miiyingwa and sister, who cries on receiving 
offering, as they have been neglected. Ah61i places seeds on ground. Two 
deities arise, and as Mdyinga points certain objects to sky, sister forcibly 
throws squash filled with all kinds of seeds on ground on seeds placed by Ah61i. 
Mtiyingwa hands objects to Ah61i to produce rain and crops. Ah61i and 
maiden return to village and hear some one singing on top of bluff. Youth 
from Sitc6movi enters house and thanks them for what they have done They 
smoke together, youth blowing smoke in ringlets upon objects four times, 
praying to them, and they become moist, indicating that they would produce 
rain. Youth remains, and in morning they dress up in costumes and proceed 
to bdho shrine half-way down mesa. Here they sprinkle meal to sun and on 
shrine, and again hear voice singing. They look up and see Big-Hom Katcina. 
They go to look for him, and see Aototo shaking rattle of bones. While talking 
Big-Horn comes and after hearing what Ah61i has done, they agree to go down 
mesa. Part of way down they make bdho shrine as mark between Hdno and 
Sitc6movi. Further down they meet C6oyoko, who devours children, coming 
out of large shrine with twisted stone. They tell him not to trouble them, 
and descend to house of Ah61i, where they stay singing all night. In morning 
they go to fields and everything is growing beautifully. Near mesa they meet 
Big-Skeleton, who tells them to go and live on mesa. They have lived there 
ever since, and soon after that W^lpi commences to move up mesa and build 
new village. 

18. — The Two War Gods and the Two Maidens. 

P6ok6nghoya and little brother Bal(5ngahoya hear of two beautiful maidens, 
and go to visit them. Maidens think they have gone to marry them, and say 
they may own them if they will each have arm cut off. They consent, and 
maidens cut off right arm of young brother and then of elder brother with 
upper mealing stone. They carry severed arms home and tell grandmother 
how mischief happened. She asks them to lay down north of fireplace, places 
arms by their sides, covers them up, and sings. When through singing, they 
get up healed. Next day they go to house of maidens. P6ok6nghoya wants 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 285 

to choose prettiest, but younger brother objects, as he had his arm cut off first. 
His brother consents, and thej' sleep with maidens that night, and then return 

19. — The P6ok6nghoyas and the Cannibal Monster. 

Large monster called Shita comes to Oraibi and devours people. Chief 
asks Pookonghoyas, who live near village, for assistance. They tell him to 
make arrow for each of them. He brings them arrows and they go in search 
of monster. They see it and it swallows them. They find themselves on path 
into stomach, and see many people from different parts of earth. Stomach is 
little world in itself. They go in search of heart and shoot arrows into it. 
Monster dies, and they and people get out through nose. People seek old 
homes, settling down temporarily at different places, which accounts for many 
small ruins scattered throughout country. 

20. — PAokonghoya and his Brother as Thieves. 

P<3okong and his brother live near Shongopavi with grandmother. They 
play with ball, striking it towards Toriva. They drink at spring and see many 
bdhos. Younger brother swallows bdho. Elder brother discovers bowls of 
paints deposited in recess by Flute priests. He puts some of each paint into 
*ball through holes, and sews them up. They proceed towards Mishdngnovi, 
and beat ball through village. They enter kiva where Flute priests are assem- 
bled and grab tray with lightning frame, thunder board, netted water jug, etc. 
They go to kiva where Snake priests assembled, and grab bull-snake and carry 
it off in sack. They beat ball to corn-ear bluffs, where they find many bdhos 
and prayer-offerings. Elder brother refuses to take prayer-offerings, but 
younger one takes com bdho, watermelon, and melon. They start for Shongo- 
pavi and shoot lightning frame and twirl buUroarer. Clouds gather and there 
is thunder storm. They run towards house and again use lightning frame and 
thunder board. It thunders hard and lightning flashes. They rush into 
house and put things they have stolen into two pots, which they cover up. 
It rains, and Hopi have good crops because P6ok6ngyas have those things. 

21. — How THE P60KONGS Destroyed C6oyoko and his Wife. 

Many people living in Oraibi. Some who go for wood do not return. 
Man, while gathering wood, hears C6oyoko singing. C6oyoko says he will 
feast on man, but man crawls under wood and Cooyoko cannot find him. 
C6oyoko then finds woman and says he will feast on her. Woman climbs tree 
and micturates. C6oyoko sees moisture and says there must be clouds some- 
where. C6oyoko leaves place. Man and woman go to village and say it is 
Cooyoko who kills people. Village chief goes to shrine where P(k)kongs live 
with grandmother. Spider Woman. They are playing, but woman makes them 
stop. Chief tells them that he wants them to take revenge on C6oyoko for 
killing people. They promise to help him if he will make them some balls. 
Brothers take bow and lightning arrows. They strike ball before them for- 
ward and backward, until they arrive at C6oyoko's house. He and wife have 
gone, but they follow wife's tracks and find her sitting. They kill her with 
arrows. They go again to house and wait return of Cdoyoko. He comes 
singing, and throws something down. He enters kiva and hunts for something 

286 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

to eat. P6okongs have hidden themselves behind mealing bin, and kill him 
with lightning arrows. They scalp him and return home with many beads and 
other things. Village chief makes two balls out of buckskin and two ball 
sticks, which he takes to P6okongs. After that Hopi always return when they 
go after wood. 


Bear kills people living at Mishdngnovi. P6okong lives with grandmother 
at Skeleton Katcina house. Chief makes bow and arrows and also buckskin 
ball for P(k>kong and baho for grandmother. He takes them to house and 
asks P6okong to kill bear. P6okong hunts bear and shoots him in throat and 
hits him with ball stick. He skins bear and fills skin with dry grass. Then he 
ties it to himself and drags it very fast, screaming. People see him and tell 
grandmother bear is following him. He ascends house and throws bear to 
grandmother, who is scared, and dies. P6okong wakes her up and she whips 
him for scaring her. Chief happy, as bear stops killing people. 

23.— The P50K0NGS Attend a Dance. 

Pookongs live with grandmother, Spider Woman, at Achamali. They go 
to look on at dance at Shong6pavi. They throw wheels and shoot arrows at 
them as they go. They come to sand hill where grass is waving, producing 
hissing noise. They sit down and look at grass dancing. In evening they 
return and tell grandmother, who calls them fools. She sends them to see 
dance at Mishongnovi, and tells them about tray throwing. They get to 
Mishdngnovi and see dance, but they are so filthy no one invites them to eat. 
They snatch trays from dancers and run home. They give trays to grand- 
mother, who feeds them, but they are angry at not being fed in Mish6ngnovi. 
Hopi find salt, but salt belongs to P6okongs, who remove it far away to give 
Hopi trouble in getting it. 

24. — How P('^OKONG Won a Bride. 

Pookonghoya and brother Bal6onghoya live with grandmother. Spider 
Woman. They hear that maiden refuses to marry, and they tell grandmother 
they will go and try. She tries to dissuade them, as they are small and un- 
sightly. In evening they take squash seeds and some little sticks and go to 
village. They make stone traps to catch mice near maiden's house. She sees 
them, and asks what they are doing. She asks them to set traps at her house, 
as there are many mice. They set traps in house and near mealing bin. They 
set mealing tray instead of small stone, as in other traps. They kill antelope, 
and in night place it under piki tray. Next morning maiden finds antelope 
and tells father. They think it is caught by trap. In evening P6okongs go 
again and set traps, and maiden again asks them to set traps in house. While 
doing so, father comes and tells them about antelope. He says if something is 
again caught in trap they are to come for daughter. In night P6okongs kill 
deer and pla:ce it under piki tray trap. Daughter finds it, and father tells her 
to wait for somebody there at night. P6okongs quarrel about maiden, and 
grandmother decides P6okong must go. In evening he goes, mother fills tray 
with meal, and P6okong leads daughter away to house. Grandmother takes 
meal and tray from maiden, and invites her to eat huriishuki. Maiden is told 
to put very little in mouth, but it increases. Maiden grinds com for three days. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Votii. 287 

On fourth day grandmother calls for neighbors to come and assist in head- 
washing. Maiden sits close to kiva entrance, and clouds come and rain upon 
her. P(k)kongs constantly play with ball and stick, and with feathered arrows. 
Spiders prepare bridal costume. One day Spider Woman washes heads of 
Prtokong and bride. She gives maiden bridal costume and sends her to 
mother's house. P(k)kong follows with quantity of meat. Spider Woman 
instructs Piiokong not to talk much, and in evening to sit on floor looking at 
wrist-bands. After eating at mother's house, Prtokong sits on floor and holds 
wrist-band before eyes and looks through it. In morning Pfiokong goes to 
visit Spider Woman. When she hears what he has done, she says he is kahopi. 
In planting time P6okong goes to Spider Woman and she gives him small parcel 
of different kinds of com. He goes with father-in-law to plant, and takes 
parcel. They plant one grain of com at time, and it soon grows up. It rains 
heavily and much grass grows up. Spider Woman tells P6okong that he 
should form ant-hills throughout field, meaning that he should diligently hoe 
it. He goes to field with hoe, but finds ant-hills, and forms small ant-hills 
throughout field. When he tells grandmother, she calls him fool, and tells 
him to go and " wiklolantanangwu. " He goes and obtains fat, which he scatters 
through corn-field. He returns without having hoed. When he tells Spider 
Woman what he has done, she calls him great fool, and explains that she 
meant he was to hoe field. P(3okong finds father-in-law very sad about con- 
dition of corn. He tells him hoeing shall be done that day. They go to field. 
Spider Woman asks clouds to hoe field. While men are hoeing, clouds come 
and water runs through corn-field in streamlets, covering up grass with sand 
and earth. P6okong's wife bears son, who grows up and plays with children. 
Father makes him bows and arrows. Sometimes he shoots children. Oraibi 
angry and say Pdokongs should go to their own house. P(iokong returns home 
with son, leaving wife wnth her parents. 

25. — How THE Antelope Maiden was Reconciled. 

Two sons of village chiefs of Zuni are racing. At bluff they are called bj' 
Antelope mana. They approach, and maiden draws up elder brother by deep 
inhalation. She tells other one that she will not give back his brother even 
for his beads. When father hears, he sends younger brother to ask assistance of 
Pookonghoyas, for whom he makes ball tied to stick and arrow. He goes to 
house of Spider Woman, their grandmother, who calls them. Messenger hands 
them presents, and they send him to Mole. Mole tells them to go northward 
to his uncle. They come to house of Storm, who is Hopi. Young man tells 
his story and they smoke. Young man swallows smoke. Then Storm sends 
him to Snake people at Walpi.. He goes and finds Snake people dressed up as 
warriors. He tells them why he has come, and they smoke. Young man 
again swallows all smoke, which pleases Snakes. They give him baho, which 
they say maiden wants, and tell him to make bahos like it. He returns home, 
and they make good many bdhos. Young man, father, two Prtokongs, Spider 
Woman, and Storm proceed to bluff. Father asks for son and shows maiden 
bahos. By aid of Storm they get into house, and maiden says she wants 
bahos, but before she gives up son they must play game. She spreads sand on 
floor, and Hopi plant seeds and thrust bdhos into border of sand. Plants grow 
up quickly, and maiden then says they shall race, following sun. Young man 
mounts eagle breath feather and maiden turns into swift .snake. Maiden is in 

288 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

lead, and Spider Woman, with reed, by strong inhalation, increases young 
man's speed so that he beats. Mana draws son from inner room where many 
bones of young men. Antelope Maiden has been angry because no bahos 
had been made for her, but she is reconciled when her bahos are revived. 

26. — The Pookongs and the BAlolookong. 

While maiden is dipping out water at spring, Bdlolookong comes out, and 
by strong inhalations draws her towards him. He embraces her and disap- 
pears with her in water. Mother goes to look for her, and finds her tracks 
descending to water, and jug is standing there and old blanket. She tells 
father, who at once makes ball and arrow and takes them to house of P6okong- 
hoya and his brother. -They are romping, but their grandmother, Spider Woman, 
makes them be quiet. She gives man small ball of hurushiki, which increases 
as he eats from it. He gives to .youths and eagle nakw^kwosis to Spider 
Woman, who tells him what to do. He invites friends, and they make many 
nakwakwosis. Next morning Spider Woman and youths go to village, and 
brother of lost maiden is dressed up. Spider Woman instructs him, and they 
go to spring. P6okongs sing and brother dances. Balolookong comes out 
holding maiden in left arm. Brother approaches edge of spring and reaches 
for sister, but he begins to cry, and Balolookong disappears with her. They 
try again, and when Bdlolookong again appears brother grasps maiden and 
strikes him on head with club. Serpent releases maiden, and only his skin is 
floating on water like sack. They put other clothes on maiden and lay red 
feather pdhu on path. They throw tray with nakwakwosis into spring for 
price of maiden, and prayer-offerings, that nothing further should befall her. 
Balolookong still seen there by women, who become sick. He is now small. 

27. — How THE Yellow Corn-Ear Maiden became a Bull-Snake. 

Two maidens, friends, fall in love with young man, which leads to quarrels 
between them. Yellow Corn-Ear maiden has supernatural powers. They go 
to spring, and on return she suggests, after resting, they shall play. Friend is 
to go down hill and Yellow Corn-Ear is to throw little colored wheel she has at 
her and friend is to throw it back again. Yellow Corn-Ear throws wheel, and 
when friend catches it, it is so heavy it throws her down. When she rises she 
has turned to coyote. Yellow Corn-Ear laughs at her and returns to village. 
Coyote maiden tries to carry jug and cannot. She waits, crying, until evening, 
and then tries to enter village, but dogs drive her away. She goes westward, 
and being hungry, goes to temporary shelter of people in field and eats two 
roasted corn-ears she finds. She again tries to enter village, but is driven away. 
She then goes westward again and arrives at hut of two Q6q6ql6m Katcinas. 
They are away hunting, and she remains there all day. In evening they 
return, and one prepares to kill coyote, when other suggests they shall capture 
him alive and take him home to grandmother. Spider Woman. On entering 
hut they hear coyote sob, and see tears trickling down his eyes. They feed 
him, and loading meat, skins, and coyote on their backs, they return to their 
home. Spider Woman is pleased with present, but looking closely at it she 
says it is no coyote, and inquires where they found it. She sends one for some 
tom6ala and other for juniper branches. When former returns she pours 
water into vessel and puts hook from tomoala pods into neck and another into 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — yoTH. 289 

back of coyote, which she places into water, covered with cloth. She twists 
and turns by hooks and then pulls off skin of coyote. She finds maiden in 
vessel, with clothes on and hair in curls. When juniper comes, she bathes 
maiden and then gives her corn to grind. Spider Woman tells maiden her 
mother is homesick after her. She then calls for Katcinas, and tells them 
maiden's story. Maiden is dressed up, and after Spider Woman has instructed 
her as to prayer-offerings for Katcinas and how to get even with Yellow Corn- 
Ear, she goes to village %vith Katcinas. Katcinas dance and sing. Parents 
hear they have brought daughter, but at first refuse to believe news. They go 
for her, but m^na remains with Katcinas until father brings offerings. 
Maiden returns home, and next day she goes to grind com and sings about her 
adventures. Yellow Corn-Ear maiden hears and visits her. She is treated 
cordially, and they grind corn together as formerly. In evening they go to 
spring for water. Yellow Corn-Ear maiden notices that friend uses peculiar 
little vessel (given her by Spider Woman), and that water running into jug 
shows different colors of rainbow. Friend drinks and says water tastes good. 
She hands jug to Yellow Corn-Ear maiden, who drinks and turns into bull- 
snake. Friend tells her to remain so, takes jug, and returns to village. Bull- 
snake maiden later on goes to village and is Icilled by her parents, who do not 
know her. Her soul goes to Skeleton House, and ever since sorcerers occasionally 
leave their graves in form of bull-snakes. 

28. — Journey to the Skeleton House. 

Youth always sits on edge of mesa thinking about graveyard, and whether 
thos^ buried there are living somewhere. He gets corn meal and prays to sun 
for information. He prays four days and sun comes and gives him something 
to eat, when he sleeps in evening. He tells parents, and that when sun is high 
up they are to work on him that he may wake up. In evening he eats medicine. 
He dies and goes to Skeleton house. He sees trail. On north side he descends. 
He sees somebody whom he recognizes and who asks him to carry him four 
steps, but he goes on. Woman carrying something asks him to take burden 
from her, but he says he is in hurry. Man carrying mealing stone asks him to 
take it. Then he runs fast and comes to man shaking bell very loudly. It is 
Kwdnitaka, who explains what he has seen. He goes on and sees another 
Kwanitaka ringing. They go on together and see fire in deep place where 
wicked ones in Oraibi are burned and come out as smoke. They come to very 
dark, deep place from which those who are thrown in never come out. Youth 
returns to first Kwanitaka, who directs him to village. Here he finds Kwanitaka, 
and he sees chiefs he had known in Oraibi living in blossoms. He sees all kinds 
of grass, plants, and blossoms. Kwdnitaka tells him that those not wicked in 
Orafbi will come there. He is to tell his parents what he has seen, and run fast as 
they are waiting for him. He runs fast, and passing again all those he had seen 
before, he arrives at house in Oraibi and enters body. He awakes. When they 
have eaten, he tells them what he has seen. Young man wants to go back again. 
He tells parents, and at night takes some of medicine. He sleeps, but when 
mother brings him food he is dead. Father goes to his field, and Bdchro 
speaks to him and says he is not to be homesick for his son. Both father and 
mother are to come in four days. They go to field and Bachro comes again 
and tells them not to be homesick, as he lives well. After that when father is 
walking in field that comes there. 

290 Field Columbian Museum — ANTHROPOLbcY, Vol. VIII. 

29. — A Journey to the Skeleton House. 

In Shongopavi, son of village chief often sits looking at graveyards and 
wondering whether dead continue to live somewhere. Father cannot tell him, 
and speaks about it to other chiefs, and especially to village crier. They say 
Badger Old Man has medicine for it. They send for Badger Old Man, who 
says he has medicine, and goes for it. Next day young man is dressed as 
though dead. Badger Old Man spreads white owa on floor, and tells young 
man to lie down on it, and places medicine in his mouth, in his ears, and on 
his heart. Young man eats medicine and "dies." Then he sees path leading 
westward to Skeleton House, which he follows, and he sees one sitting in inclos- 
ure of sticks who will be long time in getting to Skeleton House. He pro- 
ceeds westward through cactus and agave plants, and arrives at steep bluff. 
Chief sitting there points out direction of house, which young man cannot see 
for smoke. Chief places young man's kilt on ground, places him on it, and 
throws it over precipice. Young man slowly descends on kilt as if flying with 
wings. On arriving on ground he proceeds and comes upon Skeleton Woman. 
She tells him that smoke is from where wicked people are thrown in and de- 
stroyed. He goes on to Skeleton House, where Skeleton people assemble to 
look at him. They ask who he is, and then take him to Bear Clan. There is 
ladder up to house. He tries to ascend, but rungs are made of sunflower 
stems and first one breaks as he steps on it. He stays down and Skeletons 
bring him food. They laugh when he eats, as they eat only odor and steam of 
food. That is why they are not heavy, and why clouds into which dead are 
transformed can float in air. They ask what he has come for; they say he 
must go back, his flesh is still too strong. He is to make nakwdkwosis for 
them at Soydl Ceremony, and they give him directions for wrapping up 
women when they die, that raindrops may fall when Skeleton moves through 
sky as clouds. Young man sees Skeletons carrying mealing stones on backs, 
and others bundles of cactus, as punishment. At another place he sees chiefs 
who had been good in this world. Young man returns. At bluff he mounts 
kilt and breeze lifts him up. He sees chief again, who says no one should 
desire to come there, it is not good or light. He meets no one on return home, 
and as he enters body he comes to life again. Badger Old Man washes and 
discharms him. He is fed, and then tells what he has seen in much same 
language as before. He adds that no one should desire to go to that place, 
because people are living in light here. 

30. — Skeleton Woman and the Hunter. 

Poor youth does not go with young men to hunt when snow on ground. 
Older men in kiva ask why he has not gone on hunt. He says he has no mocca- 
sins. They make him pair of moccasins and some leggings, and give him old 
blanket, also bow and arrows and some throwing sticks. They then explain 
difference between rabbit tracks and those of other animals. He leaves village 
and finds rabbit tracks, which he follows for long distance. Comes upon tired 
jack-rabbit, which he kills. On returning it becomes dark and youth sees 
light in kiva, where is pretty woman. She invites him in. He sits near fire, 
and she gives him brain of corpses and flies, which he pretends to eat. She is 
Skeleton Woman. He gives her rabbit. She says she is going to dance, and 
when she is through they will sleep together. She goes to another room. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 291 

leaving him to attend to fire. He sees opening of kiva closed with threads 
stretched in every direction. Woman comes again dancing and singing, and 
is skeleton. As she turns around youth jumps up, runs up ladder and cuts 
strings closing opening, and runs awaj'. He again sees light, and finds 
another kiva where dancing is going on. He enters and asks dancers to hide 
him. They are crickets. They rub clay over his body and he dances along. 
Skeleton Woman comes and asks for her husband. They pretend not to hear 
her, but she enters and examines dancers. Youth rushes out and runs towards 
village pursued by Skeleton Woman, who fails to overtake him. 

31. — MAsAuwuu Marries a Maiden. 

Beautiful maiden who refuses to marry is visited by Masauwuu as hand- 
some young man. She asks who he is, and after conversing all evening, she 
promises to marn.' him. Next morning she sends tray of muhpiki to his 
grandmother. She gives Mdsauwuu quantity of rabbit meat for maiden. 
Next morning he comes and takes her to his grandmother's house. 


Hano go hunting rabbits in winter towards Sun shrine. They kill 
many, and return still hunting. Mdsauwoiu hunts during night and sleeps all 
day. Hano follows cotton-tail, which jumps down just where Masauwuu is 
sleeping. They follow, making great noise. Mdsauwuu jumps up quickly and 
runs. Runs against rock several times and perforates his head and blood 
streams down. He used to have white head, but now has bloody head. He 
has much game, which Hano distribute, and proceed home. 

33. — The Two YAyaponchatu Trade in Oraibi. 

Long ago Ydyaponchatu live near Oraibi. They are like skeletons, white 
with disheveled hair, and wear kilts of black and white striped cloth. They 
understand fire. Oraibi barter by putting things on pile in kiva and sending 
round to different kivas to trade things off. Ydyaponchatu send two to trade 
for native tobacco. They go to kiva and let down bundles of broom grass. 
They make Hopi understand what they want, and one of them gets tobacco. 
They go to another kiva, and other one trades broom grass for tobacco. They 
are happy, and in village smoke tobacco. 

34. — The KoHONiNo Hunter. 

Kohonino goes hunting. Shoots mountain sheep and follows it all day. 
Shoots it again, and animal tumbles partly down bluff and dies. Hunter 
climbs down, but foot slips, and he rolls over ledge where animal lying. Both 
his eyes fall out, and he lies unconscious. Kohonino in village keep up fire all 
night and wait for return of young man. In night he revives, but as Skeleton. 
He goes to village, pitying himself. People see and hear him. They see 
skeleton, and all flee with things and children. Skeleton takes possession of 
houses, and has lived there ever since. Kdhonino go westward, and settle in 
valley near Green Bluff. 

35. — The White Corn-Ear Maiden and the Sorcerers. 

White Corn-Ear Maiden refuses all offers of marriage. Inhabitants of 
kiva, who are sorcerers, decide to destroy her. Thev make wheel of feathered 

292 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

arrows, one of which is poisoned. Into wheel they wrap breath of maiden. 
Young men play with wheel and arrows in front of maiden's house, and one of 
them wounds her foot with poisoned arrow. She dies at night. Sorcerers 
change themselves into coyotes and other animals, and after burial of maiden 
approach graveyard imitating sounds of animals. Brother of maiden is 
watching her grave, and sees animals approaching. He is about to shoot at 
them, when he hears them speak. They have old wrappings which they tear 
to pieces, that people may think coyotes have eaten corpse. Body is then 
disinterred and carried off on back of gray wolf. Young man follows them to 
place of meeting. He hears one of them say they should hurry up, and he 
immediately runs back to village for help. He goes to war chief, who promises 
assistance. After putting on war costumes, chief goes outside and whistles 
upwards. Star and cloud deity comes and promises assistance. Chief whistles 
again, and Hawk comes and promises to go with them. He again whistles, 
and many skeleton flies come and drink his spittle, and he closes his hand upon 
them. They all go to sorcerers' kiva and find them resuscitating maiden. 
Old man takes breath wrapped up in wheel, puts it into body, and mdna revives. 
When she sees herself among sorcerers, she cries bitterly. All have their Hopi 
forms. Old woman washes and dresses maiden, who is told to retire and lie 
down on bed. She seats herself on couch and old man approaches her. Old 
warrior just then releases skeleton fly. Its humming attracts attention, and 
old man sees it. Hawk rushes into kiva, grabs maiden, and carries her out of 
kiva on his back. Brother of maiden speaks, and when old man sees enemies 
in kiva he challenges them to contest of strength. Fire is extinguished, and 
sorcerers shoot small dangerous arrows which strike warriors' shields. Fire is 
rekindled, and when warriors are seen not dead they are challenged to show 
their skill. Fire is extinguished again, and war chief liberates bees from little 
sack, and they sting sorcerers and their wives and children. Old man begs 
warriors to desist, and then star and cloud deity throws lightning which tears 
them to pieces. Warriors return to village and deity ascends to sky, where he 
finds maiden taken there by Hawk. Maiden remains there for some time 
grinding corn-meal, and then Hawk takes her to earth and deposits her near 
Oraibi. She tells parents she will go back again, but when she dies they are 
not to wrap her up and tie her body. She disappears several times, and at 
last she fails to awake one morning. They treat her body as eagles are treated 
when they are buried. Her brother watches grave for four days, but it is not 
disturbed. In meantime star and cloud deity has restored his victims to life, 
but as punishment has mixed up parts of different bodies, that they should be 
ridiculed by people. Old man has one leg of woman, and so on. They come 
to village and are laughing stock of people. Old man falls down ladder of kiva 
and is killed. All victims meet with some accident, and soon all are dead. 
When last one dead, maiden descends from sky to village and lives long while. 
She finally dies and goes to sky to live with war chiefs. 

36. — Watermelon-Rind Woman (H5lokop5 Wuhti). 

Pretty maiden refuses all offers of marriage. Grandmother of young man 
called Piwitamni, because he patches her wrappers and blankets, tells him to 
ask hand of maiden in marriage. He refuses because he is poor, and his blanket 
much patched. Grandmother gives him two fawns and tells him to take them 
to maiden at certain rock. In evening he goes and finds maiden pulverizing 

Makch, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 293 

some rock. She sees fawns and asks for them. He gives her fawns and she 
takes them home. When grandmother hears, she tells young man to go to 
maiden's house, and if parents talk good to bring her. In evening he goes 
and maiden's parents recognize him. Father tells daughter to fill tray with 
meal and go along with young man. She goes with him, and is greeted by 
grandmother, who after they have eaten, shows her small room with very poor- 
looking couch on which to sleep. Maiden grinds com for four days, but there 
is no one to prepare her bridal costume. Grandmother tells grandchild to go 
and cry out for relatives to come and eat. They come and have good feast, 
after which they -give bundle containing costumes. In morning bride goes 
home, and people are surprised to see her dressed up in owa. She carries 
second owa and belt in front of her, and goes home to parents. Afterwards 
Piwitamni lives with wife, and is always poor. He proves to be lazy. His 
wife has to live partly on watermelon rinds thrown away by others, from 
which she derives her name. Young man has place in kiva, but he has little 
to eat. Only one old man sits by him when he eats. Others laugh at him. 
He tells grandmother that one man says he will feed wife with good food, and 
then take her away from him. Next day old man who sits near him tells him 
to wait until others have done. He does so, and he goes to grandmother's 
house and brings great many watermelons. He goes again and brings great 
deal of meat. He and old man eat together, and when done others come and 
take what is left. One man does not come, and then says they will bring their 
wealth to-morrow, and whoever is richest shall live with young man's wife. 
Next day they go for their possessions and fill kiva. Then Piwitamni goes to 
grandmother's house, and she gives him great many sashes. He returns and 
grandmother gives him buckskins in great quantities. Next time she gives 
him bundle of large buckskins, so that he is very rich. Old man takes all 
Piwitamni 's things to his wife. Men want another test, and next day go 
around village and examine corn piles. They find Piwitamni's house filled 
with corn, watermelons, and squashes, so he is ahead of them, and no one 
dares to take his wife from him. She is no longer called Watermelon -Rind 

37. — The Youth and Maiden Who Played Hide and Seek for thejr 


Oraibi youth going to watch father's fields, passes house of maiden. She 
asks if she may go with him. He consents, and she follows him, taking piki 
rolls. After eating, they play hide and seek. Mana hides first under some 
iiyi, and youth cannot find her. Youth then hides under bush of pawihchoki, 
where mana finds him. Mana pulls out tassel of cornstalk and crawls into 
opening, replacing tassel. Youth hunts through corn-field but cannot find her. 
He has to hide, and going through field hears Sun calling him. Sun throws 
down rainbow and youth climbs to Sun, who hides him behind his back. 
Mana follows his tracks and is puzzled. Finally she presses drops of milk out 
of breast, examines drops in her hand, and sees reflection of Sun with boy 
behind him. Youth next time watches which way mdna goes and traces her 
to watermelon patch, but he cannot find her. She bursts open watermelon 
and comes out. Youth now becomes unhappy and goes to hide. He hears 
voice and sees small hole by side of small cornstalk. It is house of Spider 
Woman. He enters and she spins web across opening. Mdna tracks him to 

294 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology,, Vol. VIII. 

edge of corn-field, but cannot find him. She takes mirror from bosom and 
sees opening of Spider's hole reflected. She tells youth to come out, and he 
does so very dejected. Mdna goes to hide fourth time. She crosses water- 
melon patch, goes into ditch, and turns into tadpole. Youth hunts for her 
and being tired, drinks from ditch, but cannot find her, and tells her to come 
out. Mdna emerges from water and tells him she saw him drink. Youth 
again goes to hide, and Spider Woman tells him to go to his uncle Ahfl who 
lives in temporary shelter. He goes, and Ahfl pulls out loose knot from corner 
pole, into which he puts youth, closing up opening. Mana hunts for him, and 
reaches shelter, but cannot find him. She wets tips of fingers, and presses 
point .of forefinger into right ear. She hears youth in hiding-place, and tells 
him to come out. They go to their place again, but then they return to shelter. 
Mana digs hole close to corner post, and saying she has beaten him, she tells 
youth to take off his shirt and his beads. Then she grabs him by hair, bends 
him over hole, and cuts his throat with knife, letting blood run into hole. She 
closes hole, digs another to north, and dragging body, buries it in grave. She 
takes shirt and beads with her home. Parents of young man inquire of maiden 
if she knows where he is. She says she does not, as he drove her away. 
Parents have killed sheep, but eat little, and flies come to meat. Woman drives 
flies off. Fly objects, and says she will go and hunt child when she has sucked 
meat. Woman tells Fly where boy went, and Fly goes to field. She discovers' 
traces of blood, and opens hole. She finds grave, and sucking all blood from 
first opening, ejects it into body. Heart begins to beat, and soon youth rises 
up. He complains of thirst, and Fly tells him to go to ditch and drink. After- 
wards they return to house of parents. Fly tells them that maiden has youth's 
shirt and beads, and that he is to go for them, and when she gives him shirt he 
is to shake it at her, and so also with beads. Fly tells youth not to eat piki 
rolls maiden will offer him. He goes, and mana brings food which he declines. 
She gives him shirt and beads, and he shakes them at her. Fly tells parents to 
go to mana's house. They hear noise in house. Maiden is changed into Child- 
Protruding Woman and dresses in white owa and has hair tied, but face and 
clothes are bloody. Noise continues, and deer, antelope, and rabbits, which 
are costumes of slain youths, dash out. Mdna tries to stop them, and grabs 
last one. She wipes hands over her person and rubs it over face of antelope, 
etc. She tells people that they will now have difficulty in hunting animals, 
and disappears with game. Ever since she has lived at Little Colorado River. 
She controls game and hunters make prayer-offerings to her. 

38. — The Maiden Who Stole the Youth's Costume. 

Youth wants to practice running and grandmother dresses him up. She 
tells him that on returning to village he is not to pass house of dangerous 
maiden. Next day he again runs, and when he ascends to village, maiden is 
standing on kiva. She says he is beautifully dressed up and asks him to let 
her dress in costume and dance for him. He lays off costume and hands it to 
her. She dresses tip, dances and sings. At last words she jumps into kiva 
through opening, closing it quickly, and tells him to go. Youth goes home 
and grandmother is angry, but she says maiden is hungry for meat and he 
must go and hunt. After eating he goes hunting and kills rabbit. Grand- 
mother tells him to take rabbit and offer it to maiden if she will dance for 
him again. He is then to cover opening with trap door quickly, so that she 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hon — Voth. 295 

cannot get back. Youth goes and maiden dances at edge of kiya opening, 
ready to slip in again. She sings and at last word youth throws game quite 
distance from kiva. Maiden rushes for it and youth closes opening. Mana 
sees she is defeated and lays off entire costume. Youth takes it to grand- 
mother, who is very happy. 

39.,— The Two Pueblo Maide.ns Who were Married to the Night. 

Two sisters refuse to marry. Night goes and asks them to marry him. 
They consent if parents are willing. Parents are willing and Night comes 
next evening for brides. Outside of village is large tray. They take place 
on tray and are carried through air to gulch where Night lives. They see room 
with bones of women stolen by Night in village, and whom he has thrown there 
as soon as they become pregnant. Women become pregnant. Younger sister 
goes to lake to get water and Prog speaks to her. He tells her they must go 
home that night by trail which leads to their home. In evening sisters go 
after water and Frog again tells them to go home by trail. They travel and 
see Spider Woman, who goes with them. Next day Spider Woman sees clouds 
and says they will overtake them. When three come nearly to village, clouds 
overtake them and women are killed by lightning. Elder sister is delivered of 
little boy and younger one of little girl. Children live and nurse. Mothers 
are alive during night, but are dead during day. When children are grown 
they ask about father. Mothers tell them that grandparents Uve in vil- 
lage near, but that they are bad. They contend and kill any one who is 
beaten, and who cannot guess w^hat is in something hanging on top of ladder, 
which is little turtle. Children start and mothers ask them to bring them 
clothes; and say that if grandparents do not say anything they also will go. 
Children arrive at village, enter kiva, and sit down. When asked thej'' tell 
who they are. When they have eaten they have to play game and boy wins. 
The)' are then asked to guess what "is wrapped up at top of ladder. They 
equivocate and then brother says little turtle. Grandfather admits they are 
his grandchildren and tells them to kill him. They refuse, but ask for some- 
thing. They obtain bow and arrows and clothes and then clothes for mothers. 
They say mothers will come if nothing is said to them. Children return to 
mothers. After evening meal all dress up and proceed to village, all abreast. 
They ascend ladder and women call out and receive no answer. They descend 
into kiva and again call. They do this three times and grandmother responds, 
immediately two children and two grandchildren fall dead. If they had been 
quiet once more, all would have lived together happily. 

40. — How Hiv6.\ATiTiWA Defeated the Plan of his Enemies. 

Young men try to win affections of maiden of Orafbi without success. 
Poor youth with patched blanket living at Achdmali tells grandmother he will 
try. He goes, and young men sitting on Snake and other kivas see him and 
smile. Youth talks with maiden and asks her to marry him. She promises if 
parents are willing and he says he will fetch her to-morrow. Grandmother will 
not believe him, but next evening he goes and brings mdna to grandmother's 
house. She grinds corn four days, but there is no one to make her bridal 
costume. Young man goes hunting and brings home much meat. Next morn- 
ing grandmother washes head of bride and then goes hunting around. She 

296 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

finds nothing in rooms on north, west, and south sides, but on coming out of 
room on east side she brings complete bridal costume. She dresses up bride, 
sprinkles road of corn meal, and sends her home to her parents. Inhabitants 
of Snake and Ndshabe kivas are angry at young man and plan how to kill him. 
They decide to make raid on Navaho. Grandmother hears of it through 
father of young wife, who is inhabitant of Snake kiva. She tells young man 
to send his wife's little sister to Snake kiva to call father to breakfast. In 
morning she goes to kiva for father and adds that in four days there will be 
war. Next day she repeats this, saying there will be war in three days. On 
third day she says to-morrow there will be war. Men make bows and arrows 
all day. Next morning she says there will be war that day. Navaho approach 
village and attack men in fields. Men of village descend to meet them. Hiy6n- 
atitiwa and father-in-law, well armed, go to old woman's house. She goes into 
different rooms and calls for Puma, Bear, Wild Cat and Wolf. Hopi meet 
Navaho, who ask where Hiy6natitiwa is. While talking young man and father- 
in-law descend mesa, accompanied by four animals. Animals rush on Navaho, 
who are nearly all killed, and also Hopi who have planned raid to get youth 
out of way and steal his wife. 

41. — The Shongopavi Maiden Who Turned into a Dog. 

In Shong6pavi lives a handsome youth whom all maidens ask for. Bad- 
looking maiden grinds coarse meal, puts it into tray and sings while throwing 
it to chfro birds. In evening birds assemble at mdna's house and after that 
mdna always feeds them. Youth also makes tray and hands it to maidens 
saying that who opens it shall get him. No one can open it. Tray comes to 
bad-looking maiden and Spider Woman tells her to sing. So, secretly singing, 
maiden opens it and owns youth. Pretty maidens are sad and angry. Youth 
takes maiden to his house. His mother bathes her and she becomes pretty. 
They make her bridal costume and she goes home, youth following. They 
sleep there twice, and second time she does not get up. Mother of maiden 
goes and tells them to get up. Maiden has turned into dog, which jumps down 
and runs away. 

42. — The Blind Man and the Lame Man. 

Earthquake at Oraibi frightens people and all run north. Blind man 
asks cripple for information. They call to each other to come over and finally 
■ blind man takes stick and feels his way to cripple's house. Cripple suggests 
that they also flee, blind man to carry cripple on his back and cripple to show 
way. Thus they follow others. Elk meets them and cripple wonders what 
it is. From his description blind man concludes it is elk. They have bow 
and arrow, and cripple suggests that blind man shall shoot it, cripple to aim 
for him. Blind man shoots and kills elk. They have nothing with which to 
skin animal or cut meat, but they dig eyes out with arrow. They make fire 
and place eyes on it. Eyes get hot and burst with great report. They jump, 
and lame man can walk and blind man can see. They remain awake all night 
lest they should become lame and blind again. In morning they follow tracks 
of people and find them in timber. People return to Orafbi, those two taking 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 297 

43. — Big Head and Goat Horn. 

Big Head and Goat Horn are friends, but live so far apart in Oraibi they 
do not often visit each other. Once Goat Horn visits friend and, after eating, 
he goes home, telhng friend he must visit him sometime. Big Head goes and 
stays night with friend. In morning he kills goat, cuts it in two, and gives 
friend half. Big Head takes it with him, and that is reason why Hopi when 
they kill goat cut it up. 


Two Oraibi women are great friends. They meet returning from getting water 
and Shovfviounom asks Kaviishkavuwnom what she is getting water to cook 
Latter says dish of young squashes, and asks friend to visit her. Shovfviou- 
nom goes home, prepares some huriishuki and takes it to house of friend, who 
has prepared young squashes. While eating they converse, and, after visiting 
awhile, Shovfviounom returns home. Next day when returning from spring 
she meets friend, who asks her what she is getting water to cook. Shoviviou- 
nom says Tav6chona, and asks friend to visit her. On return Kaviishkavuw- 
nom prepares some hunishuki and proceeds to house of friend, who prepares 
rabbit meat. They eat and converse until sun goes down. Then Kaviishkav- 
uwnom returns home. 

45. — How THE Children of PivAnhonkapi Obtained Permission to 

Catch Birds. 

Children living at Hukovi and at Pivdnhonkapi go to spring to trap birds. 
They are angry with each other. Hukovi children tell others they will not 
trap birds there, but that they can if they give them something. Children from 
Pivdnhonkapi go and get food, which they give to children from Hukovi. 
After that, children from both villages always catch birds there. 

46. — The Jug Boy. 

In Hdno handsome woman makes earthen jug. She tramples clay so 
that it spurts all around. She bears child which is earthen jug having little 
boy inside. Child grows to be young man. Tells grandfather he wants to 
go hunting. Grandfather makes him bow and arrows and ties them to jug 
handles. He also ties food and burden band to jug. Grandfather carries jug 
from village and leaves it, after telling him about rabbit tracks. Jug youth 
finds tracks and follows them. Chases rabbit, which jumps down into wash. 
Jug youth also jumps and bursts in two, and Hopi comes out. He takes 
burden band and bow and arrows and follows rabbit, which he shoots. He 
kills four rabbits, which he carries home. Mother and grandfather are happy, 
and with his assistance live there. 

47. — The Crow as a Spirit of Evil. 

Crow lives on mesa where sun shrines are located near Orafbi. He watches 
people plant com in valley and sees who plants com first. When com begins 
to have ears. Crow goes first there. Crow also impersonates sickness. He 
influences bad people so that they get sick and some die. He despoils people 
in other ways, some beginning to steal. Good people, whose heart is not strong 

298 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

are thus turned into bad people. Some one else tries to counteract doings 
of Crow, but Hopi do not know who he is or where he lives. He is not so 
strong as Crow. When Hopi are Under influence of Crow, other power makes 
itself felt by sudden shock. 

48. — The Maiden and the Coyote. 

Young men bring flowers to beautiful rnaiden of Oraibi, but she refuses 
them. Yellow Cloud chief of north hears about it, takes yellow bridal outfit 
and offers it to maiden, but she refuses it. Then Blue Cloud chief of west takes 
blue bridal outfit and offers it to maiden without success. White Cloud chief 
of east. Black Cloud chief from above, and Gray Cloud chief from below each 
tries his luck, but all fail. Rain Deity in far south hears story. He paints 
and dresses up like Katcina and proceeds to Oraibi. Maiden is favorably 
impressed with him and promises to ask her parents to give her to him in four 
days. Parents offer no objection. Coyote Old Man, hearing maiden has 
accepted Rain Deity, determines to win her. He travels south and captures 
Macaw, which maiden accepts as present. During night he goes to house of 
Rain Deity and steals his costume and ornaments. Next morning he dresses 
up and paints like Rain Deity and proceeds to house of maiden, who, thinking 
it is her lover, goes with Coyote Old Man to his house. She soon discovers 
mistake and is very unhappy. When Rain Deity awakes he misses costume. 
He follows tracks to house of maiden and then to house of Coyote, where he 
finds her. He returns home very angry. Young men of village hear and go 
to kill Coyote. He manages to escape unhurt and from distance makes defiant 
gesture at pursuers. Rain Deity afterwards strikes Coyote dead with light- 
ning. Maiden returns to her home, but leads life of lewdness. 

49. — Ch6rzhukiqolo and the Eagles. 

There is family consisting of father, mother, two daughters and son. Son 
always hunts eagles and takes care of them and does not assist father in field 
work. He captures two eagles and goes to find food for them. Girls angry 
and beat eagles and then go with mother to field. They lock up house and 
hide key. Young man returns and eagles tell him what sisters have done. 
They tell him to dress up and that they want to go where family is. So he 
decorates himself and mounts on eagles' back. Eagles ascend and young man 
sings song. They come near field and sisters recognize brother. Eagles descend 
and parents ask them to leave son, but they soar out of sight after circling 
four times. Family at once go home mourning. Eagles fly to their home, 
through opening in sky, whence they come down in response to prayers of 
Hopi and hatch their young in this world. Eagles deposit young man on 
high bluff and leave him there because his sisters had beaten them. Wren 
appears jumping up and down edge of bluff. He speaks to Wren, but receives 
no answer. Black Spider comes, having been informed by Wren, and pities 
him. Spider goes and brings him two small downy turkey feathers to keep 
him from getting cold. In morning Wren comes again and makes ladder down 
narrow crack to ground with its feathers, which it pulls out, leaving itself en- 
tirely naked! having kept only its bill. Young man follows Wren down ladder 
and reaches ground. Wren replaces feathers in body, and, after directing 
young man where to go, leaves him. He comes to place and hears voice of • 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 399 

Spider Woman, who invites him in. She enlarges opening and he enters. She 
asks him to live with her and gives him small piece of doughy mush and half 
a nut. She tells him to take small quantity. As he eats it increases in his 
mouth. After eating, Spider Woman makes him ball of pitch and hair. In 
morning young man runs southward kicking ball. He comes to small lake 
and kills little bird for Spider Woman. She is pleased and says bird will last 
them several months. Next day he brings home two birds and on third day 
large number of birds, and Spider Woman says they can now eat meat and 
no longer suck it. On fourth day he goes westward from lake to see who it is 
Spider Woman has told him is dangerous. He kicks ball before him and all 
at once it disappears. It has dropped into kiva. Some one from ^vithin tells 
him to come in. He sees ball lying north of fireplace. Man in kiva is Hdsoh-. 
kata and has eyelids hanging down on breast. They play tot<51ospi and Hdsoh- 
kata beats twice. He tells young man to lie down outside of entrance of kiva 
and ties his hands and feet. Spider Woman goes to look for him and finds 
him tied. She goes home to bring him two fuzzy turkey feathers. On return 
she calls her people, and animals of prey come. She tells them she wants them 
to go and take grandchildren from Hdsohkata and gamble with him. While 
Hdsohkata is laughing at young man, rescuers arrive at kiva. Spider Woman 
takes cup game. Mole proceeds under ground. Spider Woman tells Hdsoh- 
kata they have come to gamble with him. She puts four gaming cups on 
north side of fireplace. By aid of mole, who is under floor and pushes little 
ball under cup, they beat Hdsohkata, who tells them to take young man along. 
Spider Woman finds ball, which disgusts Hdsohkata, and he challenges them to 
another trial. If they can pull out a certain amount of brush, he will consider 
himself beaten. Mole hears and gnaws off biggest roots of brush. They pull 
out so much that Hdsohkata considers himself beaten. He tells them to take 
all he has. There are many objects in kiva he has taken away from his victims. 
They take everything, and then Bear grabs him and tears out his heart. Wolves 
tear his corpse to pieces and devour it. Animals do so still, and this is why 
Hopi hunt and kill them. Spider Woman sends animals away and takes grand- 
child home with her. Wren finds out that young man's parents are longing 
for him and tells Spider Woman. She says that next day she will go with 
him. They go to opening through which eagles brought him. Spider Woman 
places sticks around it and spins much web. Young man mounts her back 
and they descend. They strike earth close to field of his parents. He starts 
to parents' home. They recognize him at last, and all are united once more. 

50. — The Hawk and the Child. 

Navaho living east of Orafbi steal Hopi boy. They make him work and 
give him little to eat, so that he becomes emaciated. Navaho have great 
gathering and leave boy behind. Hawk pities him and carries him on his 
back to bluff. Hawk then swoops down on Navaho camp and grabs little 
boy of wealthy Navaho, tears clothes from child, and then drops him. He 
takes costume to little boy and then grabs another Navaho boy and takes 
his moccasins. Navaho are much frightened and disperse in all directions. 
Hawk gets boy firewood and fire and some rabbit meat, which boy roasts and 
eats. He stays four days in Hawk's house. Then Hawk takes him on his 
back, and, after circling round Navaho camp number of times, flies with 
child to village of Orafbi. 

300 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

51. — MuYiNGWA, Two Children, and the Humming-Bird. 

Orafbi people have nothing to eat, as it does not rain for five years. All go 
away, leaving little boy and girl in village. Brother makes for sister little bird 
from pith of sunflower stalk. She plays with it, and, throwing it upwards, it 
becomes Humming-bird and flies away. Next morning bird flies into house 
and enters opening in wall. Boy puts hand into opening and finds little com 
ear placed there by bird. They roast and eat it. Next day bird returns with 
larger corn ear, and so it does for four days. On fifth day it does not bring 
any com and boy draws bird forth from opening, in form in which he had 
made it. Little girl throws it upwards and bird flies away. It sits upon rock, 
looks southward, and detects cactus plant with single red blossom. Bird flies 
towards plant and removing it finds opening under it. Entering opening it 
is in kiva,- where grass and herbs are growing. At north end is another opening 
through which bird passes to second kiva, where is com with pollen. Bird 
finds opening into third kiva, where are grass, herbs and com of all kinds. 
Here lives Mdyingwa, god of Growth and Germination. Mdyingwa asks why he 
is going about. Bird flies on his arm and tells him condition of things at 
Orafbi, and asks him to come out and look after things. He says children are 
hungry. M65ringwa tells him to take what he wants. Bird takes roasting 
corn ear and carries it to opening. Children are thankful to bird and ask it 
to hunt their parents. It flies north and finds father and mother of children. 
They are much emaciated. Man asks bird to procure them some food. It 
flies away and tells children about parents. They ask it to bring them some- 
thing to eat, and bird flies away. Mtiyingwa ascends to first kiva, and it 
rains little about Orafbi. In four days he ascends to next kiva, and it again 
rains. He ascends to third kiva and it rains considerably around Orafbi. 
After four days more he emerges from last kiva and finds grasses and herbs 
growing. Parents of children and others return. Children grow up and become 
village chiefs and owners of Orafbi. 

52. — The KalAtoto who Wished to have Hair on his Head. 

Kaldtoto often visits Orafbi to find something to eat among refuse. Chil- 
dren tease him and snap their fingers against his head so that he nearly dies. 
He then retires to house. He wonders how he can get hair on his head like 
children, and goes to timber and gets some pitch. He goes to village to hunt 
for hair and finds some on piles of refuse. Next morning he puts pitch on his 
head and hair on it. He visits village again and children recognize him. They 
notice smell of pitch and take little sticks, with which they scrape it off his 
head and chew it. He gathers up hairs which they had thrown away and returns 
home. Next day he goes to timber and finds cactus, juice of which he puts on 
his head and pastes hair to juice when nearly dried. He goes again to village and 
children again try to remove head covering, but they find it is not pitch. 
Towards evening he goes home and then dried jtiice cracks and falls off with 
hair. He tries pitch again and puts it on evening before dance in village, 
pasting new hair to it. He sleeps well, but pitch has become warm during 
night and adheres to floor on which he has been sleeping. He tries to rise, 
but cannot, and dies of hunger. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 301 

53. — The Child who Turned into an Owl. 

In Shupaul^vi child cries bitteriy and mother beats it. She tells it she 
will throw it out to the owl and drag?: child out of house. Large Owl conies 
and carries child off on his back. He takes child to cave, where his children 
are living nicely. Then mother no longer hears crying. She comes and looks 
for child, but it has gone. In morning she hunts for it, but cannot find it. 
Men going after wood, on passing Owl's cave, hear singing. They look up 
and in cave see child which has feathers and white spots of owl appearing all 
over body, and eyes becoming yellow. On return to village they tell what 
they have seen. Parents of child proceed with men to place. Men climb up 
to cave and take child. Owl tells them to keep child locked in room four days 
and let it out on fourth day when sun rises. It will then be Hopi. If door 
is opened sooner, child will remain Owl and go back. They take child to 
village and lock it up in room. Father watches. After first day mother is 
anxious to open door, but father forbids. When it begins to be light after 
third night, she opens door and out rushes Owl, which rises up and flies to place 
it has come from. 

54. — The Children and the Lizards. 

Man from Wdlpi goes to attend dance at Shong6pavi. He sees children 
hunting lizards and shooting arrows at them. Proceeding, he hears voice 
and sees little lizards sitting and making peculiar sounds. He watches them 
running around and playing with each other. Man has lost so much time he 
returns and relates that he has not seen dance, but has watched children hunt- 
ing and singing song, which is forever afterwards called Mish6ngnovi Song. 

55. — The Rooster, the Mocking-Bird, and the Maiden. 

Beautiful maiden persistently refuses all offers of marriage. Chief of 
north brings her bundle of presents, which she looks at, but returns bundle, 
saying she does not want it. Rooster goes as handsome youth to maiden who is 
pleased with him. Tells him to remain over night and return in four days, 
and then she will go to his house. On third day Mocking-bird, who has heard 
about Rooster, goes and asks maiden to marry him. She promises to marry 
him and speaks to mother about it. Rooster has seen Mocking-bird going 
upon mesa, and he also goes same day to house. They have altercation and 
agree to have contest in three days to see who knows most about making 
light. Rooster goes in search of assistance. While resting near bdho shrine, 
somebody tells him to come in. He enters and finds many maidens. He 
is seated and given shelled com to eat. He goes on his journey until he 
comes to large rock with opening. He crows repeatedly and door opens. He 
enters and finds many roosters and chicken men, women, youths and maid- 
ens. After he has been fed, they ask what he has come for. He tells them 
about maiden and of his contention about light. They promise to try and do 
something for him, but that Mocking-bird understands something and has 
assistance of Kwdtokwuu. In evening they sing and crow all night. After 
third crow, yellow dawn appears, and after singing two more songs sun rises. 
Chief says they have accomplished it right and that rooster can go hoem 
without fear. He returns running very fast. He is again fed by maidens. 

302 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

They tie dry corn-husks to his tail. As he runs they rattle, and as he is scared 
he runs very fast. Next day he walks through village and then notifies Mock- 
ing-bird to come that night and watch him. In evening Mocking-bird goes 
to Rooster's house, and Kw^tokvvuu goes to his house. Rooster sings all night, 
and when he has nearly done Mocking-bird slips away and notifies Kwdtokwuu, 
who spreads his large wings across eastern sky, completely covering up dawn. 
Rooster crows after singing last two songs, but it does not become light, so he 
has failed. Mocking-bird flies away and sun soon comes up. In evening 
Mocking-bird invites Rooster to come and watch him. He sings and whistles all 
night, and after last two songs sun rises. Maiden marries Mocking-bird. She 
bears two children, boy and girl. Boy is child of Rooster and girl of Mock- 
ing-bird. Women since then said to be children of Mocking-bird, and that 
is why they talk and jabber so much. Men are considered children of Rooster 
and that is why they are so gentle and docile. 

56. — The Toad and the Snow Katcinas. 

Son of Toad Woman goes to village to listen to Snow Katcinas practice 
their singing. He wears robe of wildcat skin, as is customary among young 
men. On eighth day Toad Womafi washes his head with suds. When sun 
rises, he puts on robe and cap of skin and goes to village. He paints his face. 
Children laugh at his funny cap. Nobody gives him food, but old man tells 
children to take him to ant hill. When he has eaten many ants, he goes back 
to plaza and attends dance all day, enjoying himself. As he leaves village 
in evening, children follow, having red piki. He asks for some. They give 
him very little, which he takes to his mother, and she is happy. 

57. — The Locust that Came to Life while Being Roasted. 

Many locusts live in valleys around Oraibi. Children capture many, 
which women roast in pots with salt water. Young men used to hunt jack- 
rabbits, and cotton-tail rabbits, but prefer to hunt locusts. While old woman 
is stirring locusts in pot, one of them becomes alive, sings song about locusts 
being meat instead of rabbits, while slbwly crawling up stirring stick. Woman 
replies to it and locust flies away with hissing sound. 

58. — The Coyote and the Turtles. 

Coyote hunts near place where turtles live in river. Turtle has little 
baby, whom it leaves asleep when others go hunting food. Little turtle awakes 
and, nobody being there, it cries and comes out of water. It finds tracks and 
follows them for some distance, but cannot find any one and cries bitterly. 
Coyote hears, hunts it up, and asks what it is singing. Little turtle says he is 
not singing, he is crying. Coyote asks why he is crying. Little turtle tells 
him, and he then threatens to eat turtle if he does not sing again. Little 
turtle refuses and says if Coyote eats him he will live in his body. Coyote 
then threatens to throw him in water and little turtle asks him not to, as he 
would drown. Coyote takes little turtle and slings him into water. Little 
turtle then swims around and laughs at him. Coyote threatens to kill turtle's 
mother. He meets turtles on way back to water and tries to seize one. it 
draws its head, feet, and tail into shell and Coyote cannot hurt it. He jumps 

March, 1905. The Tr.xditions of the Hopi — Voth. 303 

toward others with same result, and then leaves them in disgust. Turtle 
mother finds cactus, which child eats. He then tells mother of his adventure 
\vith Coyote. Mother laughs and is very happy. 

59. — The Water Serpent and the Coyote. 

Water Serpent and Coyote are great friends. Water Serpent is still young, 
but he is so long that when he visits Coyote and coils up he fills kiva. He invites 
Coyote to visit him. Coyote meditates how he can fill kiva of Water Serpent 
and tells him tail will become long. He gets large bundle of cedar bark, makes 
bark pliable and wraps it with yucca leaves. He then pulls out wool and 
pastes it to cedar bark, so that it looks like tail. He then fastens false tail to 
his own. In morning he goes to Water Serpent's kiva, which is well filled with 
his tail. When he leaves he asks Snake to visit him again. W'hen he comes 
to his kiva he unfastens tail. He puts it on again when he sees friend coming. 
Snake arrives and has grown so much he cannot get into kiva with Coyote's 
tail. Coyote goes out and sits near kiva opening conversing with Snake inside. 
Coyote becomes very cold and angry with Snake for staying so long. He 
determines to get even with friend and makes another long addition to tail. 
On very cold day he goes again to visit his friend. He enters kiva and fills 
entire kiva with tail. Snake goes outside and becomes very cold and then 
very angry Coyote stays so long. Finally Coyote says he must go, and while 
he is dragging his tail after him up ladder Snake goes in and shoves end of 
Coyote's tail into fire. When Coyote is near his kiva he looks around and sees 
smoke and fire. He thinks Hopi have set grass on fire to drive him away. He 
runs away and reaches timber, but, seeing this burning after awhile, he runs 
to Little Colorado River and jumps in. He is drowned. 

60. — The Coyote and the BAlolookong (Water Serpent). 

Bdlolokong goes to Coyote's kiva, which he fills entirely, so that Coyote 
has to go outside. Coyote is angry and makes large artificial tail, which he 
fastens to his own. He visits Balolookong and tail fills kiva. Bdlolookong has to 
go outside and when Coyote leaves sets artificial tail on fire. Grain is set on 
fire and Coyote runs away and finally reaches Little Colorado River, in which 
he is drowned, as in No. 59, but here he jumps into river because fire on tail 
reaches his natural tail. 

61. — B.4l6l6okongwuu and the Coyote. 

L6l(k)kong goes to visit his friend Coyote and is so long he fills kiva. 
Coyote gives him juniper berries to eat. He invites Coyote to visit him and 
leaves. Coyote thinks he will pay off his friend and makes artificial tail of 
cedar bark and yucca leaves, which he fastens to his own tail. He goes to his 
friend's house and fills whole kiva with his long tail. They eat corn-pollen. 
They talk together until evening and then Coyote goes home. When his tail 
is nearly unwound, Lol6okong sets fire to it. Tail sets grass on fire. When 
tail is nearly consumed, Coyote reaches kiva and begins to think that his friend 
has so treated him and becomes very angry with L6l6okong. 

62. — The Coyote and the Frog. 
Coyote goes to see his friend Frog. He is raided by dogs and jumps down 
mesa, but is not killed.. After he has drank much water. Frog suggests that 

304 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIIL 

they sit down. Coyote asks Frog to dance for him and Frog jumps into deep 
water. He comes up with mouth wide open. He is pregnant. He tells 
Coyote to draw him out. Coyote grasps him by arms and throws him on 
ground. Frog bursts and tadpoles swarm around him. Frog dies. Coyote 
starts off home. People see him and try to capture him. Rain and hail storm 
comes up and Coyote's hole is filled with water. He tries to find shelter, but 
hail stones are so heavy they kill him. 

63. — The Coyote, the Bat, and the Humming-Bied. 

Coyote, Bat, and Humming-bird are friends. Bat and bird visit Coyote, 
who always has plenty of meat, which they enjoy. Bat thinks he will invite 
his two friends, but is worried as to what he will give them to eat. He goes 
in evening to Oraibi, thinking some one may have forgotten to take in meat 
that is drying, but finds none. He returns home discouraged, but goes again 
and finds open window, through which he gets into house, and carries home 
piece of tallow. He afterwards gets more tallow and some meat and some 
salt. He determines if his friends ask where he got food to say from Badger. 
In morning he invites bird and Coyote to visit him. They go and at noon 
Bat prepares meal. His friends enjoy food and ask him where he got it. He 
says Badger gave him it. They say nothing, but on way home talk matters 
over and agree that Bat is deceiving them. Bird visits Coyote in evening. 
They talk about food and agree that Bat must have stolen it in Oraibi. They 
conclude they will song-tie him and start to make song. During night Coyote 
finishes song and in morning he goes to bird's house and sings song. They 
practice it until they both know it. Bird invites Bat in evening and fetches 
Coyote. Bird proposes to have song and they all stand in line. Bird 
begins song. Coyote chimes in and Bat sings best he can, but soon finds out 
that joke is being played on him. He stops singing, tells them they have 
song- tied him and that it ends their friendship. They disperse and never 
become friends again. 

64. — The Coyote and the Humming-Bird. 

Coyote and Humming-bird both have children and are good friends. Coy- 
ote goes to place where is refuse of village to look for pieces of skin, and bird 
goes to place close by and buries himself, his bill only protruding. Coyote 
comes and thinks bill is needle and pulls at it. Bird says it is his bill and 
laughs at Coyote. They go to bird's house and converse. In evening Coyote 
goes home, inviting bird to visit him to-morrow. Next morning bird goes 
to Coyote's house, first hunting worms. Near house she sees something pro- 
truding from ground and thinks it is gourd jug. She'puUs'at it and Coyote 
says it is his snout. Coyote feeds friend on juniper berries, Coyote eating 
some. After talking awhile bird returns home. 

65. — How the Coyote was Deceived by the Wren. 

Coyote Woman has four children for whom she hunts mice and other little 
animals. She goes to spring after water for children, which she brings in her 
mouth. Once when she returns from spring with mouth full of water, she sees 
Wren jumping from one rock to another, singing. Coyote laughs and spills 
water. She goes again to spring and on return again laughs at Wren and 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hon — Voth. 305 

spills water. She tells Wren that she is going again for water and that if 
Wren is still doing that on her return she will devour him. While Coyote 
is gone Wren slips out of his skin and dresses up stone with it so that it looks 
like Wren. Wren himself slips under rock and when Coyote returns begins 
to sing. Coyote laughs and spills water. He is very angry and grabs stone 
dressed as bird and crushes it. She breaks all her teeth so that blood streams 
from her mouth. She runs back to spring to wash her face and sees bloody 
face staring at her. She runs to another spring and is scared away m same 
manner. She visits several other springs with same result, and then rushes 
westward to Grand Carton. She jumps into canon and perishes. 

66. — The Aahtu and the Coyote. 

Aahtu are playing in cedar timber and singing. When through with song 
they throw their eyes on tree and on again singing song eyes return to their 
sockets. Coyote comes and asks what they are doing. They tell him that 
when eyes are not clear and they are thrown away in that manner they become 
clear again. Coyote says one of his eyes is not clear and he will join them. 
He throws his eyes on tree with others at last word of song. They sing again 
and all eyes except those of Coyote return. Little birds all laugh at him and 
say eyes will not return as he is bad. Coyote is angry and leaves them. He 
can find nothing to eat and soon dies. 

67. — The Coyote and the Turtle-Dove. 

Turtle-dove cuts her hand while rubbing out seed from tassels of kwdkwi 
grass. It bleeds profusely, and while she moans Coyote approaches. He asks 
if she is singing and, when she says she is crying, he tells her to sing again or 
he will devour her. Dove sings again and Coyote imitates her and runs away. 
He stumbles over rock and falls down. He loses song and goes back to Turtle- 
dove. He makes her sing song again. He runs back singing, but again 
stumbles and falls, and again returns. Turtle-dove goes away and leaves stone 
resembling her in place where she has been sitting. Coyote says he has again 
fallen and forgotten song. He threatens to devour Turtle-dove if she does 
not sing. Receiving no reply he grabs what he believes to be Dove, but finds 
it is stone. He breaks all his teeth and blood streams from his mouth. He 
runs back and comes to spring Toriva. As he puts mouth to water he sees 
bloody face staring at him and runs away. He goes to several other springs, 
in which he sees same reflection and dares not drink. Finally he runs to 
Orafbi, where is place where no one lives. He puts his snout into water and is 
just about to drink when he discovers skeleton staring at him from water. 
He is very angry and tears up rocks about spring, but is so exhausted he falls 
down and dies. 

68. — The Coyote and the Blue Jays. 

Coyote has wife and five children, for whom he hunts rabbits. He chases 
little cotton-tail rabbit, which runs into hole which he cannot enter. Badger 
comes along and Coyote asks him to get rabbit out for him. Badger does and 
Coyote runs home with it. Little Coyotes wrangle over rabbit, tear it to pieces, 
some getting nothing and remaining hungry. Next morning Coyote and wife 
go in search of food. Wife enters woods and hears Blue Jays in tree. They 

3o6 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

are dancing and ask her to join them. She says she would like to, but cannot 
get up there. Blue Jays put some of their wings, tails and feathers on her 
legs. She ascends and dances with them. Then they fly away, Coyote with 
them, and alight on another tree. This they repeat three times. They then 
fly up into air, and when very high they surround Coyote and tear out all 
feathers they h^e loaned him. Coyote falls to earth and dies. Coyote hunts 
for his wife, but dogs pursue him and he goes back to children, who now have 
no mother. Coyote afterwards hunts food alone for children, and this is why 
so many coyotes look out for food alone. 

69. — The Coyote and the Eagle. 

Coyote seeing Eagle stand on one foot, asks him why he does so. Eagle 
says he has cut one leg off. Coyote inquires how Eagle did it. Eagle tells 
him to lay leg across stone and strike on it with sharp stone and it will come 
ofif, adding that it does not hurt. Coyote does as told. Eagle lowers second 
leg, stretches out his wings, laughs at Coyote, and then flies away. Coyote 
limps away, crying. 

70. — The Coyote and the Red Eagle. 

On Coyote's returning from hunt one hot day, he finds his children very 
thirsty. They are still very young. He goes to Toriva for water, which he 
gets in his mouth. On returning he sees Eagle dancing on one leg. Coyote 
laughs and spills water. He runs back to spring and again fills mouth with 
water, which he again spills through laughing at dancing Eagle. He is angry 
and goes to cedar timber to get some pitch. He goes again to Toriva and, 
after drinking, fills his mouth and pastes it up with pitch. He again sees 
Eagle dancing and again laughs, but he does not spill water. He finds his 
children sleeping nicely and pours water into their mouths, but they do not 
awaken. They are dead. He is angry and goes to kill Eagle, who flies away, 
and shows that he has two legs. 

71. — The Coyote and the Turkeys. 

Coyote and Turkey are great friends and both have children. Coyote goes 
to Turkey's house and admires figures on little turkey's feathers. Turkey 
mother says she baked children and ate their meat, but did not break any 
bones, which she put into tray and waved up and down, singing song, and then 
threw bones outside and children got alive again beautifully figured. In 
morning Coyote gets wood and makes oven very hot. Then he throws all 
little Coyotes in and plasters oven up. In evening he takes them out thoroughly 
baked, eats meat, but does not hurt bones, which he gathers into basket. 
During night Turkey mother sends her children away to San Francisco Moun- 
tains. She rolls up small blankets and places them on floor to make them appear 
as sleeping. Then she follows children. When sun comes out Coyote takes 
tray containing children's bones, waves it up and down, singing song, and 
throws bones away. Nothing comes alive and only bones are there. He is 
very angry and runs very fast to friend's house. He jumps on beds and grabs 
at young turkeys, but nobody is there. He hunts tracks of turkeys, who 
have arrived at Little Colorado River. They cross it and little turkeys are 
very tired and mother leaves them and runs ahead to San Francisco Mountains. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 307 

She tells turkeys that Coyote is following them and two very strong Turkey 
men run towards place where mother has left children. Coyote is chasing 
little turkeys and is just about to take one when Turkey men come, grab little 
ones and run away with them on their backs. Coyote says he is hungry and 
wants to eat them, but they do not listen to him. He returns home hungry, 
but dies before he gets there. 

72. — The CnfRO and the Coyote. 

Coyote walking about sees Chiros dancing and singing. He wants to 
dance and Chiros give him feathers, making him wings and tail and putting 
small feathers into his body. They dance and sing again, Coyote with them, 
and then they fly upward very high. Now they crowd around Coyote and 
take away their feathers. Coyote falls to earth and dies. Chiros laugh at 
him and are pleased that he is dead. 

73. — The Coyote and the Porcupine. 

Coyote goes to visit his friend Porcupine. After talking long time Porcu- 
pine tells Coyote to build fire. He makes large fire and then Porcupine draws 
small pointed stick frorn his hair, and thrvists it into his nose. Blood and fat 
drops out on fire and is roasted. He hands it to Coyote to eat. They converse 
until evening, and as Coyote leaves, he invites Porcupine to A^sit him next 
day. Porcupine goes next morning to his friend . Coyote has pointed stick 
thrust into his hair. At noon Porcupine lights fire. Coyote pulls out stick, 
bends over fire and pokes nose with stick. Blood mixed with fat comes out, 
covers fire and won't stop. Finally Coyote becomes exhausted and falls down. 
Porcupine, thinking Coyote dead, laughs and goes home. Coyote revives and 
next morning he goes to attack friend. Porcupine sees blood on his nose and 
tells him he thought he had died. Coyote accuses him of having bemtched 
him and says he is going to devour him. Porcupine expostulates with Coyote, 
who finally quiets down. They live together again as friends, Coyote thinking 
he will have chance to take revenge on Porcupine. 

74. — The Coyote and the Badger. 

Coyote and Badger are great friends. Orafbi are cleaning out spring and 
maidens take food and place it near rock. Coyote watches people as they eat 
and envies them. Next day Coyote hears criers announce another spring 
cleaning. He goes to Badger's house and tells him. He suggests that they 
take part in eating. Badger follows Coyote to his house, from which Badfrer 
begins to dig hole towards where food is. After Badger has gone little 
way he turns round. Coyote thinks he is turning back and goes for mole. 
Mole returns with Coyote and rapidly digs hole underground. Badger follows 
enlarging hole, and Coyote scratches out loose dirt. Mole continues hole to 
rock and while Hopi are at work he reaches food and hands it to Badger and 
Badger to Coyote, who carries it to his house. When Hopi are through with 
work, chief sends maidens for food. They go to rock and find food gone. 
Coyote, Badger and Mole divide food, on which they live for some time. After- 
wards Coyote visits Badger, who has cut into small pieces some lolrtokyongs and 
roasted them. Coyote eats food with relish and asks Badger where he got it. 
He replies that he opened his side and took fat from his intestines. He shows 

3o8 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

Coyote knife with which he opened body, and says it does not hurt. Coyote 
takes knife and invites Badger to visit him to-morrow. When he has gone, 
Badger laughs and calls him Fool Old Man. Next morning Coyote cuts into 
his abdomen with knife and blood runs out profusely. He takes hold of fat 
and pulls at it, but becomes exhausted, falls over and dies. When Badger 
arrives he finds Coyote dead. 

'75. — The Badger and the Coyote. 

Coyote and Badger are friends. Badger goes to visit Coyote, who gives 
him juniper berries to eat. They converse until evening, when Badger goes 
home, inviting Coyote. He catches rabbit and in morning roasts it. Coyote 
comes and, after conversing. Badger brings forth roasted rabbit, cuts it up 
and invites friend to eat. They enjoy meal and again converse. In evening 
Coyote goes home, friend wishing him happy journey. 

76. — The Badger, the Coyote, and the K6honino Maiden. 

Badger and Coyote are great friends. Coyote has found place where 
Kohonino maiden has died and when hunting together one day Coyote suggests 
that they shall revive her. They find maiden's bones, which they place in 
heap, and Badger covers with his black kilt. That maiden may have flesh and 
color he sends Coyote to get grass and red paint, which he wets with water 
Coyote gets from spring. Badger then makes Coyote go away, as otherwise 
maiden will not revive. Badger sings and passes paint over bones and grass 
several times and maiden is alive. She asks what he wants, and he calls Coyote. 
She is willing to go home with them. On the way Coyote covets mdna, but 
Badger is not willing and says she is to be their clan sister. Coyote is still 
anxious to have maiden and bites her in calf of leg. Badger expostulates 
with him and maiden falls down and dies again. Badger takes body on his 
back to bury her and Coyote follows. Badger asks why he follows and Coyote 
goes. He comes again while Badger is digging grave and they bury maiden 
and return home. They stay at Coyote's house that night. In morning 
Badger goes home, inviting friend to visit him next day. As he goes home 
he thinks how he shall kill Coyote. He kills four bull-snakes, which he cuts 
into short pieces and puts pieces in drying pot. The snakes are fat. He then 
makes hurushuki. Coyote comes and they commence to eat right away. 
Coyote asks what it is that tastes so good. Badger says he did not know what 
to set before him, so he opened his abdomen, took his entrails out and roasted 
them, and his abdomen closed up again. In proof he shows abdomen with 
little scratch he has made on it. Coyote believes him and says he will do that, 
too. He asks Badger to visit him in morning and borrows knife and pot. In 
morning Coyote puts pot on fire, opens abdomen with knife and paws and en- 
trails drop out. He takes hold of large intestine and drops dead. Badger 
comes and finds friend dead. He takes fat from Coyote and returns to his 
house. He spreads fat on ant hill near and ants move away. This is why 
ants do not remain where coyote fat is placed and that Coyote fat is used for 
ant bites. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 309 

77. — The Coyote and the K6kontu-Maidens. 

Coyote sees Kdkontu grinding com and singing. They talk with him and 
then come out and go to steep bluff. Here they play, running up and jumping 
down large tree and bluff. Coyote joins them and climbs tree. He jumps 
down and lands forcibly on ground, killing himself. Kdkontu laugh at him 
and go home leaving him dead. 

78. — The Coyote and the Grasshoppers. 

Sparrow-hawk eats all gfrasshopper children. Their parents mourn loss. 
Coyote comes along and tells Grasshopper mother she is singing nicely and 
asks her to sing to him. She says she is crying for her children, but Coyote 
threatens to devour her if she does not sing to him. She sings and Coyote 
runs away singing song. He stumbles over rock and loses song. He returns 
to place where he left Grasshopper woman, and, seeing stone resembling her 
which she had put in her place, he tells it to sing again. Receiving no reply, 
he grabs stone and breaks teeth. He hunts for food, but cannot eat it, as he 
has no teeth, and finally perishes with hunger. 

79. — The Coyote and the Grasshopper. 

Grasshopper and Coyote are great friends. Grasshopper has children 
and big field. At planting time he tells wife others are going to help him 
and she is to put up good deal of food. She prepares food and jug of water. 
These, with seeds. Grasshopper takes on back and goes to field. He waits in 
kisi he has built until nearly noon, but nobody comes. Then he eats food 
and goes to field and plants all alone. Afternoon is very hot. He returns to 
kisi, drinks, and lays down to rest, leaning feet against side. Coyote comes 
and asks why he is lying that way. Grasshopper says he is tired and he is 
afraid kisi will fall on him. Coyote lays down beside friend, also leaning his 
hind feet against booth. Grasshopper jumps up and says he will get more 
water. He picks up jug and goes home, and, as he is planning mischief against 
his friend, he tells children to go to their uncle Deer. Coyote waits until he 
is tired. He jumps up without booth falling. Says Grasshopper has lied and 
that he will go and eat up his children. He goes to house of friend and finds 
it closed. He follows tracks to house of Deer and asks if grasshopper has 
come with his family. He wants Deer to get them out, but Deer tells Coyote 
to come in himself. He hesitates, but at last goes down ladder and sees two 
strong Deer standing. As he steps down into deeper portion of kiva, one Deer 
picks him up with horns and throws him towards hatchway. As he falls, other 
Deer does same, and so they keep it up until he is dead. Grasshoppers then go 
and scatter over country. 

80. — The Three Maidens and the Coyote. 

Three maidens live with father and mother in Oraibi. Coyote longs for 
maidens and tells grandmother. She tells him to go to village and if he sees 
bow, arrow quiver, red yarn, blue yarn, leggings, blue shirt and red stone ochre, 
to bring them. He goes, finds things and takes them to grandmother. She 
dresses him up and puts ochre on his face. He goes to maidens, whose father 
has put stone trap east of Coyote's house. At balance is some rabbit meat. 
Coyote presses towards meat, pulls at it, trap shuts and he dies there. Maidens 

3IO Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

going home in evening see him caught and laugh when they see arrow quiver. 
They go home and tell father, who says he will go there to-morrow. In morning 
he goes and finds Coyote caught. He carries him to field, skins him, and hangs 
up his skin as watching flag. 

8i. — How THE Coyotes Had a Katcina Dance. 

Coyote sees Katcinas have dances and processions. Coyote calls to friends, 
Coyotes, and they come from all sides. He says they will have Katcina dance 
and tells them to go to village and bring feathers, and they go and hunt things, 
which they bring to Coyote's kiva. They prepare Katcina costumes. In 
morning Coyotes go to places where Katcinas dress up and all go to Coyote's 
house, where Katcinas have dance. That day Oraibi have Coyote hunt. 
While Coyotes are still dancing, Oraibi close in upon them. Their costumes 
prevent their running fast and all are killed, but Coyote and family, who have 
not put on costume or mask. Hopi laugh and return to village. 

82. — The Coyote and his Prey. 

Coyote has children somewhere. He hunts for food and kills rabbit. He 
does not want to eat alone, and calls it out from bluff. From different quarters 
come different colored Coyotes, and he 'tells them they will eat together. They 
tear rabbit to pieces and devour it quickly. That is why Coyote never eats 
prey alone. 

83. — The Bull-Snake and the Tuchvo (Wren). 

Children find nest of Ttlchvos on bluff. Bull-snake has also discovered 
nest. Snake is discovered by bird, who feels secure and sings jokingly at snake. 
Snake is angry and tries to climb up. He falls back three times, but fourth 
time he reaches mouth of opening in which is nest. He enters, coils up in nest, 
and devours four little ones. He remains in nest four days and then crawls 
on bluff and coils up. Old bird flies about bewailing loss of brood. Snake 
begins to exert charm on bird by strong inhalations. Bird is drawn nearer 
and nearer towards snake on each inhalation, although when it exhales bird 
tries to escape. Finally it is drawn by strong inhalation close to snake's 
mouth and then snake devours its victim. 

84. — The Snakes and the Locusts. 

Rattlesnakes have kiva. During summer they run about as rattlesnakes, 
but in winter they are Hopi, their snake skins hanging on pegs on wall of kiva. 
One winter it snows very heavily. Around house of locusts, who live at Tdvan- 
ashavi, where is deep opening in earth, there is no snow, but elsewhere it is 
very deep. It remains so long many Hopi freeze to death. Snake chief sends 
Sand Rattlesnake to see what their fathers at Trtvanashavi have to say about 
it. He becomes tired and cold, so he returns. Bull-snake goes, and he also 
returns. Racer then goes, and finally reaches place, and finds no snow quite 
distance around. It is warm and grass and many flowers grow. He enters 
kiva and locusts give him food. They play flutes in ceremony, and that is 
why it is so warm there. Locust chief asks why he has come. He tells them 
children are dying of cold, and asks them to come and assemble with them. 
They dress and paint up and tell Racer that in four days they will come over. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 311 

Locust takes flute and blows path back to snake house, so that Racer arrives 
there in short time. Locusts come in evening of fourth day. Snakes and 
locusts have form of Hopi. Locusts are dressed in rabbit skins, and as they 
enter kiva it becomes warmer and warmer. Snake people soon begin to per- 
spire. On leaving their own kivas, locusts have chirped through their flutes 
and snow began to melt, and when they reach Snake kiva it has disappeared. 
They sing song and dance, and when through with dancing they go home. 
Snakes are bathed in perspiration and sleep well that night. In morning 
ground is covered with water from melting snow. 

85. — The Squirrel and the Chipmunk. 

Squirrel and Chipmunk are good friends and go together to old man's 
orchard to eat peaches. Chipmunk relishes peaches and Squirrel prefers 
kernels. Squirrel says they ought to dance sometimes, and asks Chipmunk 
to make song. He makes song about Squirrel, who at first is not pleased, but 
afterwards is satisfied, and they practice song together. They go to orchard 
and find old man there, so they wait until he is asleep and then they carry off 
many peaches. After feasting they dance and sing. Noise awakens old man, 
who runs towards them and says he will kill them. They jump down and 
run into house of Squirrel at foot of rock. Old man follows and waits for them. 
Chipmunk runs out and escapes to his house. After this they do not fear old 
man, and live off his orchard. As he did not kill them they are now not much 
afraid of Hopi and destroy their peaches. 

86. — A Bet between the Coovoko and the Fox. 

Fox comes along as C6oyoko uncle is sitting on bluff. He is waiting to 
watch sun rise. He tells Fox to come and sit near him. Says they will have" 
contest to see on whose song sun will rise, looser to be killed with knife. C60- 
yoko sings song first. Fox follows. Cooyoko sings again and sun is just about 
to loom up. Fox repeats his song and while singing sun looms up. Fox wins 
contest and he cuts C6oyoko's throat with knife. 

87.-^The Little Gray Mice and the Little Brown Mice. 

Little Gray Mice and Little Brown Mice are on very friendly terms. They 
go to village at night and whenever one finds com, it invites others to come. 
They often visit and dance together and sing song about dawn. Gray Mouse 
finds something good to eat and tells Brown Mice. They all come from both 
places, but quarrel over food and there is great fight. Gray Mice go to Brown 
Mice again and sing different song. Then they rush back to their home. Brown 
Mice laugh and say others are afraid of them. Two kinds of mice have not 
been on good terms since. 

88. — The Badger and the Small Gray Mice. 

Badger is doctor and people go to him when sick. Hopi hunter has leg 
broken and tries to get home alone. He sees small people like children in 
underground room, who invite him to come down. He cannot, and they carry 
him down. They pity him and decide to repair his leg. They crowd around 
him and rub him all over body and all at once run away. Man finds his leg in 
normal condition and goes home. Badger hears about it and is jealous. He 

312 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

feigns sickness, lying down, taking no nourishment and expectorating in bowl 
for three days. He sends to Mice doctors, asking them to have pity on him 
They go to dwelling of Badger, who has hidden stick under his bed. Mice 
gather round bed of Badger, who groans as if he were going to die. Mice 
while moving in circle, sing song about Badger and then chief tells him that 
nothing is matter with him. Chief then ascends ladder, followed by other 
Mice. Badger grabs stick and begins to strike at Mice, but hits none of them, 
and all escape. Some of the younger Mice being chased by Badger cannot 
find their way home and dig holes for themselves. This is why they are living 
all over country. Hopi workers in field, if sick or hurt, are in some unseen 
way taken care of by Mice. 

89. — The Badger and the Small Gray Mice. 
Badger and small Gray Mice are Hopi, but were very bad and became 
animals. They are rival doctors. Badger curing by herbs and Gray Mice by 
sorcery. Badger doubts whether Mouse knows anything about diseases and 
decides to try him. He fasts four days and when he becomes very weak sends 
for Mouse. Mouse brings rattle, medicines, and medicine bowl, in which he 
makes mixture. He places it beside Badger's couch and sings song about 
Badger fasting. He tells him to eat and he will get well. Badger is astonished 
and thinks Mouse great doctor. 

90. — -The Mice, the Owl, and the Hawk. 
Owl determines to kill Mouse and flies about hole. Mole places pointed 
sticks around hole. Owl in trying to catch Mouse is pierced by stick and is 
killed. Mouse pulls out all Owl's feathers and ties them into little bunches. 
He calls neighbors and distributes feathers,, which they tie on their heads. 
•They decide to have dance and request one to make song. They thrust more 
sticks into ground in case more Owls should be around while dancing. They 
put up large feathers in center of inclosure as tiponi around which to dance. 
Leader has little bow with tiny arrows. While dance is going on Hawk swoops 
down and kills many Mice. Others rush into their house. 

91. — The Sparrow Hawk and the Hakwa. 
Sparrow Hawk catches many lizards, but does not attempt to catch 
Hakwa. Hakwa thinks Sparrow Hawk is afraid and sings taunting song. 
Sparrow Hawk is irritated and tells Hakwa he does not want to kill him, he is 
too dirty. Hakwa repeats his song four times. Hawk determines to kill 
Hakwa and takes little Hawk to stone where he had sat and flies away. Hakwa 
again comes out and mistaking young Sparrow Hawk for old one, begins song 
again. Sparrow Hawk has made large circuit and swoops down on Hakwa, 
kills him, and carries him home. Hakwa is very fat, and Sparrow Hawk and 
brood live on. him until latter can leave nest. 

92. — The Sparrow Hawk and the Grasshoppers. 
Sparrow Hawk has children and hunts Grasshoppers and Prayer Beetles. 
Their mothers are very unhappy. Grasshopper mother sneaks out of house 
and is caught by Sparrow Hawk. She moans about her children and Sparrow 
Hawk releases her. Hopi children come and catch little Grasshoppers. Grass- 
hopper mother tells them to go and catch young Sparrow Hawks. They go 
and take young Sparrow Hawks to village. 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hon — Voth. 313 

93. — The Crow and the Hawk. 
Crow and Hawk, while hunting, meet, and Crow invites Hawk to visit 
him. Hawk takes rabbits for his children and thinks of good food Crow has 
promised to prepare. In morning Hawk goes over to friend who is cooking 
l6l6okong cut into pieces. It is fat and smells strong. Hawk does not relish 
it and only pretends to eat. They converse long time about hunting. Crow 
has many lizards, etc., which fill his house with odor, and Hawk does not enjoy 
his stay. On returning home he invites Crow to visit him next day and promises 
him good food. Crow thinks about good food it is to have and goes to friend's 
house in morning. Hawk cooks only skins and intestines of rabbits,which he 
sets before Crow. Crow relishes food very much, though Hawk thought he 
would not eat any of it. They talk all day together and in evening Crow 
returns home. 

94. — The Red Eagle's Song. 
Red Eagle has wife and four children. They dance and sing about his 
children. Hopi from Sikydtki hears them singing and sees dance. He tells 
people, who go and capture young Eagles. Ever afterwards they get young 
Eagles there and use their feathers for prayer-offerings, masks, etc. 

95. — The Red Eagle and the Owl. 
Owl and Red Eagle are great friends. Eagle hunts during day and as 
Owl cannot go out during day, they do not hunt together. Eagle visits friend 
and finds him sound asleep. He tries to waken him and finally succeeds by 
pulling out few hairs. They go out to hunt, Eagle holding Owl so that he 
shall not go to sleep again. Party of Orai'bi are following rabbit. Eagle swoops 
down and carries it off. He returns for Owl and finds him sleeping. He 
speaks to Owl, who does not hear. Orafbi boys returning from hunting shoot 
Owl through head and carry him home. Eagle is angry and then lives_in 
house all alone. 

96. — The Bee and the Asya. 
Bee and .\sya are both women and have children. They are great friends. 
Asya has peach orchard and relishes peaches very much. She visits Bee, who 
feeds her honey. They converse all day and Asya*asks Bee to visit her in morn- 
ing. Bee has no wings and walks to friend's house. Asya'gives her seat and 
feeds her peaches. She asks Bee if she likes peaches. Bee suggests she shall 
make some medicine for peaches, as they are sour. Asya consents and Bee 
puts honey on them, making them sweet. Asya is happy and puUs'out some 
feathers for wings, which she attaches to Bee. She teaches Bee how to fly 
and ever since bees can fly. 

97. — The Grasshoppers and the ORAfBi Maiden. 
Father often watches field, and being tired tells daughter to come and 
take his place. She goes and father returns to village. She hears singing in 
hollow, but does not go there. She tells father roasting ears of com are coming 
out. In morning girl goes to field early. She hears singing again. She goes 
and sees little beings engaged in dance. Grasshoppers notice her and stop. 
She asks them to go on, but they refuse until she offers them one division of 
corn-field. They then dance and sing. When through they fly to corn-field 

314 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

and devour corn. They eat beyond limit and maiden tries to drive them 
away, but cannot. She runs home and tells father. He hurries to field and 
finds Grasshoppers have eaten up all corn. He follows them and finding them 
asleep, kills many of them with stick and destroys their houses. Others escape 
and now Grasshoppers live anywhere. 

98. — How THE Beetles Produced Rain. 

It is hot and there is no rain. Beetles are very thirsty and some die. 
Chief proposes dance to bring rain and makes little song for them. They 
practice song and go to sleep. In morning chief makes four nakwd,kwosis and 
deposits them west of little village. He asks clouds in San Francisco Moun- 
tains to come quickly and bring some water. They dress up for dance and 
paint bodies black. Chief prays to clouds and Beetles are formed in line. 
They sing song and as they are singing clouds come and water falls, so that 
they can drink. When they have quenched thirst they are very happy and 
run about. 

99. — ^Why the Ants are so Thin. 

Chief of Ants says that in four days they are going to have Katcina initia- 
tion. On fourth day three ants dress up as Katcinas. Some make sand picture 
in kiva and Ants bring in children to be initiated. Katcina priest relates story 
and four little Kdyemsis have performance. At signal Katcinas come running 
and after circling kiva several times, enter it. They flog little Ant children 
so hard that they almost cut through middle of body. When through, all 
Katcinas run away. That is why ants are now so thin in middle of bodies. 


L;iv6v6lvipiki and N6nv6v6lpiiki are great friends. Latter visits friend 
and they conclude to have dance. L.lvovolvipiki is to fetch mice maidens and 
N6nv6v6lpiki to borrow drum to have Paiute dance. Latter goes to Kwan 
kiva and borrows drum. He returns to friend's kiva and finds maidens already 
assembled. They practice songs and dances during night. In morning each 
mdna has eagle feather tied to her head and red dot on each cheek. While 
dancing Prtokongs come hunting. Each shoots mouse and one of them eats 
Nrtnvovolpiki and other Ldvovolvipiki, 

loi. — The Destruction of PivAnhonkapi. 

North of Oraibi are li\'ing Ydyaponchatu. Village chief of Pivdnhonfcapi 
is worried over degeneration of people, women even participating< in games 
of chance. Chief's wife neglects children when she gambles in kiva. Chief 
goes to Ydyaponchatu, who are in league with supernatural forces, to ask 
them to punish his people. They tell him to choose fire or storm and he chooses 
fire. He invites them to dance in his village. He tells chief of Hdckovi and 
his assistant to come in evening. They come and chief tells them all about 
matter. On fourth day there are seven of Katcina dances'. Ydyaponchatu 
perform last dance. They sing omim^us song. Prayer-oiferings carried by 
four of their dancers have spark of fire over each husk packet. At conclusion 
of dance they hand three of these prayer-offerings to village chief and to chief 
of Hilckovi and his friend, fourth being retained by leader of Ydyaponchatu 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 315 

dancers. In evening two chiefs and. friend smoke over prayer-offerings and 
friend takes one to San Francisco Mountains to deposit among trees and high 
grass. Next night light is noticed in San Francisco Mountains. Each night 
it is seen to be larger. Those watching become alarmed, but their remarks are 
not listened to. During fourth night people continue gambling and carousing, 
while fire begins to spread towards Hopi village. People in kiva are asked to 
come out of kiva and see, but they laugh. Finally one comes out and cries 
out to others. They rush out and try to gather effects before fleeing, but most 
of them are suffocated or burned to death. Only few escape from two villages. 
Village chief of Orafbi goes to house of Spider Woman. She tells him to make 
two arrows, using on shafts feathers of certain birds. They are thrust in 
ground west and north of village, and Spider Woman weaves network of web 
between them, which she moistens with water. This breaks force of fire and 
Oraibi is saved. 

102. — The Destruction of SikyXtki. 

Racer Katcinas come to Wdlpi from Sikydtki to race. Wdlpi man cuts 
off hair knot of Katcina instead of small portion of side lock. Katcina is angry. 
He returns to Sikydtki and practices running. Wdlpi come to have race at 
Sikyatki. Young man is still angry, and, taking knife, goes on bluff opposite 
Sikydtki. During dance he comes down and enters plaza. He races with 
clowns and catches them all, cutting off small portion of side locks. He detects 
on top of house sister of man who had cut his hair. He dashes to top of house, 
follows her and cuts off her head. Holding it by hair whorl, he swings head 
and dashes away. People follow him, but he escapes and returns to village by 
another trail. People of villages quarrel, but W^lpi withdraw. People of 
Sikyatki are very wicked, especially towards women. As they do not spare 
chief's wife, he determines to take revenge. He agrees with chief of Wdlpi 
that when people are planting in valley, Wdlpi shall come to village and destroy 
it. Wdlpi have balls of pitch and when Sikyd,tki people are in fields they rush 
upon village and kill women and children. Then they set houses on fire de- 
stroying village. People planting see smoke and rush to village, but only have 
planting sticks. Wdlpi are well armed and kill all people, including chief who 
instigated revenge. 

103. — The Destruction of AoAtovi. 

People of Aodtovi go on hunting expedition and maidens accompany 
them. Maidens run for rabbits. As party is returning, young man in chasing 
rabbit dashes over and kills daughter of village chief. He is very angry and 
determines that in revenge village shall be razed to ground. One night he 
goes to Shong6pavi and wakens village chief. After smoking he tells chief 
what has occurred. He asks him to instruct his young men to practice their 
strength and says he will return in four days. On night of fourth day^'chief 
again goes to Shong6pavi to see friend and tells him to get ready for Katcina 
race. In four days four young men dressed as Katcinas go to Aodtovi taking 
presents of corn ears. They go to plaza, where young men of village come 
and race commences. Sometimes Katcinas win and then others win. The 
last bunch of corn ears is raced for by young men of village and H6msona Kat- 
cina. Young man outruns Katcina and on his return H6msona throws him 
down and cuts his throat. Hflmsona goes and motions to other Katcinas to 

3i6 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

run. People are suspicious, as young man does not return. They go and 
find him killed. They follow Katcinas, some on ponies. They overtake and 
kill H6msona and two other Katcinas. Remaining one crosses wash, after 
taking off mask, which he hangs on brush. People, seeing mask, return. During 
night chief of Aoatovi goes again to Shong6pavi and asks chief to come and 
get his people. Chief meditates and then refuses. Aoatovi chief returns 
home. In night he goes to Oraibi and arranges with chief to destroy his people. 
He then produces two clay figures, one representing males and other females 
of his village, and tells him to select. Oraibi chief selects female. Next day 
he tells his warrior chiefs, and that people are to make bows and arrows. He 
sends three nephews to other Hopi villages to ask them to participate in de- 
struction of Aodtovi. Chief of Shong6pavi says the wicked may do so, but 
he refuses. On fourth day Oraibi set off in two parties for Aodtovi, going 
first tojother villages. They meet towards evening and at sundown move 
towards Aodtovi. At foot of mesa chief and his wife come down to them with 
bundles of piki. Chief arranges signal for them to rush upon mesa and kill 
men in kivas. Orafbi chief is to select women and maidens he wants and then 
rest of villages shall take others. Chief's son gives signal and raiders rush 
into village, remove ladders of kivas, and throw firewood down. They throw 
firebrand into kivas and then^ Spanish pepper on fire. Meanwhile people of 
Walpi and Mish6ngnovi take younger women, maidens and children and move 
off with them. Older women are killed. Chief of Aodtovi and his son are 
both destroyed with others in kiva. Village is not destroyed. Raiders return 
and halt at Skeleton Mound. Oraibi claim right to select prisoners first. Others 
refuse to give up women and maidens, and many younger and prettier ones 
are killed. Others are taken to different villages, and that is why so many 
Aoatovi people are now found there. 

, 104. — The Destruction of AoAtovi. 

Maidens are afraid of son of village chief at Aodtovi and refuse to marry 
him. He gets up great hunt and many rabbits are killed. Hawk kills rabbit 
for chiefs's son, so chief has much game to carry home. After eating, father 
smokes on game. Son tells father he is unhappy and suggests they shall do 
something to people. In morning village chief goes to Hdno, tells chief that 
maidens refuse to marry his son, and asks him to come and fetch people. He 
tells him to bring Spanish pepper. Hdno chief informs people of Sitchomovi 
and Walpi, and says they are to get ready for expedition next night. Next 
evening people of three villages go to Aodtovi. Great storm is raging and they 
ascend mesa. Men are in kivas eating evening meal. Enemies draw ladders 
from kivas, so that men cannot come out. They gather women and children, 
and, while some drive them off, others throw firebrands into kivas and destroy 
men. Captives are taken to villages and distributed. 

105. — How AN Oraibi Chief Punished his People. 

People of Oraibi are very bad. Chief goes to warrior chief of Wdlpi and 
tells him. They arrange that Oraibi people shall come to attack Wdlpi and 
Wdlpi people shall meet and kill them. Those who pass certain rock are not 
to be molested. Oraibi chief tells people that they will make raid on Wdlpi 
and try to steal maidens. Early one morning they approach Wdlpi, but 
people are ready and rush down upon Oraibi. Large dog disables and kills 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 317 

many Oraibi. Oralbi flee and many are killed. Only few pass rock mentioned. 
On rock dog is engraved on account of what dog did in this battle. 

106. — A Katcina Race Contest between the WXlpi and the Oraibi 

W^lpi always have races and become strong. They propose to go to 
Oraibi and race them, because they are not strong. Oraibi youth visits friend 
in Wdlpi and remains to see Katcina race. Friend tells him of intention of 
W^lpi. Early next morning youth returns to Oraibi and tells what he has 
heard. Young men practice running for four days. On fifth day Wdlpi come 
and dress up. Two Katcinas carry gifts and go to plaza. Oraibi youths 
descend and race with Katcinas. Katcinas are soon tired and Oraibi youths 
win all presents. Katcinas remove costumes and after receiving prayer meal 
go to west of village and again race. They are very tired and give up race. 
Wdlpi return in despair. They agree not to go and race with Oraibi again. 

107. — The Last Fight with the Navaho. 

While Oraibi are practicing with bows and arrows at foot of mesa, news 
is brought them that Navaho expedition is coming. Men hasten to village 
where councils are held. Situation is discussed and warriors encouraged during 
night, but many Hopi go to Navaho with presents. These are weakened by 
blood-letting near ankle so that they may be recognized by Navaho next day 
through walking slowly. Immediately before sunrise Navaho ascend mesa 
and fill space north of village. Hopi warriors protect their bodies with buck- 
skins and some have head-dresses of societies. War rites are celebrated and 
warriors are decorated with powdered war god vomisis stone. Leading Navaho 
rides up to Hopi, says something and shoots arrow without hitting any one. 
Battle begins and Hopi drive Navaho off mesa. Navaho who has lived in 
Oraibi and speaks Hopi calls out that Hopi had better not follow them, as 
many more Navaho further east. But Hopi follow and while lines of warriors 
are facing each other, Navaho woman on pony grabs lance from warrior and 
dashes towards Hopi, followed by her people. They break line and divide 
Hopi into two parties, which are surrounded. Navaho are mounted, but are 
dressed only in loin cloths, while Hopi are wrapped with heavy buckskins. 
Hopi break through, but are surrounded again, so that circles become smaller 
and smaller. In afternoon small party of Hopi break through and climb point 
of mesa. Three of them afterwards go down and hide behind rocks, from 
which they kill number of Navaho who are fleeing from party of Hopi, who 
then join others. All then ascend mesa, from which they descend in another 
place and rest at spring. Navaho who had at first pursued them make for 
village. Meanwhile different groups of Hopi have succeeded in cutting way 
through assailants and run towards village. Both sides have lost heavily. 
Hopi are followed by bands of Navaho and others try to outflank them and 
reach village first. Six Hopi hide in stone inclosure, who keep Navaho at 
distance until latter procure firearms from comrades. Then five of Hopi are 
killed and sixth, rushing through Navaho, jumps down steep place and hides 
under rock. Brave Hopi warrior is hit several times by Navaho, but is protected 
by buckskins, and they abandon pursuit of him. Hopi discover that among 
Navaho are Hopi from Wdlpi disguised as Navaho. Brave warrior addresses 
them and they surround him. He is overpowered and killed and his heart 

3i8 Field Columbian Museum — Anthropology, Vol. VIII. 

torn out. This is seen by man hidden under rock. Walpi take victim on horse 
to Walpi and place him in small hut and throw stones upon him. Navaho 
reach village and drive out sheep that have been assembled on plaza behind 
barriers. Navaho women shell corn and load it on ponies. Navaho then 
leave village, taking with them all sheep. They tie dead and wounded on 
horses. Many wounded die while they are traveling and all are buried at place 
sixty miles northeast of Oraibi. After Navaho have left village, straggling 
Hopi come in bearing wounded. Some have to be carried into village and 
are placed in home of Coyote Clan. Here they are attended by their "fathers," 
those who had carried them. On fourth day survivors are taken to their homes. 

io8. — A Hopi Raid on a Navaho Dance. ■ t ■ . --r 

Many Navaho go to deep canyon to have Katcina dance. During fifth 
dance star falls down in front of head dancer. Navaho are much afraid, jump 
on ponies and begin to scatter. Great noise is heard and Oraibi arrive to 
make raid. Great battle ensues. Navaho are driven back out of canyon and 
few escape to their homes. This is why Navaho when they dance always have 

109. — A Raid on the Hopi Villages. 

Inhabitants of two villages used to lie further northeast, where they were 
harassed by Utes. For five years they are left in peace. In sixth year their 
■enemies find them out and camp eastward of mesa. Young men are sent to 
find out who they are. Inhabitants of one village move to the other village, 
where they can better defend themselves. Enemies go to empty village and 
follow their tracks on horseback, but they cannot get up. Manj'- of them are 
shot by people in village. Afterwards by going around mesa they get into 
village and capture some women and maidens. Warriors follow them, but 
they escape. People pack up all their things and go in line to Oraibi, where they 
are admitted and still live. 

no. — The Early Spanish Missions at Oraibi. 

Long ago Spaniards make inroads on Oraibi. They make peace and 
Spaniards ask to be permitted to live in Oraibi. Hopi consent and assist 
Spaniards in building house. It is in spiral form and in center is house. Meet- 
ing house with bell tower is afterwards built. Hopi are baptised by Totdachi 
who is joined by another Tutd,achi, who brings them clothing and shoes in 
carts on heavy wooden wheels. Hopi assemble on Sundays and priests speak 
to them. Soon they ask Hopi to work for them. They send them to springs 
to get water and they then set them to make cisterns. Spaniards bring cattle 
and Hopi buy calves for corn. Some cattle drag logs to village. For four years 
everything goes well and it rains often. Then priests forbid Hopi to have 
Katcina dances and make bdhos. It is very warm and very dry. Hopi begin 
to have ceremonials again and deposit prayer-oflferings, but it does not rain. 
Padres continue to oppress Hopi and demand food. They disregard Hopi's 
feeling as to their religion and trample under foot chastity of women and 
maidens. Number of oppressors go away, leaving padre alone. Hopi meet 
in council and finally decide to get rid of priest. Nobody will go, but finally 
Badgey clan volunteers. They proceed to Mission and knock at door. Padre 

March, 1905. The Traditions of the Hopi — Voth. 319 

refuses to open it at first. When he does so they rush into room, drag him out 
of house, and cut his throat. They throw his body into gulch and pile stones 
upon it. They then wait to see what will happen. Other villagers follow ex- 
ample and get rid of their padres. They expect Spaniards will come to revenge 
brethren, but no one comes and they destroy houses of Spaniards, divide logs 
and timbers, and use them for kivas. Some of smaller bells still owned by Agave 


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